2007年9月25日 星期二

The Englishness of English Art and Academies of Art

 

 2007

"British" or "Britishness" 71 times vs Englishness

《每日電訊報》說,英國首相布朗的目標指向保守黨的心臟地帶。布朗發表演說,用了71次"英國特色",
Englishness (or as they call it, Britishness).

The Englishness of English Art (1956)

The Englishness of English Art. An Expanded and Annotated Version of the Reith Lectures 1935.; PEVSNER, NIKOLAUS.邦訳『英国美術の英国性──絵画と建築にみる文化の特質』(友部直・. 蛭川久康訳,岩崎美術社,1981年)--Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, 1902130 - 1983818 ロンドン)はドイツ出身のイギリス美術史家。

1.


翻讀 刑莉 『自覺與規範 :16 世紀至19 世紀歐洲美術學院』2005
刑莉 『自覺與規範:16世紀至 19世紀歐洲美術學院』 北京;中國人民大學出版社,2004
這本書其實是三篇簡介之論文,由於編輯上插入許多花花綠綠的圖(多半與書之主題無大關係,而是正文提到一些藝術家,就聯想到一些作品 ….. --這是現行大陸出版社的提高定價之手法之一。這樣可以使它比較像一本西方藝術史的東西。 無索引,只有些翻譯名詞中英對照,這很不方便,譬如說多次引用 Durer 之日記等,文獻名稱不同;比較論(【義大利】paragone 先提出,再用注說明詳後)。

本書多少表現出中國學院 -教育人士,如何想從書面有限資料來了解西方的一種特定組織:
--> 歐洲美術學院。題目講「16世紀至 19世紀」,因為到20 世紀,它們都沒落了,即,淪為維持名望之組織(某些會員的「產業工會」--這原是它們原先的主要目的)。
建議讀者先讀 The Oxford Companion to Art 中關於 Academies 條目之說明,可以有一全盤之了解 它參考四本書(其中兩本法文)-- 本書只參考其中一本書【我對梁先生說:「無法判定本書某些方面之水準,因為必須先看過它主要參考書: N. Pevsner Acadenies of Art: Past and Present (1940/1973 再發行)-- 他是德裔的英國建築藝術史名家 我篇愛他的 Englishness 方面的小書。」】

The Oxford Companion to Art 中關於 Academies 條目之說明有本書最忽略的說明,因為這種組織目的是社交- 權威性質大於教育之功能(這是本書的著眼重點;換句話說,這多少是外行人看西洋景)。此條目所附的圖,竟然遠比這本書的更 為羅馬某 Academy1531 )的蝕刻畫。我們從中讀到,十八、九世紀極盛期,
-->「歐洲」的學院數目一百多個,所以即使是本書的解說 ---「附錄一 羅馬法蘭西學院」、「附錄二 巴黎皇家建築學院」、「附錄三 巴黎美術學院」、「附錄四 英國皇家美術學院」、「附錄五 1800年柏林地區美術學院課程安排」 --- 也是的極片面的。
 
我很感謝朋友推薦【 昨日在秋水堂買《自覺與規範:16~19 世紀歐洲美術學院》(邢莉著),真深入淺出之難得學術佳作,而且印刷精美,更重要的是有Index^^ 。中國之西學研究之崛起不是夢。再三推薦。】,讓我重拾此書,採取比較嚴厲的標準,說:「我的印象是,就中國的標準而言,(似乎) 尚可,不過在西方美學傳統下,實在只是(不全面之)入門書。」
作者有語言上、資料上、史學上之限制。我們只能欣賞其嘗試。我有一建議,為什麼不先將 N. Pevsner Academies of Art: Past and Present 翻譯出來呢?


翻讀『美術學院的歷史』


N. Pevsner Acadenies of Art: Past and Present (1940/1973 再發行)-
『美術學院的歷史』陳平譯,長沙:湖南科學技術,2003

這本關於藝術社會史的書,是名家的博士論文,當然值得翻譯(使用五六種西語,絕大多數都翻譯了);又作了索引,很不錯。

我只是翻翻它而已,發現一些小問題,如192頁的UNIVERSITY寫錯。最末章有些英文了解可能有誤,譬如說,W. MORRIS 成立的Workmen 聯合,應該不是「公司」(p.217),他的 intellectual Ludditism 沒解釋(p.223);愛丁堡的the Ttrustees’ Academy 現在還有資料http://www.gashe.ac.uk:443/isaar/C1267.html
trustees 應是「理事」(trustee ━━ n. 被信託人, 保管人, 管財人; 信託統治管理国; (大学などの)理事. the trustees of the Academy

我學了一德文Sachlichkeit,它翻譯成務實精神(p.224)可能與真正藝術史之用法不同。參考new objectivity (Ger. Neue Sachlichkeit), German art movement of the 1920s. The chief painters of the movement were George Grosz and Otto Dix, who were sometimes called verists. They created styles of bitter realism and protest that mirrored the disillusionment following World War I. New objectivity retained the intense emotionality of earlier movements in German art (see Brücke and Blaue Reiter), but it abandoned the symbolism of expressionism for direct social commentary. Max Beckmann produced works in a related, though more philosophical, vein.


Broch, Hermann (hĕr'män brôkh) , 1886–1951, Austrian novelist.
Die Schlafwandler: Eine Romantrilogie: Pasenow; oder, Die Romantik - 1888, 1931; Esch; oder, Die Anarchie - 1903, 1931; Huguenau, oder, Die Sachlichkeit - 1918, 1932 - Sleepwalkers: A Trilogy





昨夜睡前將此書讀一下 無索引 只翻譯名詞中英對照
額法判定其水準
因為必須先看過它主要參考書-他是德裔的英國建築藝術史名家  我篇愛他的 Englishness方面的小書
昨也讀 Oxford Companion to Art 其中所附的圖竟然遠比這本書的更早--羅馬某 academy的蝕刻畫
它有近兩頁之摘要
總之 這是圖書館讀間接報導
對老中讀者的許多插圖小有幫助 不過美編變成類似以前鄉下姑娘之濃妝艷抹
hc


昨夜睡前將此書讀一下 無索引 只翻譯名詞中英對照
額法判定其水準
因為必須先看過它主要參考書: N. Pevsner Acadenies of Art: Past and Present (1940/1973 再發行)--他是德裔的英國建築藝術史名家  我篇愛他的 Englishness方面的小書
昨也讀 Oxford Companion to Art 其中所附的圖竟然遠比這本書的更早--羅馬某 academy的蝕刻畫
它有近兩頁之摘要
總之 這是圖書館讀間接報導
對老中讀者的許多插圖小有幫助 不過美編變成類似以前鄉下姑娘之濃妝艷抹
hc

The 6th edition of the SOED (2)

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) 0917 2007


The 6th edition of the dictionary, an abridged version of the respected Oxford English Dictionary, includes 2500 added words since the last edition,據說許多是環保相關字眼
另外一特色為:

English dictionary omits the hyphen

Normally updated editions of the Oxford English Dictionary win headlines for new word additions that serve to fatten out the already stocky books.

But the sixth edition of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary is remarkable not for what it adds, but rather for what it omits.

Editors overseeing the new version have removed the hyphen out of 16,000 words, despite many of them being two-word compound nouns.

Ice-cream is now ice cream, post-modern is now postmodern, fig-leaf is now fig leaf, and pot-belly is now pot belly.

Optimistic linguists will say the omission is just a quirk of Shorter’s concise style, but traditionalists of the English language may worry.

Based on evidence from the Oxford Reading Programme, a network of researchers who provide examples of how people use words, “the hyphen seems to be on the way out.”

Some mainstream press reports say the reasoning is because people can no longer be bothered to reach for the hyphen key, when they write e-mails or text messages.

But Angus Stevenson, editor of the Shorter OED, said: “People are not confident about using hyphens anymore, they’re not really sure what they are for.”

Separately, the sixth edition is hailed as accurately charting the rise to prominence of ‘green’ issues in society, evidenced by the inclusion of “carbon-neutral,” “carbon footprint” and "Chelsea tractors.”

Other noteworthy additions include "WAGs" – to denote wives and girlfriends, “Webinar” – an online seminar, and “charette” – to denote a meeting or conference devoted to planning or problem-solving.

“Papped” – being photographed by the paparazzi, “brag book” – a photograph album and “size zero” to denote stick-thin models also make up 2,500 new words now in the Shorter OED.

Other spelling changes made as part of the updating of the text include cafe for café, fetus for foetus, kaftan for caftan, and raccoon for racoon.

『日米英 ファッション用語イラスト事典』 Illustrated Dictionary of Fashion: Japanese, American, British

日米英 ファッション用語イラスト事典 = 若月 美奈・杉本 佳子 著 古川 広道(イラスト) /A5判/926頁/定価 6000円(本体5714円+税5%)[ISBN 978-4-88124-192-9] 立ち読み!
 世界初、ビジュアル解説のファッション事典。イラスト3000点、日本語6000語、米・英語それぞれ5500語を収録!
 繊研新聞通信員として18年間にわたり、ニューヨークとロンドンで取材を続けてきた杉本佳子と若月美奈が執筆・編集、生きた現場のファッション用語を日本語、米語、英語で表記しイラストとともに紹介する。
 素材からアパレル、ビジネス用語まで幅広く網羅して完全なバイリンガル編集でまとめられた、英米語を知りたい日本人はもちろん、日本語を知りたい外国人にも役立つ事典。

『日米英 ファッション用語イラスト事典』  若月 美奈・杉本 佳子 著 古川 広道 画

  1. シルエット&ライン
  2. スタイル&ルック
  3. アパレル製品
  4. 服飾小物
  5. フォーマルウエア
  6. スポーツウエア
  7. 子供服
  8. 繊維と糸
  9. 布地と組織
  10. 柄、模様
  11. 加工と染色
  12. 皮革と毛皮
  13. 縫製テクニック
  14. 付属品
  15. アパレルメーカー
  16. 小売
  17. ファッションビジネス
  18. からだ

本書の特徴

  1. 名称から意味を知る従来の事典機能に加え、ビジュアルから名称を調べることを可能にした画期的なイラスト事典
  2. イラストと名称だけでは説明不十分な用語や登録商標、歴史的文化的な背景がある用語には説明を記したコラムを挿入
  3. 日本語にはローマ字で読み方を併記。国境を越えてファッション界で働く人々の用語表記への要望に応える

Dictionary patches holes in fashion barrier

The kaleidoscopically changing world of fashion is constantly developing new vocabulary. To keep up with the ever-changing fashion-speak, two fashionistas have recently published a fashion dictionary of English--from both sides of the Atlantic--and Japanese.

As the name suggests, the Illustrated Dictionary of Fashion: Japanese, American, British comes complete with illustrations. It also is filled with columns covering the origins of the words and industry anecdotes, providing readers with more than just a reference book.

The 926-page dictionary, which sells for 6,000 yen, was written by Mina Wakatsuki and Keiko Sugimoto, a London correspondent and a New York reporter for the Senken Shimbun fashion daily, respectively.

Wakatsuki and Sugimoto spent nine years completing the dictionary. The pair decided to write it after they discovered fashion-related English words and expressions found in fashion dictionaries published in Japan were often inaccurate. They also found that much of the vocabulary differs between American English and British English.

The Illustrated Dictionary of Fashion covers a wide range of buzzwords and indispensible vocabulary, including clothing, styles, accessories, patterns, fabric and business terms--accompanied by 3,000 illustrations.

For example, the Japanese word "sunika" is said to have been derived from the American English word "sneaker." But in Britain, the dictionary points out, that type of footwear is known as a "trainer."

Similarly, "wanpisu" is supposed to have come from "one-piece dress." But in both Britain and the United States, it is simply known as a dress.

Since the dictionary also explains romaji readings for words, non-Japanese speakers can learn how to pronounce the relevant terms in Japanese.

The columns also are worth reading. They include an anecdote about how the "Kelly Bag," made by the French brand Hermes, got its name: A photograph of Grace Kelly, former Princess of Monaco, hiding her pregnant form with the bag was carried in a magazine, quickly prompting the nickname.

The dictionary also says Hawaiian shirts were given their name by a tailor in Hawaii in the 1930s, but Japanese and Europeans who had emigrated to the islands had already been wearing a similar shirt made of fabrics such as those used in kimono.

"We tried to include as many 'living' words as we could. They are those actually used by people working in the fashion industry. We collected the words by interviewing people in the industry in Japan, the United States and Britain," Wakatsuki said.

For more information on the dictionary, visit the Senken Shimbun Web site at www.senken.co.jp/book/index.htm.

(Sep. 21, 2007)

2007年9月24日 星期一

『巴特遜傳』William Bateson

Beatrice Bateson, WILLIAM BATESON, F.R.S. Naturalist.,His Essays and Addresses , Together With a Short Account of His Life. x & 473 pages., A frontispiece and 3 plates., Cambridge University Press., 1928

我看原書之篇幅可知中文本應該是以文言摘譯要點 (案:指譯其夫人之回憶錄 前160頁 小部分有刪節--譬如說引四首"魯拜集" 一句席勒德文 一段培根 和末文火化少灑骨灰於某地-- 加標題)

Beatrice Bateson. 是傳主夫人: William Bateson, F. R. S. Naturalist (1928, 1985),

這本書,在1930s就有中文本:『巴特遜傳』黃靜淵()譯,商務印書館;台北商務印書館在1971年收入人人文庫” 由於完全沒有其他(原書作者譯者等等)資訊 所以其他資料都屬hc之猜測

按:Bateson.發音近「貝特遜」。按:Bateson.發音近「貝特遜」。有些西方文化自字眼沒弄清楚--Hercules jobs (p.14) "Rock of Ages"指基督教之"彼得" (Peter) 而非"有年代之岩石" (p.128)...

genetics and gene


英文16頁中文23頁的典故:

Milton's protest poem, (On the Late) Massacre in Piedmont, a political poem about the murder of innocents by the Duke of Savoy in Italy. It was like the folk song lyrics, even more elegant."

Milton, in Piedmont, beseeched God: "Forget not: in thy book record their groans/who were thy sheep and in their ancient fold/slain by the bloody Piedmontese that rolled/mother with infant down the rocks. Their moans/the vales redoubled to the hills."

Dylan, too, was channelling his indignation into poetics, this time at the death of a young African-American, Emmett Till: "Then they rolled his body down a gulf amidst a bloody red rain/And they threw him in the waters wide to cease his screaming pain/The reason that they killed him there, and I'm sure it ain't no lie,/Was just for the fun of killin' him and to watch him slowly die."





pp.37-40 談的一幅畫:

31. Madonna di San Sisto
1519
Oil on Canvas
265x196 cm
Dresden Gallery, Germany
Better known under the name of Sistine Madonna, it is the last Madonna painting painted by Raphel (1519). It was painted for the monastery of San Sisto in Piacenza, whence its name. Purchased by Augustus II of Saxony (1753), it was "abducted" by Napolean but returned soon after and restored in 1827. It is now in the Dresden Gallery.
Mary with Child stands on a globe partially covered by clouds, her veil billowing in an imaginery draft coming from the left side of the painting. Draperies left and right of Mary give the impression of a theatrical setting. Mother and Child are framed in contrasting fashion by the older Saint Sixtus (he bears the traits of Julius II, whereas the Virgin resembles the famous Fornarina) and Saint Barbara in the splendor of youth. Mary's expression is one of lofty dignity. Her eyes – like those of her son – reflect according to one commentator "an eternity of unutterable fondness." Legend says that the two little angels were in fact two little boys who climbed up the window of Raphaels's studio and there intently gazed at the artist while he painted.
S. Tome e Principe, em. 1989



翻譯者網路上其他作品:

兩極區域誌, 魯得摩斯布隆(Rndmose Brown ,R.N)/黃靜淵/臺灣商務, 1970,



兩本合譯作品:

韋爾斯[] 世界史綱(上下冊)

從地球形成、生命起源到第一次世界大戰結束,人類的歷史短暫而喧囂。伴隨著文明成長的是無盡的戰爭與殺戮,人類將走向世界大同還是會自取滅亡?威爾斯的 《世界史綱》充滿人文激情、文采斐然又不失史學著作的嚴謹,自1920年面世以來,迄今已重版三十餘次,被譯成二十多種文字傳佈於世界各地。本書是國內最 早的中文譯本,譯校者彙集了梁思成、向達、黃靜淵、陳訓恕、陳建民、梁啟超、秉志、竺可楨、任鴻雋、傅運森、徐則陵、何炳松、程章、朱經農、王雲五等當時 第一流的專家學者,譯工精緻,文詞清順,堪與原書比美。

韃靼千年史[]巴克爾著向達/黃靜淵譯商務印書館1937

2007年9月23日 星期日

隋史遺文

{中國古典小說論集 第二輯}臺北巿 :幼獅,民66(1977再版)

夏志清”{隋史遺文} 重刊序”除 心膂 等其他許多詞一般詞典已找不到;不過整本書可以在網路讀到:澗藻 隋史遺文

2007年9月20日 星期四

Joseph Priestley傳

初讀『普利斯特利傳』李定華譯 (2005/09/17)2007/9/20梢改


斐各克著『普利斯特利傳』李定華譯,台北:商務,1979台版


這本Joseph Priestley(1733–1804)的簡傳只有72頁,可能70多年前的翻譯本,人人文庫第2417號。不知作者原名。其實才兩百多年前的人物,他們的社會、神學和科學等等,似乎恍若隔世。只有書中英國的地方等等、還保留相對位置……

全書完全無譯注。不過有些他不知道的地方附有原文,如Board of Longitude--現在我們可以查出(由 answers.com等等;近幾年還有『發現緯度的人』等專著可以參考。)

有些比較重要的,我自己注一下。
「……因為口吃的緣故,所以他有時候很是心灰意冷,但是不消好久他就可以忘懷;他回憶聖保羅「背如芒刺」(thorn in the fresh)那樣的痛苦…..才使他在一種高超的修養上多用功夫,藉此安慰她自己。….. 」(斐各克著『普利斯特利傳』李定華譯,p.10)

thorn in the fresh是西方文化著名之基督耶穌宗徒的保祿故事,可以參考 格林多後書 (2 Corinthisans)第12章:

7 And lest I should be exalted above measure through the abundance of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure.
8 For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart from me.
9 And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me.

7. 免得我因那高超的啟示而過於高舉我自己,故此在身體上給了我一根刺,就是撒殫的使者來拳擊我,免得我過於高舉自己。
8. 關於這事,我曾三次求主使它脫離我;
9. 但主對我說:「有我的恩寵為你夠了,因為我的德能在軟弱中才全顯出來。」所以我甘心情願誇耀我的軟弱,好叫基督的德能常在我身上。

".......他是個燦爛的實驗家 不過他對於定量的研究以及理論的思考貧乏不刊堪
...."我所擬的大綱 至少現在或許適合的...以後在再回過來看的時候....只能供我們的娛樂而已"" (pp.64-5)


-------
「恢復你的靜態吧,我的靈魂啊阿!上帝總是寬仁地對待你。我將長眠土中高枕無憂,一直到耶穌復活的那天早上蘇省過來。」(墓志銘,p.72)

2007年9月19日 星期三

在混亂時代的恬適之歌

2006年11月1日記:

EUGENE O’NEILL(1888-1953)
美之感受容易,但不容易說清楚。昨天買”奧尼爾文集”(6冊北京:人民文學,2006)--因讀他一首(譯)詩,能夠體諒他的情,就買下。其他主要的是44齣戲劇。不過,drama是要演的,光是讀起來,可能是兩不同世界的東西。

有趣的是,我們可以去讀奧尼爾在諾貝爾獎(1936年)的(代)說辭:「……這些作家不敢承認這種影響,生怕別人說成缺乏獨創性。…….也許他的靈魂……帶著幾分滿意的微笑發現他的這弟子並未辜負其宗師。」
(奧尼爾與瑞典有緣;後來許多作品首演在斯德哥爾摩…The Cambridge Companion to Eugene O’Neill之Chronology)

2007/9/19補 (for y y)

在混亂時代的恬適之歌

---祝賀卡洛塔的生日

此處

是家

是安寧

是恬謐。

此處

是坐在壁爐旁

對著爐火微笑的

愛,

是記取歡樂時刻微笑的

愛,

是注視對方恬謐眼睛時的

愛。

此處

是可以變靜的

信念,

它不怕寂靜。

它知道幸福

是一彎寂靜的深潭。

此處

悲哀也是

寂靜。

此處

是秋天下午

大地上的悲涼,

白天變得越來越短,

逐漸接近歲末,

天空一片寒霜,

人們突然注意到

時間的頭髮

變得更加白了。

此處?

此處在那裡?

但你知道。

在我的心裡

在你的心裡

是家

是安寧

是恬謐。

2007年9月18日 星期二

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED)

前幾年才買The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) 大陸(授權翻印 售價約為原版1/3)第五版--它的版次年代依次為 1933/36/44/(73)/93/2002(大陸2004印)/2007


現在讀到洛杉磯時報之一篇第6版的書介


'The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary'

template_bas
template_bas
The linguistic joys of the OED but with one-tenth the space.
By Nick Owchar
September 16, 2007
She was beautiful, and I let her go. I was in college at the time, and my means were limited. I remember her simple elegance, her knowledge and, above all, her Britishness. Her age didn't bother me. But she wanted $100 to go home with me -- so I left behind that set of the Oxford English Dictionary (there were 12 or 13 volumes, dating to the 1930s) on the library clearance table. Too expensive. And I've never quite gotten over it.

Until now.

The sixth edition of "The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary" (Oxford University Press: 3,888 pp., $175 including CD-ROM) is a deep consolation for anyone suffering such lexical sorrows. It is two volumes to the most recent OED edition's 20; 85,000 illustrative quotations to the full set's 2.5 million. (My younger self certainly couldn't have afforded it either.) You still get a tangible sense of the English language's development since 1700 as well as the labors of many brilliant contributors, among them the asylum inmate Dr. W.C. Minor (whom Simon Winchester describes in "The Professor and the Madman") and writers Julian Barnes and J.R.R. Tolkien.

Note Tolkien's work (which Winchester also writes about) on the origins of the word "walrus": "Old Norse hrosshvalr ('horse-whale')." From there, one's gaze helplessly wanders (Old English wandrian) to other words and their interesting evolutions, like "weird" (once Old English for "fate," now stripped of destiny to mean anything strange).

Though word junkies will find much that is fascinating in the SOED about the English language's changes, David Crystal explains in his introductory essay that this linguistic flux was cause for alarm in the 18th century: "Many people felt that the language was out of control and was descending into chaos. The statesman Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, for example, wrote in 1754: 'It must be owned that our language is at present in a state of anarchy.' " ("Anarchy," by the way, comes from Greek roots meaning "without a leader" -- "an + arch.")

My only gripe (origin, in part, from terms for "griffin" and "vulture") is the eye-fatiguing small type. There's no inclusion of a magnifying glass, as there is for the two-volume "Compact Edition" of the entire OED -- but that's what the CD-ROM is for. I'll stop complaining and just be thankful (from the Old English "panc"+ful).

nick.owchar@latimes.com

Mad Pursuits of Richistan



有興趣的朋友可以比較 Richistan的封面對於該名畫所作的"升級"



美國
《華爾街日報》將推出財富月刊
2007年09月17日17:55
《華爾街日報》發行商道瓊斯公司(Dow Jones & Co.)稱﹐該報將於週一宣佈正籌劃推出一份以《追求》(Pursuits)為名的月刊雜誌﹐定位於探尋“財富世界”。

《華爾街日報》希望憑藉該雜誌吸引包括奢侈品和旅遊行業在內的廣告客戶﹐進而提升其消費類廣告收入。新雜誌擬于明年9月面市﹐屆時它將與《華爾街日報》週六版一起遞送。讀者也可從網上免費瀏覽該雜誌﹐其內容將放在《華爾街日報》網絡版的收費區之外。

發行該雜誌的計劃是在上週道瓊斯公司高管與新東家新聞集團(News Corp.)首席執行長兼董事長魯珀特•默多克(Rupert Murdoch)進行會晤時敲定的。

自《華爾街日報》兩年前推出週六版以來﹐其生活版面一直以“追求”為標題﹐然而上週它卻以與週五版一樣的“週末刊”標題取而代之。

《華爾街日報》尚未任命新雜誌編輯﹐不過該報的財富報導記者、同時也是介紹富人生活方式的《富人國》(Richistan)一書作者羅伯特•弗蘭克(Robert Frank)深度參與了這份雜誌的構思﹐因此預計他將在其中擔任高級職務。




Richistan : A Journey through the American Wealth Boom and the Lives of the New Rich-US-
ISBN:9780307339263 (Hard cover book)
Frank, Robert /Publisher:Crown Pub Published 2007/06
Baker&Taylor

Table of Contents
Introduction The Birth of a Nation                 1  (12)
Butler Boot Camp 13 (24)
Housetraining the New Rich
The Third Wave 37 (16)
The Era of the Instapreneur
Making It 53 (12)
Ed Bazinet, King of the Ceramic Village
Living It 65 (16)
Time Blixseth
Losing It 81 (14)
Pete Musser
Barbarians in the Ballroom 95 (26)
Vew Money vs. Old
Size Really Does Matter 121(36)
``My Boat Is Bigger Than Your Boat''
Performance Philanthropy 157(24)
Giving for Results
Move Over Christian Coalition 181(22)
The New Political Kingmakers
Worried Wealth 203(16)
The Trouble with Money
Aristokids 219(20)
We'll Always Hake Paris
The Wealth Gap and the Future of Richistan 239(12)
Notes 251(10)
Acknowledgments 261(4)
Index 265

Why Richistan? Why Now?

Today marks the release of my book Richistan, so I thought I’d answer two questions many of you have emailed me over the past few weeks: “What’s with the title?” and “What’s so new about the rich getting richer?”

Richistan coverThe title comes from a chance meeting I had a few years ago at a yacht show in Florida. I was walking along the docks, marveling at hundreds of giant boats parked in the marina. I had seen plenty of yachts before, but never so many at once. I got to talking with a yacht owner from Texas, and as he looked out over the boats he said: “You look at all these boats and you’d think everyone was making loads of money. It’s like it’s a different country.”

The words stuck with me. The wealthy weren’t just getting wealthier — they were forming their own virtual country. They were wealthier than most nations, with the top 1% controlling $17 trillion in wealth. And they were increasingly building a self-contained world, with its own health-care system (concierge doctors), travel system (private jets, destination clubs) and language. (”Who’s your household manager?”) They had created their own breakaway republic — one I called Richistan.

As a former foreign correspondent, I decided to cover Richistan just as I would cover another country. I wouldn’t judge the rich as heroes or villains, any more than I would judge Indonesians when covering Indonesia. My job would simply be to tell the reader what their world is like and what’s happening there.

Why now? As the chart over there on the right shows, never before have so many Americans become so rich so quickly. The number of millionaire households at every level ($1 million, $10 million, $100 million) has more than doubled over the past decade. And there are no signs that the wealth explosion will slow.

The real story behind all this wealth, however, isn’t in the numbers. It’s in the people, and how they’re changing the culture and character of wealth in America. Richistan is largely about a country in flux — one in which Old Money is being shoved aside by self-made entrepreneurs, philanthropy is changing from passive check-writing to “high-engagement philanthropy,” and the progressive new rich are changing the politics of wealth. Most of all, Richistan is about the entertaining way that today’s rich are making, spending, donating and living with their wealth. (Like the guy in my book who has a house staff of 105 people.)

Yes, the rich have been getting richer for ages. But increasingly, Richistan is driving our economy, our culture and our spending habits. Or, as John Kenneth Galbraith once said, “Of all the classes, the wealthy are the most noticed and the least studied.”

I hope Richistan will help advance that study — and provide some fun stories along the way.

2007年9月17日 星期一

Excerpts From Greenspan's Book

不知道怎麼注解 (參考前一篇 他其實兩黨都不饒人的)


Excerpts From Greenspan's Book (wsj)
September 17, 2007

Alan Greenspan's book, "The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World," has numerous observations on the people he has worked with and the trends in economics, politics and finance he has witnessed. A sampling follows.

On his father, who left the family when Greenspan was small:

He always seemed to feel awkward talking to me, and it made me feel awkward, too.

On the author Ayn Rand:

I was intellectually limited until I met her. 這位作家的文集台灣一本大陸約6本 小說一本 最重要的小說還沒翻出

On President George W. Bush:

For the five years we overlapped, [he] honored his commitment to the autonomy of the Fed... [He] remained tolerant of, if not receptive to, my criticism of his fiscal policy… The administration also took the Fed's advice on policies we thought were essential for the health of the financial markets [such as cracking down on Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac] … [even though] President Bush had very little to gain politically by supporting [such] a crackdown…

On Bush's refusal to veto Republican bills:

My greatest frustration remained [his] unwillingness to wield his veto … [A] senior White House official [said that] the president didn't want to challenge House Speaker Dennis Hastert. "He thinks he can control him better by not antagonizing him," the official said … To my mind, Bush's collaborate-don't-confront approach was a major mistake.

On former Fed Chairman Paul Volcker:

In conversation I always found him quite introverted and withdrawn… He was a bit of a mystery to me.

On former president Ronald Reagan:

Stored in his head must have been four hundred stories and one-liners; while most of them were humorous, he was able to tap them instantly to communicate politics or policy. It was an odd form of intelligence, and he used it to transform the country's self-image. 這觀察很有意思 這種本事的確是一種"古老"的"說書"技能

On former president George H.W. Bush:

The economy was his Achilles' heel, and as a result we ended up with a terrible relationship.

On Vice President Richard Cheney:

With his combination of intensity and sometimes sphinxlike calm, he'd shown extraordinary skill [as President Ford's chief of staff]. The camaraderie we built in those years following Watergate had not waned.

On former President Bill Clinton:

A fellow information hound [with] a consistent, disciplined focus on long-term economic growth. [His relationship with Monica Lewinsky] made me feel disappointed and sad.

On Clinton Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin and Undersecretary Lawrence Summers during the Mexico peso devaluation crisis:

We became economic foxhole buddies. I felt a mutual trust with Rubin that only deepened as time passed.

On wife Andrea Mitchell:

She always jokes that it took me three tries to propose to her … Actually I proposed five times.

On his testimony in January 2001, supporting tax cuts as long as the budget surplus continued:

I'd misjudged the emotions of the moment. We had just gone through a constitutional crisis over an election – which, I realized in hindsight, is not the best time to try to put across a nuanced position based on economic analysis. Yet I'd have given the same testimony if Al Gore had been president.

On beginning to raise rates in 2004:

Our hope was to raise mortgage rates to levels that would defuse the boom in housing, which by then was producing an unwelcome froth.

On subprime mortgages:

[T]he benefits of broadened home ownership are worth the risk. Protection of property rights, so critical to a market economy, requires a critical mass of owners to sustain political support.

On capitalism:

The great "problem" inherent in capitalism [is] that creative destruction is often, and by a great many, viewed simply as destruction… Capitalism creates a tug-of-war within each of us. We are alternately the aggressive entrepreneur and the couch potato, who subliminally prefers the lessened competitive stress of an economy where all participants have equal incomes.

On the tension in China between authoritarianism and capitalism:

The communist system is a pyramid in which power flows from the top … The system holds together because each official is beholden to the person directly above him…. However, if market pricing is substituted for any level of the pyramid, political control is lost. You cannot have both market pricing and political control… Today, President Hu appears to wield less political power than did Jiang Zemin, and he less than Deng Xiaoping… Without the political safety valve of the democratic process, I doubt the long-term success of such a regime.一針見血

On the current account deficit and the dollar:

It is easy to exaggerate the likelihood of a dollar collapse … I am far more inclined toward the more benign outcome.

On reluctantly accepting the Enron Prize from the James A. Baker Institute at Rice University in November 2001 as the scandal-plagued energy company tumbled towards bankruptcy:

I owed Jim Baker a great deal, so … I agreed to accept the award.

On corporate governance:

Corporate governance had morphed into a kind of authoritarianism… The CEO of a profitable corporation today is given vast powers by the board of directors he essentially appoints. 有意思CEO才是獨裁者 這在過去的Acer等公司最明顯

2007年9月16日 星期日

Greenspan book is half memoir and half treatise

格林斯潘回憶錄一點點

Greenspan gives a withering critique of Republicans


曾任美國聯邦準備理事會主席將近廿年的葛林斯班在最新出版的回憶錄中砲火全開,抨擊布希政府沉迷於政治操弄,不顧財政原則。在葛林斯班的筆下,布希的前兩任財政部長歐尼爾和史諾本質上無能無用。

葛林斯班的新書「動盪年代:新世界的冒險」(The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World,暫譯)定十七日出版,正好就在聯準會公布最新利率政策的前一日。在五百頁厚的新書中,葛林斯班直指布希從來不願控制支出,也不否決讓政府赤字 惡化的法案;先前共和黨主政下的國會,眼中同樣只有權力,共和黨去年輸掉兩院,葛老認為並不冤。

不過,布希還不至於一無是處。葛林斯班稱讚布希讓聯準會在政治的壓力下仍能維持獨立性,布希儘量不去干涉貨幣政策,和老布希的做法截然不同。老布希曾把他一九九二年敗選,歸咎於葛林斯班不降息以拉抬經濟。

葛林斯班用不少篇幅談他對市場和全球化的看法。在能源方面,葛林斯班建議多用核能,並預測人類恐怕無法以限制溫室氣體排放量和徵稅的方式解決全球暖化的問題。此外,貧富不均的現象愈來愈嚴重,恐怕會破壞維繫社會安定的力量,甚至導致「大規模的動亂」。

葛老還預言,由於全球化進展減緩,未來幾年通膨恐怕更難控制。近來中國大陸輸入美國的產品不斷漲價,且長期利率攀高,代表美國很快會出現通膨。



PAGE ONE


Greenspan Book
Criticizes Bush
And Republicans

'They Deserved to Lose';
Former Fed Chief Defends
Pre-Bubble Rate Cuts
By GREG IP and EMILY STEEL
September 15, 2007; Page A1

In a withering critique of his fellow Republicans, former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan says in his memoir that the party to which he has belonged all his life deserved to lose power last year for forsaking its small-government principles.

In "The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World," published by Penguin Press, Mr. Greenspan criticizes both congressional Republicans and President George W. Bush for abandoning fiscal discipline.

The book is scheduled for public release Monday. The Wall Street Journal bought a copy at a bookstore in the New York area.

[Alan Greenspan]

Mr. Greenspan, who calls himself a "lifelong libertarian Republican," writes that he advised the White House to veto some bills to curb "out-of-control" spending while the Republicans controlled Congress. He says President Bush's failure to do so "was a major mistake." Republicans in Congress, he writes, "swapped principle for power. They ended up with neither. They deserved to lose."

Many economists say the Fed, by cutting short-term interest rates to 1% in mid-2003 and keeping them there for a year, helped foster a housing bubble that is now bursting. In his book, which was largely written before much of the recent turmoil in credit markets, Mr. Greenspan defends the policy. "We wanted to shut down the possibility of corrosive deflation," he writes. "We were willing to chance that by cutting rates we might foster a bubble, an inflationary boom of some sort, which we would subsequently have to address....It was a decision done right."

He attributes the housing boom to the end of communism, which he says unleashed hundreds of millions of workers on global markets, putting downward pressure on wages and prices, and thus on long-term interest rates.

Mr. Greenspan retired in early 2006 after 18 years as chairman of the Federal Reserve. He had served under six presidents as either Fed chairman or adviser. He now runs a private consulting company; his only formal public role is adviser to British Prime Minister Gordon Brown.

Penguin paid an advance of more than $8 million last year for Mr. Greenspan's book, according to people familiar with the matter. Promotion for the book includes appearances by Mr. Greenspan on CBS's "60 Minutes," NBC's "Today" and CNBC, interviews with foreign and U.S. media, book signings and speaking engagements. The book's official release comes a day before the most-watched Fed meeting of the year. On Tuesday, Mr. Greenspan's successor, Ben Bernanke, must decide whether to cut interest rates to cushion the economy from the reversal of the housing boom that began under Mr. Greenspan's watch.

His book is half memoir and half treatise on the state of the world and its future. While much of the ground has been covered either in his own previous public remarks or in other books, Mr. Greenspan sheds new light on many policy decisions, offers often-trenchant observations of the presidents he has known and makes some surprising economic forecasts, unmuffled by the often opaque and complex phraseology he used as Fed chairman. Critics, however, may seize on his continued defense of decisions they say led to first a stock bubble and then a housing bubble, and on some assertions that differ from the historical record.

Mr. Greenspan writes that when President Bush chose Dick Cheney as vice president and Paul O'Neill as treasury secretary -- both colleagues from the Gerald Ford administration, during which Mr. Greenspan was chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers -- he "indulged in a bit of fantasy" that this would be the government that would have resulted if Mr. Ford hadn't lost to Jimmy Carter in 1976. But Mr. Greenspan discovered that in the Bush White House, the "political operation was far more dominant" than in Mr. Ford's. "Little value was placed on rigorous economic policy debate or the weighing of long-term consequences," he writes.

From serving under so many presidents, Mr. Greenspan concludes that there's something abnormal about anyone willing to do what it takes to get the job. Mr. Ford, he writes, "was as close to normal as you get in a president, but he was never elected." The Watergate tapes, he says, show Richard Nixon as "an extremely smart man who is sadly paranoid, misanthropic and cynical." He recalls telling someone who had accused Nixon of anti-Semitism that he "wasn't exclusively anti-Semitic. He was anti-Semitic, anti-Italian, anti-Greek, anti-Slovak. I don't know anybody he was pro."

Ronald Reagan's ability to instantly tap one-liners and anecdotes in support of a particular policy represented an "odd form of intelligence." He describes Bill Clinton as "a fellow information hound" with "a consistent, disciplined focus on long-term economic growth" whose relationship with Monica Lewinsky "made me feel disappointed and sad."

Mr. Greenspan makes no mention of his successor as Fed chairman, Mr. Bernanke, other than in a caption accompanying a picture: "I was very comfortable leaving the post in the hands of such an experienced successor," it reads.

He devotes chapters to each of the major economic challenges facing the U.S. and the world. On energy, he recommends more use of nuclear power, and he predicts efforts to reduce global warming with carbon caps or taxes will fail. Rising income inequality could undo "the cultural ties that bind our society" and even lead to "large-scale violence." The remedy, he says, is not higher taxes on the rich but improved education, which can be helped by paying math teachers more.

Mr. Greenspan returns repeatedly to the far-reaching importance of communism's collapse. He says it discredited central planning throughout the world and inspired China and later India to throw off socialist policies. He recalls meeting a former manager of a produce distribution center in China who says he once had to labor to allocate produce according to government edict; now the allocations are made by auction. "Now I don't have to get up at four a.m.," he quotes the manager as saying. "I can sleep in and let the market do my job for me." Mr. Greenspan recalls his amazement when an adviser to Russian President Vladimir Putin asks him to discuss Ayn Rand, the libertarian philosopher with whom Mr. Greenspan had been friends.

In coming years, as the globalization process winds down, he predicts inflation will become harder to contain. Recent increases in the price of imports from China and a rise in long-term interest rates suggest "the turn may be upon us sooner rather than later."

Left alone, he said, the Fed's policy-making body, the Federal Open Market Committee, can keep inflation between 1% and 2%, but that could require forcing interest rates to double-digits, a level "not seen since the days of Paul Volcker," his predecessor as Fed chairman. "I fear that my successors on the FOMC, as they strive to maintain price stability in the coming quarter century, will run into populist resistance from Congress, if not from the White House," he writes.

If the Fed succumbs to that pressure, inflation could rise from a little over 2% at present to an average of 4% to 5% by the year 2030, he writes. Ten-year Treasury yields, now below 5%, will rise to "at least 8%" with the potential to go "significantly higher for brief periods." This, he says, will lead to stagnant returns on stocks and bonds and much smaller gains in housing prices.

Mr. Greenspan won plaudits for achieving low inflation and unemployment with just two mild recessions during his tenure at the Fed. But more recently his record has taken some knocks. Some critics fault him for not doing more to restrain the stock bubble of the 1990s, and for responding to its eventual bursting with such low interest rates that housing prices subsequently soared.

Mr. Greenspan writes that in early 1997, he told his colleagues the Fed should raise interest rates as a "preemptive" move against a stock-market bubble. But transcripts of Fed meetings from that period do not support his book's version of events: They show Mr. Greenspan argued for a rate increase principally because of inflation.

Write to Greg Ip at greg.ip@wsj.com and Emily Steel at emily.steel@wsj.com

Azar Nafisi

INSPIRED MINDS


Author Azar Nafisi

Azar Nafisi was born in Tehran in 1956. She was mainly educated abroad and at thirteen attended school in England before going to study in the USA, where she received a doctorate from the University of Oklahoma.

In 1979, the year of the Islamic Revolution, she returned to Iran, hopeful, after being away for seventeen years. There she worked as a lecturer in English literature at the University of Tehran. In her international best-seller titled, "Reading Lolita in Tehran" she describes the Iran's transformation to a religious fundamentalist dictatorship. Gradually, public life becomes regimented down to the smallest things and personal freedom suppressed; draconian punishments for real or alleged wrongdoings lead to enormous pressure to assimilate.

Nafisi was banned from teaching in 1981 when she refused to wear the Islamic veil at lectures. She began to work again only six years later, this time at the University of Allameh Tabatabai. But Nafasi also resigned from this position in 1995, but secretly carried on teaching by setting up a reading group in which she discussed Western literature with seven selected female students in her own home.


Among the works Azar Nafassi chose to teach were books by Fitzgerald, James, Austen - all of which were being judged harshly by Iranian authorities for being decadent and finally, many were not outright banished, they were almost impossible to obtain.

In 1997 Nafisi emigrated with her family to the USA. There she has published essays and written for newspapers such as "The New York Times", "The Washington Post" and "The Wall Street Journal"

Her book "Reading Lolita in Tehran"台灣有翻譯本 has been translated into more than thirty languages and was enthusiastically received by readers and critics alike. In this week's Inspired Minds, Azar Nafassi talks to Breandáin O'Shea about this book and her impressions of Iran today.

2007年9月14日 星期五

{李銳詩文自選集}


{李銳詩文自選集}北京:中國文聯出版社 1999 (421千字)

這位毛澤東研究專家( "毛澤東讀四大名著"等等)和水利/電部副部長的選集
當然很有參考價值
譬如說 它有許多簡單記載
為什麼反對興建長江三峽水壩 (記周恩來與胡耀邦等文章中....

當然"回憶盧山會議" 是重要的--為許多人引用--中國的教育界「製造名目繁多的數字競賽」提出愷切的勸告(有如大躍進時代中國各地拼命製造創紀錄之數字)….中國的教育界「製造名目繁多的數字競賽」

2007年9月13日 星期四

我們什麼也沒看見--Daniel Arasse

ダニエル・アラス(Daniel Arasse, 1944-2003 フランス)
細部や逸脱に対する徹底した観察をもとにして、イコノグラフィーや精神分析などの手法と膨大な文献学的資料の読解とを縦横に織り交ぜつつ、イメージを精緻に読み解いていく美術史家。

アルジェの生まれ。高等師範学校を出たのち、古典古代文学の大学教授資格を取得。パリ第四大学やパリ第一大学などの教壇を経て、1993年からはパリの社会科学高等研究院で「芸術の歴史と理論」を講じていた。パリにて59歳で逝去。

Anachroniques, Paris : Gallimard, 2006.
『アナクロニック』

現代美術論。

Histoires de pentures, Paris : Denoël, 2004.
『絵画の物語』

ルネサンスから現代にわたる多彩な絵画を縦横に取りあげつつ、ときには個人的な思い出話も交えた軽妙かつ機知に富む語り口で、感情や欲望が絵画と取りもつ 関係について、遠近法をめぐる逸話や歴史について、見えるものと見えないものをめぐる理論と実践について、解釈におけるイコノグラフィーやアナクロニズム の功罪について、展示や修復の孕む問題について、語ったもの。邦訳『モナリザの秘密』吉田典子訳、白水社、2007年

Les Visions de Raphaël, Paris : Liana Levi, 2003.
『ラファエッロのヴィジョン』

Anselm Kiefer, Paris : Le Regard, 2001.
『アンセルム・キーファー』

On n'y voit rien, Paris : Denoël, 2000.
『なにも見ていない』

書簡体や対話体などの小説スタイルで書かれた、絵画およびその鑑賞や解釈をめぐるエッセイ。邦訳『なにも見ていない』宮下志朗訳、白水社、2002年
{我們什麼也沒看見--一部別樣的繪畫描述集}北京大學出版社 2007

本書的作者達尼埃爾‧阿拉斯(Daniel Arasse)透過六則虛構的小故事,以描述性的語言,對繪畫作品中所謂可見的事實進行質疑。從委拉斯凱茲(Velazquez)到提香 (Titien),從勃魯蓋爾(Bruegel)到丁托列托(Tintoret),作者帶領我們進入一系列怎樣“看”作品的視覺冒險中。書中所參考的作品 都具有一個共同點,即展示繪畫自身的力量。我們在為作品著迷的同時,卻也懂得,繪畫藝術想要昭示給我們的東西,我們其實並沒有看見。我們什麼也沒有看見! 當然,這種全然否定自然還別有深意。


《致親愛的丘儷婭》
《蝸牛的目光》
《黑人的眼睛》
《抹大拉的毛髮》
《箱中的 女子》
《大師之眼》



與大部分藝術史家不同的是,讀阿拉斯的文字讓人身臨其境。因為他的每一項研究,每一個主題,都是以文學對話的形式進行的。在一個書信體文學曾經十分盛行的 國度,這種文風是一種十分良好的傳統。本書中的每一篇文章都是一個對話,與觀點不同者的對話(《致親愛的丘儷婭》),與一個假想的對話者的對話(《箱中的 女子》),以及與自己的對話(《大師之眼》)。這種對話體,將讀者放人了對話者的處境中,牽動讀者與他一起思考。這樣的傳統,從藝術批評歷史的角度來看, 來自法國藝術批評的鼻祖、首批《沙龍》批評的作者狄德羅。在《拉摩的佷兒》中,這位法國啟蒙時代偉大的哲學家將這一文體發揮到了極致。如果阿拉斯在法國的 歷史中,可以找到一個可以與之相近的作家,那就一定是狄德羅。


L'Annonciation italienne. Une histoire de perspective, Paris : Hazan, 1999.
『イタリアの受胎告知――ある遠近法の歴史』

L'Art italien du IVe siècle à la Renaissance (avec Philippe Morel et Marco D'Onofrio) , Paris : Citadelle-Mazenod, 1997.
『四世紀からルネサンスまでのイタリア芸術』(フィリップ・モレルとマルコ・ドノフリオとの共著)

La Renaissance maniériste, (avec Andreas Tönnesman), Paris : Gallimard, 1997.
『マニエリスム的ルネサンス』(アンドレアス・テネスマンとの共著)

Léonard de Vinci. Le rythme du monde, Paris : Hazan, 1997.
『レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチ――世界のリズム』

Le Sujet dans le tableau. Essais d'iconographie analytique, Paris : Flammarion, 1997.
『タブローのなかの主体――分析的イコノグラフィー試論』

L'Ambition de Vermeer, Paris : Adam Biro, 1993.
『フェルメールの野心』

Le Détail. Pour une histoire rapprochée de la peinture, Paris : Flammarion, 1992.
『細部――絵画に即した歴史のために』

中世末期から近代にかけての西欧絵画における「細部」について、「図像的な細部(détail iconique, particolare)」と「絵画的な細部(détail pictural, dettaglio)」のふたつの観点から論じたもの。

La Guillotine et l'Imaginaire de la terreur, Paris : Flammarion, 1987.
『ギロチンと恐怖の幻想』

フランス革命期に流布したギロチンについてのさまざまな憶測や想像をたどり、懲罰、権力、苦痛、恐怖、死などが表象や演出ととりもつ関係について考察したもの。邦訳『ギロチンと恐怖の幻想』(野口雄司訳、福武書店、1989年)

L'Homme en jeu. Génies de la Renaissance italienne, Genève : Famot, 1980.
『遊ぶ人間――イタリア・ルネサンスの天才たち』

L'Homme en perspective. Les primitifs d'Italie, Genève : Famot, 1979.
『遠近法のなかの人間――イタリアのプリミティヴ』

L'Universel inacheve. Les dessins de Léonard de Vinci, Paris : Screpel, 1978.
『未完の宇宙――レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチのデッサン』

2007年9月9日 星期日

拼命作官與拼命著書

曾國籓:『李少荃拼命作官;余蔭甫拼命著書。』(「春在堂隨筆」)

李鴻章(西元18231901):字少荃,安徽合肥人,清代政治家。平定捻匪及太平天國有功,歷任直隸、湖廣、兩廣總督。尤善外交,曾多次代表清廷與外國簽訂條約。後因積勞嘔血而死,晉封一等侯,卒諡文忠。

俞樾:(西元18211906)字蔭甫,號曲園居士,浙江德清人,為清代學者。道光進士,官編修,治經學,旁及諸子雜說,主講杭州詁經精舍三十一年。著有春在堂全書。

『九九消夏錄』 為曲園居士(1821-1906)著。有「政績書」一文:「縣之父老願以中(案:辜中先生)之善政刻之石….專尚德化,不施刑罰,民愛之如父母,立生祠刻石記之……

2007年9月8日 星期六

Reader’s Reports on The Road to Serfdom

這篇牽涉到20世紀一本"政治-經濟"暢銷書--讀者文摘RD還有書摘
出版前 許多名學者以為它沒什麼
出版成名之後 又令另外同行-同事瞧不起--因為大眾書的作者肯定是"譁眾取寵"
台灣在60年代才有殷海光的節譯--應該有人讀一下它與RD的差別
30年之後才有據說全譯本 不過當時興味大減

Reader’s Reports on The Road to Serfdom

28 March 2007

| Peter Klein |

A new edition of The Road to Serfdom is coming out this year, positioned as volume 2 of The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek. Like all the volumes in the Collected Works, it includes a new foreword (here by series editor Bruce Caldwell), standardized and corrected notes and references, and previously unpublished supplementary material. This week’s Chronicle of Higher Education features some excerpts from the new material.

Here, for example, are the reader’s reports on the manuscript, solicited by the University of Chicago Press in 1943 from Frank Knight and Jacob Marschak:

Frank H. Knight, University of Chicago: From the standpoint of desirability of publishing the book in this country, I may note some grounds for doubt. The author is an Austrian refugee, a very able economist, who has been a professor at the London School of Economics since the middle 30s. He writes from a distinctly English point of view, and frequently uses the expression “this country” with that reference. While there is some treatment of American conditions, and citation of American writings, this is secondary in scope and emphasis. This fact in itself might limit the appeal in “this country” to a fairly cultivated, even academic, circle of readers. Moreover, the whole discussion is pitched at a quite high intellectual and scholarly level and the amount of knowledge of Central European conditions and history assumed is rather large for even the educated American audience. It is hardly a “popular” book from this point of view.

In addition, there are limitations in connection with the treatment itself, both as to the theoretical and the historical argument. In the latter connection, the work is essentially negative. It hardly considers the problem of alternatives, and inadequately recognizes the necessity, as well as political inevitability, of a wide range of governmental activity in relation to economic life in the future. It deals with only the simpler fallacies, unreasonable demands, and romantic prejudices which underlie the popular clamor for governmental control in place of free enterprise. …

In sum, the book is an able piece of work, but limited in scope and somewhat one-sided in treatment. I doubt whether it would have a very wide market in this country, or would change the position of many readers. (Reader’s Report, December 10, 1943)

Jacob Marschak, University of Chicago: The current discussion between advocates and adversaries of free enterprise has not been conducted so far on a very high level. Hayek’s book may start in this country a more scholarly kind of debate.

The book will appeal to friends of free enterprise and give them new material; Hayek’s interpretation of the modern English scene (labor and industrial monopolist driving jointly toward a collective economy) will be new to all American readers except those who have read or listened to William Benton’s impressions; while Hayek’s German background enables him to give new support to the contention that socialism is the father of Nazism.

Those who are not convinced in advance of Hayek’s thesis will probably learn from his argument even more than those who are. Hayek (Chapter IV) has a wholesome contempt for the quasi-scientific method of “trends,” “waves of tomorrow.” Those who love planning because they love the inevitable will, perhaps, after reading Hayek revise either their faith or their tastes. Perhaps they will start to think in terms of ends and means instead of in prophecies.

It is true that Hayek himself gives little food for such concrete thinking. …

His thinking is somewhat sharper, just because it is more abstract. Hayek’s style is readable and occasionally inspiring.

This book cannot be bypassed. (Reader’s Report, December 20, 1943)

Entry Filed under: Classical Liberalism, - Klein -, Recommended Reading

2007年9月4日 星期二

「UNDERSTANDING JAPAN」 {走進日本}

 

深見東州 全人的プロフィール

  昭和26年1951、兵庫県生まれ。同志社大学経済学部卒。武蔵野音楽大学特修科(マスタークラス)声楽専攻卒業。西オーストラリア州立エディスコーエン大学芸術 学部大学院修了。創造芸術学修士(MA)。カンボジア大学総長。中国国立浙江大学大学院日本文化研究所客員教授、英国国立ウルバーハンプトン大学経営学部 客員 教授などを歴任。英国、中国の大学で教鞭をとる。柬埔寨(カンボジア)国家最高勲章の一つであるコマンドール友好勲章(外国人に与える最高勲章)を、民間で初めて授 与される。西オーストラリア州芸術文化功労賞。西オーストラリア州首都パース市名誉市民(the keys to the City of Perth)。Asia Economic Forum Founder & chairman。紺綬褒章受章。比叡山にて得度、法名「東州」。臨済宗東福寺にて禅修業、居士名「大岳」。中国ではプロの芸術家として、国家一級美術 師、国家一級オペラ歌手、国家二級京劇俳優に認定されている。その他、宝生流能楽師、社団法人能楽協会会員。宝生東州会会主。書道教授者。茶道師範。華道 師範。

  代表を務める団体を通して、カンボジアに24時間無料救急病院「シアヌーク病院」を建設し、キリスト教グループと協力して運営。1996年12月から現在 までに65万人以上に無料診療を行った。また、カンボジアの戦災孤児の救済と育成のために、「未来の光孤児院」をサポートし、名誉院長に就任している。ま た、カンボジアの学校のない村に小学校を10校建設。カンボジア王国への貢献を評価され、支援団体の代表として、外国人に与える国家最高勲章であるコマン ドール勲章を授与された。また、カンボジア唯一の国際研究機関、国立カンボジア平和協力研究所(CICP)に、初の「日本文化・経営研究センター」を設 立。副総裁に就任し、教鞭を執る。また、カンボジアの二大私立大学の一つ、カンボジア大学の初代総長に就任す。

  中国では、代表をつとめる団体を通じて、中国最貧地域に東州春蕾小学校を100校建設するなどの活動により、「中国児童慈善家」として中国国家より表彰される。また敦煌の孤児100人の父として、教育費を送金している。

  アルバニアでは、最貧地域のブトリントに最初の近代的な学校を建設。開校式には当時のアルバニア大統領メイダーニ氏も列席。ジェイコブ・ロスチャイルド卿 は感動して4度来校し、投資家の世界会議で広く紹介された。また、アルバニア初の職業訓練校をジロカストロ市に建設し、後に市の名誉市民に推挙された。

  また、オーストラリアの全国人権教育委員会より、「国際名誉市民」(Citizen of Humanity)の称号を授与された。

  日本では、日本に盲人ゴルフを最初に紹介した「日本の盲人ゴルフの父」として知られ、NPO法人 日本盲人ゴルフ振興協会の名誉会長を務めるかたわら、世界盲人ゴルフ協会の総裁も務める。また、代表をつとめる団体を通じての長年の盲人福祉への貢献を認 められ、英国最古最大のチャリティー団体王立盲人協会(RINB)の副総裁に就任し、バッキンガム宮殿でエリザベス女王に謁見を許さる。

  NPO法人世界芸術文化振興協会会長として、またマルチ・プロフェッショナル・アーティストとして、書画展やオペラ、音楽コンサート、演能会などの芸術活 動を世界中で展開し、チャリティー活動や日本文化芸術の紹介につとめている。中国ではプロの芸術家として、国家一級美術師(2002年9月)、国家一級オ ペラ歌手(2002年10月)、国家二級京劇俳優(2002年12月)に認定されている。

  インターナショナル・シントウ・ファウンデーション (ISF)代表、米国公益法人・シアヌーク病院協会副会長、(財)協和協会理事長など、公職多数。株式会社菱研所長。その他国内外に十数社を経営し、実践 派経営コンサルタントとして多くのシンポジウム、講演会を主催、経営評論活動を行っている。また、作詞、作曲、演奏、指揮、声楽、和歌、俳句、絵画、声 明、クラシックバレエ、京劇、俳優など、芸術文化方面で多彩な活動を行い、これまでに多くの書画集、楽譜集、写真集、ビデオ集、CD集などの作品を発表。 また、人生論、文明論、宗教評論などの著作も多い。「『日本型』経営で大発展」、「UNDERSTANDING JAPAN」や、72万部を突破した「強運」をはじめ、著作は108冊以上に及び、六カ国語に訳され出版されている。その他、ラジオパーソナリティーとし ても知られ、多くのレギュラー実績がある。現在は週1本のレギュラー番組を担当、ラジオ番組名「さわやかThis Way」(FM全国ネット)

*****


這先生屬於日本新興宗教的人物
我讀過「UNDERSTANDING JAPAN」的中文
{走進日本} 北京:文化藝術出版社 2004
它介紹日本文化 尤其是經營管理方面的基礎是
"神道"
這書表現的是一種通人的生命哲學



2007年9月1日 星期六

Selling Blue Elephants

培生/提供

書名:藍色大象也能賣──如何預知顧客需求,打造未來的明星商品
作者:馬斯可維茲
出版:培生

Who,指的是能夠掌握到正確的目標客戶群,他們真的有能力及意願購買你的產品/服務,也真的能夠藉此得到好處。

What,指的是你的產品/服務應該有什麼特色,才能吸引目標客戶群的注意及興趣,而且在同質性高及削價競爭之下,仍能得到他們的青睞。

How,指的是如何找出這些特色與絕活,並以行銷傳播的技巧,傳遞給目標客戶群。

簡言之,就是找對客戶,作對產品,說對傳播。這大概是任何商業運作最根本的三件事。

在這個架構下,本書的最大特色在於將Who、What and How這三件事,藉由一個創新的、系統性的實驗改進流程──規則建立實驗(Rule Developing Experimentation, RDE) 而加以串連,使得價值提案,能夠清楚地形成、定義與溝通。

最重要的是,目標客群參與了這個過程。因此,價值提案不再是行銷企劃人員與廣告公司關在會議室的腦力激盪結果,而是真正能夠符合目標客群的現實需求,或是滿足他們對於未來的期望。

這與目前Web 2.0的概念,強調參與、共同創作、互動分享等特性,不謀而合。不是廠商決定,他們要賣什麼。而是消費者決定,他們要買什麼。

短期言,新產品上市及主要行銷活動的成功率應該會提高;中長期言,藉由不斷的操作RDE所累積的知識──有關消費者的洞察以及消費者的觀念、行為、態度等 趨勢的改變──更是企業競爭與發展的重要資產。尤其是進入21世紀,數位化所帶來的衝擊,只會加速消費者的分眾化與更多元的需求,如何發現、了解,掌握這 些變化,並調整產品/服務以及營運的層次,甚為重要。

大衛.奧格威曾說,好廣告會加速不好產品的死亡。我想他真正的提醒是:真正符合目標客群需要的好產品,再加上好的行銷傳播,是致勝的不二法則。以前的思維 是:好產品是廠商客戶的責任,好廣告是代理商的責任。但如同本書及 Web 2.0所建議的思維:重點是先共同努力掌握消費者的喜惡及變化,再來分工,而不是先角色分工各自作,再來談整合。

最後,值得一提的是:藉由RDE所組成的價值提案,有產品、消費者接觸面,有傳播、也有品牌等多重面向,值得細細體會。

(作者是台灣奧美整合行銷傳播集團執行長)

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