2008年5月30日 星期五

Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions

丹.艾瑞利(Dan Ariely)著的《誰說人是理性的!》(Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions , 2008, 原文摘讀和西方各種翻譯本封面,請參考http://www.predictablyirrational.com/?page_id=6)艾瑞利告訴讀者,

我們的日常行為,極度受到周遭人與事的影響。雖然人一直號稱是自主的動物,可以獨立作出對自己有利的判斷,卻往往被相干或不相干的旁人、旁物,有意或無意地牽著鼻子走。讀者循序了解個人與群體所面對的選擇與判斷,無一不是如此。行為並不理性,而且不理性的方式極度類似,因此可以預期人在何種情況下會採行哪類行為模式。

數百年來,正統經濟學架構在人是理性的動物這個基本假設上。由於個體可以理性作為與選擇,經濟趨於均衡,合理而完美地運作。在《誰說人是理性的!》書中,艾瑞利告訴讀者,行為並不理性,而且不理性的方式極度類似,因此可以預期人在何種情況下會採行哪類行為模式。

《紐約時報》書評指出,這本書的成功也意味著社會文化的巨變,人們開始檢討原本共生並存的傳統經濟學、正統的資本主義制度,希望找出新途徑,去理解人的動機與行為。

行為經濟學本身就是非傳統的學術流派,結合經濟學與心理學兩大學門,試圖以不同角度,解析經濟行為與選擇。遵循行為經濟學家的思路,我們自知自身的不理性與不完美,進而不斷尋求改善,找出更好決策方式,其實可幫助我們得到真正冀求的結果。


Do you know why we so often promise ourselves to diet and exercise, only to have the thought vanish when the dessert cart rolls by?

Do you know why we sometimes find ourselves excitedly buying things we don’t really need?

Do you know why we still have a headache after taking a five-cent aspirin, but why that same headache vanishes when the aspirin costs 50 cents?

Do you know why people who have been asked to recall the Ten Commandments tend to be more honest (at least immediately afterward) than those who haven’t? Or why honor codes actually do reduce dishonesty in the workplace?

By the end of this book, you’ll know the answers to these and many other questions that have implications for your personal life, for your business life, and for the way you look at the world. As a bonus you will also learn how much fun social science can be, and how to see more clearly the causes for our everyday behaviors, including the many cases in which we are predictably irrational.

EXCERPTS


Excerpted from Chapter 1 – The Truth About Relativity

Excerpted from Chapter 2 – The Fallacy of Supply and Demand

Excerpted from Chapter 4 – The Cost of Social Norms

Excerpted from Chapter 7 – The High Price of Ownership






2008年5月29日 星期四

Julie And Julia: 365 Days, 524 Recipes, 1 Tiny Apartment Kitchen: How One Girl Risked Her Marriage, Her Job, And Her Sanity to Master the Art of Livin

Julie And Julia: 365 Days, 524 Recipes, 1 Tiny Apartment Kitchen: How One Girl Risked Her Marriage, Her Job, And Her Sanity to Master the Art of Living

Julie And Julia: 365 Days, 524 Recipes, 1 Tiny Apartment Kitchen: How One Girl Risked Her Marriage, Her Job, And Her Sanity to Master the Art of Living (ハードカバー)
Julie Powell (著)2005


From Publishers Weekly
Powell became an Internet celebrity with her 2004 blog chronicling her yearlong odyssey of cooking every recipe in Julia Child's Mastering the Art of French Cooking. A frustrated secretary in New York City, Powell embarked on "the Julie/Julia project" to find a sense of direction, and both the cooking and the writing quickly became all-consuming. Some passages in the book are taken verbatim from the blog, but Powell expands on her experience and gives generous background about her personal life: her doting husband, wacky friends, evil co-workers. She also includes some comments from her "bleaders" (blog readers), who formed an enthusiastic support base. Powell never met Julia Child (who died last year), but the venerable chef's spirit is present throughout, and Powell imaginatively reconstructs episodes from Child's life in the 1940s. Her writing is feisty and unrestrained, especially as she details killing lobsters, tackling marrowbones and cooking late into the night. Occasionally the diarist instinct overwhelms the generally tight structure and Powell goes on unrelated tangents, but her voice is endearing enough that readers will quickly forgive such lapses. Both home cooks and devotees of Bridget Jones–style dishing will be caught up in Powell's funny, sharp-tongued but generous writing.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


美食博主整本菜譜全記錄
2008年05月29日13:48



立一個美食烹飪博客就像是攤雞蛋一樣容易﹐它們對博主的烹飪技術幾乎沒什麼要求﹐而且除了一台數碼相機和寬帶連接之外﹐幾乎什麼都不需要。

不過有一類美食烹飪博客卻是與眾不同。在這種被稱做“菜譜烹飪全記錄”(cook-through)的博客中﹐博主們會挑選一些菜譜書籍﹐把裡面所有的菜譜都嘗試做一遍﹐並具體記錄下來放到博客上。

這其中有一味“配料”是必需的﹕一點點瘋狂精神。

凱瑞爾•布里麥爾(Carole Blymire)是華盛頓特區的一名公關諮詢人員﹐她從去年開始就一直在寫名為“家裡的法國洗衣坊餐廳”(French Laundry at Home)的博客。雖然除了感恩節晚餐外﹐布里麥爾沒有別的“實戰”經驗﹐但她仍然在努力攻克托馬斯•凱勒(Thomas Keller)所著《法國洗衣坊餐廳食譜》(French Laundry Cookbook)里的約130份菜譜。凱勒的這本書也許是迄今為止烹飪難度最高的美式食譜。

沒關係﹐布里麥爾說﹐我打開這書告訴自己﹐“咱們走著瞧。”

如今這個網站已經成為美食博客領域響當當的名字﹐不僅連連獲獎﹐每天的訪客人數也達到了四五千。它還成為其他菜譜烹飪全記錄博客競相效仿的對象﹐像貼出菜品在烹飪不同階段的照片、並且最後還會對菜的味道做出一番評價。博客中也融入了一些個人情緒(畢竟﹐這是個人博客)。布里麥爾時常吹噓自己的兩個最愛﹕紐約市市長邁克•布隆博格(Mike Bloomberg)和熏肉。

烹飪全記錄的博主們說﹐他們開博的目的各不相同﹕學習烹飪基本技巧、多掌握幾道菜品的製作方法﹐或者只是想證明自己能夠由始至終地完成一項偉大工程。

視覺計算技術企業英偉達公司(Nvidia)的瑞恩•亞當斯(Ryan S. Adams)說﹐他被布里麥爾從英式菜譜《完全野獸》(The Whole Beast)起步的行為所打動﹐此書在烹飪界有大量擁躉。以烤冷羊腦這道菜為例﹐亞當斯說﹐要想找到願意品嘗的人﹐其難度有時也不會低於烹飪過程﹐而且採購起原料來也不那麼容易。他說﹐我不知道到哪兒才能買到山鷸﹐也許我得親自去狩獵。

在所有菜譜烹飪類博客中﹐最引人注目的可能要數三個選擇《美食家》(Gourmet)雜誌2004版《美食家菜譜》(The Gourmet Cookbook)作為攻克對象的博客。這本菜譜共有1,300多個菜品。它們的博主不僅在攀登這座飲食界“珠穆朗瑪峰”很有一套﹐在各自的職業領域也是佼佼者。

第一位瞄準《美食家菜譜》的博客作者蒂娜•傑哈德(Teena Gerhardt)畢業於麻省理工學院(MIT)﹐這位數學博士如今在印第安納大學(Indiana University)從事代數方面的研究。另外兩位﹐凱文•凱西(Kevin Casey)是麥吉爾大學(McGill University)神經學專業的研究生﹐梅麗莎•帕拉迪諾(Melissa Palladino)正編寫自己的食譜﹐這位西方美食家希望將印度藥用食品引入現代食譜。

三位博主做菜速度各有不同﹐他們每週登出一至七份菜譜。完成這項龐大的工程不僅費時、還費錢。據估算﹐《美食家菜譜》所要求的全部食材開銷介於3萬至4萬美元之間。

美食博客作者們通常不會在博客上貼出完整的菜譜配方﹐為的是不影響所選菜譜書籍的銷量。愛好者們對這些菜譜書籍往往有很深的感情、有時甚至是景仰之情。

典型的例子就是勞瑞•伍德沃德(Laurie Woodward)。這位來自匹茲堡的母親開通了名為“週二和多麗在一起”(Tuesdays With Dorie)的博客﹐主攻美國最受歡迎烘烤美食作家、美國和法國古典文學碩士多麗•格林斯潘(Dorie Greenspan)的最新烹飪力作《烘烤》(Baking)。

伍德沃德說﹐對於許多焙烤愛好者來說﹐多麗就像神一樣﹔她這人非常好﹐會親自閱讀我們的博客﹐甚至還會在上面留言﹐讓人欣喜若狂。

格林斯潘接受採訪時說﹐她真的被這個博客吸引了﹐她將這類網站當作自己在網絡世界里的又一個學習“課堂”﹐讓像她這樣的專職美食作家從中不斷吸取養分。

這類網站的始祖或許要數創辦於2002年的朱莉/朱莉婭項目(Julie/Julia Project)。學業失意的曼哈頓人朱莉•鮑威爾(Julie Powell)按照朱莉婭•恰爾德(Julia Child)的《掌握法式烹飪的藝術》(Mastering the Art of French Cooking)一書﹐把裡面提到的所有菜譜從頭到尾全部做了一遍。鮑威爾的博客(只有文字﹐沒有照片)故事被寫成了暢銷書﹐並被改編成一部電影﹐由梅麗爾•斯特里普(Meryl Streep)主演。

今天的博主很少能獲得如此巨大的成功。不過布里麥爾已經為一個醞釀中的網絡美食秀節目製作了的預告短片﹐而且也已就出版一本菜譜進行了初步的商談。

雖然美食博客的訪客人數遠不夠博主們以此謀生﹐但博主們並不在意﹐他們說自己的努力在其他許多方面都取得了豐富回報。馬里蘭州的凱茜•艾利希(Cathy Irish)在歷經三年、耗費45磅黃油和一品脫香草精後﹐去年11月份完成了《麥達•希特爾的甜點》(Maida Heatter's Cookies)中的所有食譜的烹飪。艾利希說﹐通過烹飪這個平台她結交了很多新朋友﹐還和其中的幾個見了面。

上面提到的凱文•凱西對此也深有同感。在開始自己浩大的烹飪工程後﹐他聽說自己的叔叔在70年代就曾用《拉魯斯食譜》(Larousse Gastronomique)做過同樣的事情。

凱西說﹐那時叔叔一個人默默地做﹐自得其樂﹐卻沒有途徑與人分享﹐現在我們能和全世界一同分享了。

LEE GOMES

(編者按﹕本文作者Lee Gomes是《華爾街日報》專欄“Portals”的專欄作家﹐欄目內容以科技、商業及相關的主題為主。)

2008年5月25日 星期日

Volumes to Go Before You Die

Books

Volumes to Go Before You Die



Published: May 23, 2008

An odd book fell into my hands recently, a doorstopper with the irresistible title “1001 Books You Must Read Before You Die.” That sounds like a challenge, with a subtle insult embedded in the premise. It suggests that you, the supposedly educated reader, might have read half the list at best. Like one of those carnival strength-testers, it dares you to find out whether your reading powers rate as He-Man or Limp Wrist.
Skip to next paragraph

Photo illustration by Tony Cenicola/The New York Times

Related

1001 Books: The List (listology.com)

Readers' Comments

Readers shared their thoughts on this article.

The book is British. Of course. The British love literary lists and the fights they provoke, so much so that they divide candidates for the Man Booker Prize into shortlist books and longlist books. In this instance Peter Boxall, who teaches English at Sussex University, asked 105 critics, editors and academics — mostly obscure — to submit lists of great novels, from which he assembled his supposedly mandatory reading list of one thousand and one. Quintessence, the British publishers, later decided that “books” worked better than “novels” in the title.
Even without Milton or Shakespeare, Professor Boxall has come up with a lot of books. Assume, for the sake of argument, that a reasonably well-educated person will have read a third of them. (My own score, tallied after I made this estimate, was 303.) That leaves 668 titles. An ambitious reader might finish off one a month without disrupting a personal reading program already in place. That means he or she would cross the finish line in the year 2063. At that point, upon reaching the last page of title No. 1,001, “Never Let Me Go” by Kazuo Ishiguro, death might come as a relief.

Two potent factors make “1001 Books” (published in the United States in 2006 by Universe; $34.95) compelling: guilt and time. It plays on every serious reader’s lingering sense of inadequacy. Page after page reveals a writer or a novel unread, and therefore a demerit on the great report card of one’s cultural life. Then there’s that bullying title, with its ominous allusion to the final day when, for all of us, the last page is turned.

I appreciate the sense of urgency because I feel it myself. But when Professor Boxall brings death into the picture, he sets the bar very high. Let’s have a look at some of these mandatory titles. Not only is it not necessary to read “Interview With the Vampire” by Anne Rice before you die, it is also probably not necessary to read it even if, like Lestat, you are never going to die. If I were mortally ill, and a well-meaning friend pressed Anaïs Nin’s “Delta of Venus” into my trembling hands, I would probably leave this world with a curse on my lips.
If the “1001 Books” program seems quirky, even perverse, it’s no accident. “I wanted this book to make people furious about the books that were included and the books that weren’t, figuring this would be the best way to generate a fresh debate about canonicity, etc.,” Professor Boxall informed me in an e-mail message. And how.

The tastes of others are always inexplicable, but “1001 Books” embodies some structural irregularities. Arranged chronologically, it begins with the novel’s primordial period — everything up to 1800 — and then marches century by century into the present.
More than half the books were written after World War II. Already I feel my hackles rising. Does not the age of Balzac, Dickens, Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy dwarf its earnest, fitfully brilliant but ultimately punier successor? And if the 20th century can put up a fight, the real firepower is concentrated in the period of 1900 to 1930. Like many others, I admire Ian McEwan, but does he really merit eight novels on the list, to Balzac’s three?
Something is wrong here. Paul Auster gets six novels. Don DeLillo seven. Thackeray gets one: “Vanity Fair.”

Because nearly all the contributors hail from Britain and its former colonial possessions, there is a marked English-language bias and a tendency to favor obscure British novelists over obscure Spanish or Italian ones. Fair enough. A French or Russian version of “1001 Books” would impose its own prejudices. In fact, prejudice is what you want in a book like this, which works best as an annotated tip sheet for hungry readers on the prowl for overlooked writers and neglected works.

The United States gets a fair shake, and there may even be some overcompensation. Philip Roth shows up with no fewer than seven novels, including “The Breast,” and Edith Wharton is honored for four novels in addition to the two big ones, “The House of Mirth” and “The Age of Innocence.”

A little more Anglophilia might have been in order. Anthony Powell shows up with “A Dance to the Music of Time” — which is actually 12 novels, so Professor Boxall cheats — but I would have made a play for a few of the pre-“Dance” novels, like “Venusberg” or “Afternoon Men.”
On the other hand, the 20th-century bias eliminates Americans like Stephen Crane and William Dean Howells entirely, and a certain weakness for postmodernism squeezes out novels like “An American Tragedy” by Theodore Dreiser and “The Octopus” by Frank Norris. Drop a couple of Austers, and there would have been room.

As an experiment, I picked three novels, more or less at random, to see how they might change my quality of life: “Castle Rackrent” by Maria Edgeworth; “Tarka the Otter” by Henry Williamson; and “The Invention of Curried Sausage” by Uwe Timm.

Two of the three definitely provided a lift. “Castle Rackrent” (1800), a rollicking satire about trashy English aristocrats who bring ruin to an Irish estate, is worth reading just for the name Carrick O’Fungus, although literary historians prize it for being the first regional novel. That’s fine. Bonus points for getting there first, but the real reason to pick it up is Edgeworth’s slyly vicious picture of slovenly aristos on the loose.

Uwe Timm, a contemporary German writer unknown to me, now flies very high on my mental Amazon rankings. “The Invention of Curried Sausage” (1993) is an offbeat quest novel. The narrator, seeking the origins of currywurst, a German fast-food specialty, quizzes an elderly vendor and winds up with a big, fat history lesson. The issues are big, the prose brilliant, the execution deft. Eternal gratitude to Andrew Blades, theater reviewer for Stage magazine, who convinced Professor Boxall that this novel belonged on the list.

Tarka turned out to be too much otter for me, even though the back story is compelling. Williamson, returning from the trenches after World War I, took up a hermit’s life in north Devon, where he lived among the plants and the animals, observing closely and shunning humankind. “Tarka,” published in 1927, tells the story of a young male otter and its day-to-day struggles for food, a mate and security in a world populated by baying dogs and evil men. T. E. Lawrence loved it. I didn’t.

Since Professor Boxall is keen to start an argument, let me oblige. Drop the bloated, self-indulgent “Ada” from an otherwise correct Nabokov list (“Lolita,” “Pale Fire,” “Pnin”) and insert “Laughter in the Dark” or “The Gift.” J. M. Coetzee, with 10 novels, can afford to lose 1 or 2. That would open up space for “The Cossacks” by Tolstoy and “A Hero of Our Time” by Mikhail Lermontov. There should be another five Balzacs. I could go on and on.
One problem with drawing up recommended-reading lists is the urge to show off. No one gets points for proposing “The Brothers Karamazov.” Credibility comes with books like “The Ravishing of Lol V. Stein” by Marguerite Duras, or the reverse-chic audacity of insisting that “The Godfather” belongs on the same list as “The Trial.”

A little humility is in order. Easy for me to bring up “Envy” by Yuri Olyesha because I happen to have read it, or Jakob Arjouni, a German writer of Turkish descent who counts as one of my latest discoveries, largely because I was seduced by the title of a recent story collection, “Idiots.”

As a reality check, I opened “1001 Books” at random and beheld “A Kestrel for a Knave,” by Barry Hines, which I have not read, followed by “In Watermelon Sugar” by Richard Brautigan (ditto) and “The German Lesson” by Siegfried Lenz (started it, put it down, meant to get back to it, never did). No matter how well read you are, you’re not that well read. If you don’t believe it, pick up “1001” and start counting.

In his novel “Changing Places,” David Lodge — not on the list — introduces a game called Humiliation. Players earn points by admitting to a famous work that they have not read. The greater the work, the higher the point score. An obnoxious American academic, competing with a group of colleagues, finally gets the hang of the game and plays his trump card: “Hamlet.” He wins the game but is then denied tenure.

That’s the thing with reading lists like “1001 Books.” There’s always that host of the unread.
Come to think of it, I have a personal white whale: “Moby-Dick.” I really must read it before I die.

2008年5月15日 星期四

雙眼視覺學 統計分析在醫學科題中的應用(研究生)

雙眼視覺學"
  雙眼視覺學所涵蓋的范圍既廣又深,是眼視光學 領域中的主要專業之一,也是最熱門的研究課題。在西方國家,雙眼視覺的教育、研究和臨床已相當深入,雙眼視學學成為眼視光學大學教育的課程主課,并經歷了 幾十年的豐富和發展。目前中國眼視光學教育才剛剛起步,溫州醫學院等多所設有眼視光教育項目的醫科院校,在近年來已開展了有關雙眼視學的教學、臨床和研究 工作,一方面通過教師交換項目培養該方面的教學師資,一方面努力將國際上先進的課程設計和教學資源介紹給學生和同行們,一書的編撰出版就是多位編者在這幾 年教學經驗積累的基礎上集體智慧勞動的結晶。《雙眼視覺學》一書主要闡述與雙眼視覺有關的基本概念、檢測方法、臨床評價、異常問題的。診斷和處理方法,共 分為兩個層次闡述:一、非斜視性雙眼視覺問題;二、斜視性雙眼視覺問題。理解和掌握此書內容,可以較深刻地理解和有效地處理臨床常見的雙眼視覺問題。該教 材適合醫學院校本科生使用,亦可作為眼科住院醫師和臨床醫療人員的參考用書。
  • 【本書目錄】
    第一章 正常雙眼視
     第一節 正常雙眼視概述
      一、雙眼疊加作用
      二、視覺方向
      三、雙眼融像
      四、立體視覺
      五、雙眼視覺的神經解剖和視覺神經生理
      六、雙眼視覺的發育
     第二節 正常眼運動機制
      一、掃視運動
      二、跟隨運動
      三、前庭-眼反射
      四、視動眼震
      五、注視性眼運動
      六、眼運動與閱讀
    第二章 非斜視性雙眼視異常
     第一節 雙眼視覺異常的基本概念
      一、調節需求和輻輳需求
      二、調節和輻輳
      三、隱斜
      四、調節與輻輳的關系
      五、雙眼視覺異常的基本類型
     第二節 不等像
      一、視網膜像
      二、放大效果
      三、不等像的測量
      四、透鏡和棱鏡的適應
    第三章 雙眼視的測量
     第一節 雙眼視的基本測量方法
      一、分離性隱斜的檢測
      二、正負融像聚散的直接檢測
      三、正負融像性聚散的間接檢測
      四、感覺融像的檢測
      五、調節異常的檢測
      六、眼運動的檢測
     第二節 雙眼視的特殊測量方法
      一、注視視差的檢測
      二、相聯性隱斜的檢測
      三、注視視差曲線的確定及應用
    第四章 雙眼視異常臨床分析方法
     第一節 圖形分析法
      一、圖表的結構
      二、測量結果的繪制
      三、雙眼視異常的圖形分析
      四、調節滯后和近感知輻輳的圖形表現
      五、sheard準則和percival準則的圖形表達
     第二節 標準值分組分析法
      一、morgan分析法
      二、視光學擴展項目分析法
     第三節 綜合分析法
    第五章 非斜視性雙眼視異常的臨床分析
     第一節 非老視性調節障礙
      一、調節功能的測量
      二、調節異常診斷及其處理原則
      三、實例分析
     第二節 聚散系統障礙
      一、聚散功能的檢測
      二、聚散障礙類型及其處理原則
      三、實例分析
     第三節 老視
      一、老視者的調節幅度
      二、驗配老視附加鏡的規則和測量
      三、老視者的雙眼單視清晰區
      四、老視者的外隱斜
      五、實例分析
     第四節 垂直位雙眼平衡失調
      一、垂直位雙眼平衡的測量方法
      二、處理方法
    第六章 非斜視性雙眼視異常的處理
     第一節 屈光矯正
      一、屈光不正量大小所產生的影響
      二、睫狀肌麻痹驗光
     第二節 正或負球性附加鏡
     第三節 棱鏡
      一、水平緩解棱鏡
      二、垂直緩解棱鏡
      三、棱鏡作為視覺訓練的起始
     第四節 視覺訓練
      一、調節功能訓練基本方法
      二、融像功能訓練
    第七章 斜視檢查和診斷
     第一節 眼球運動與雙眼視覺
      一、 眼球轉動軸和雙眼視覺
      二、 雙眼運動與雙眼視覺
      三、眼球運動的神經支配和中樞系統
      四、眼球運動檢查與雙眼視覺
     第二節 斜視與雙眼視覺
      一、斜視分類與雙眼視覺
      二、斜視檢查與雙眼視覺
      三、特殊性檢查
     第三節 斜視診斷原則與雙眼視覺
      一、共同性斜視診斷原則
      二、非共同性斜視診斷原則
      三、末梢神經性眼球運動障礙
      四、特殊類型斜視診斷原則
    第八章 弱視檢查和診斷
     第一節 弱視發病機制與雙眼視覺
      一、弱視概念
      二、弱視發病機制
     第二節 雙眼視覺與弱視分類
     第三節 雙眼視覺與弱視診斷
    第九章 斜視、弱視引起的雙眼視覺異常及其處理
     第一節 斜視、弱視引起的雙眼視覺異常
      一、視覺抑制
      二、異常的視網膜對應關系
      三、注視異常
      四、三級視功能異常
     第二節 斜視的非手術治療原則
      一、斜視的光學矯正
      二、斜視的三棱鏡矯正方法
      三、藥物治療
      四、視能矯正治療法
     第三節 斜視的手術治療原則
     第四節 弱視的治療
    第十章 非共同性斜視引起的雙眼視覺異常及其臨床處理
     第一節 復視及其臨床檢查
      一、復視發生原理
      二、復視的分類
      三、復視檢查及臨床診斷
     第二節 代償頭位及其臨床檢查
      一、頭位異常的分類
      二、眼源性代償頭位
      三、代償頭位的臨床表現
     第三節 非共同性斜視雙眼視覺異常的臨床處理
    眼科常用的處理方法
    第十一章 先天性眼球震顫
     第一節 先天性眼球震顫的分類
      一、根據眼球震顫的節律性分類
      二、根據眼球震顫方向分類
      三、根據眼球震顫的臨床表現分類
      四、根據注視能力分類
     第二節 先天性眼球震顫的診斷
      一、顯性先天性眼球震顫
      二、先天性隱性及顯性-隱性眼球震顫
     第三節 眼球震顫的電生理檢查
     第四節 先天性眼球震顫的治療
      一、眼外肌手術治療
      二、屈光及暗色鏡片治療
      三、三棱鏡治療
      四、眼球震顫患者的弱視治療
    附錄 中英文索引
  • If It’s Eye Care Technology, This Must Be Orange County


  • 統計分析在醫學科題中的應用(研究生)

  • 【作 者】:蔣知儉 主編
  • 【叢編項】:
  • 【裝幀項】:平裝 16開 / 420
  • 【出版項】:人民衛生出版社 / 2008-3-1
  • 【ISBN號】:9787117095891 / 711709589X
  • 【原書定價】:¥52.00 有1家書店打折銷售 稀缺/絕版書代復印
  • 【主題詞】:醫學-其他
  • 【圖書簡介】
       本教材以全新的構想、全新的理念,有別于目前國內外現行的醫學統計學教材,不求全、只求實,不求系統、只求應用,一切從我國學位研究生的實際情況出發, 著重能力的培養。主要有以下特色:1.定位本教材培養對象起點為已獲得醫學學士或相當水平的臨床、基礎、預防醫學、藥學、護理等專業的碩、博士生及相當的 醫藥工作者。2.內容以統計分析在醫學課題中的應用為主旋律,從解決醫藥衛生常見問題的應用角度撰寫,重點為解決學員完成課題及將來成就事業奠定堅實的基 礎;內容包括方法篇、應用篇兩部分。方法篇:鞏固、理順、精練本科已學醫學統計學知識,承上啟下,要求概念清楚、方法準確、重在應用,占全書1/5;應用 篇:是本教材核心,側重能力的培養,為學員掌握統計分析的技能,從醫藥衛生常見的問題切入,緊緊圍繞醫學課題展開,使之成為學員創新、探索、挖掘、開發新 知識領域提供工具和技能;成為碩士學位研究生完成課題的導航武器,占全書4/5。 3.創新以全新的設計、全新的思路、緊扣醫學常見課題,充實、更新本領 域中新技術、新理論,引導學員開發與創新。 4.求精提煉本專業之精華,達到概念清、方法精、學會用。列舉醫藥衛生經典實例,舉一反三,學以致用,側重科研思維、科研方法的能力培養,更多地為學員提 供捕捉知識,挖掘知識的技能。 5.求深深入總結本專業知識的縱橫關系,開發醫藥衛生專業領域的全面應用,提供多學科潛能素質的培養,給學員以更多、更深、更新的研究結果。 6.務實本書以不唯上、不唯書、只唯實的精神,以學員為本,一切從實際出發,易學、易懂、易用,為學員提供統計分析方法的技能與提出問題、分析問題、解決 問題的能力。
  • 【本書目錄】
    緒論
    一、意義與內容
    二、統計分析方法概述
    三、統計分析方法的評價
    第一篇 方法篇
     第一章 常用醫學課題統計設計
      第一節 統計學設計的意義
      第二節 實驗設計的基本要素
       一、受試對象
       二、處理因素
       三、實驗效應
      第三節 誤差控制
       一、誤差的種類
       二、誤差的控制
      第四節 常用設計方案
       一、完全隨機設計
       二、配對設計
       三、交叉設計
       四、隨機區組設計
       五、析因設計
      第五節 樣本量的估計
       一、估計樣本量的先決條件
       二、實驗設計估計樣本量的方法
       三、調查設計估計樣本量的方法
     第二章 統計描述方法
      第一節 計量資料的統計描述方法
       一、計量資料的頻數分布表與分布圖
       二、頻數分布表(圖)的用途
       三、集中趨勢的統計描述方法
       四、離散趨勢的統計描述方法
       五、分布形態的統計描述
       六、正態分布
      第二節 計數資料的統計描述方法
       一、計數資料的頻數分布表與分布圖
       二、常用的相對數指標
       三、動態數列
       四、醫學人口統計指標
       五、疾病統計指標
      第三節 統計表與統計圖
       一、統計表
       二、統計圖
     第三章 基本統計推斷方法
      第一節 總體參數的估計
       一、參數估計的概念
       二、參數估計的種類
       三、參數估計的方法
      第二節 定量資料的假設檢驗
       一、假設檢驗的概念
       二、假設檢驗的步驟
       三、假設檢驗常用的方法
       四、假設檢驗應注意的問題
      第三節 方差分析
       一、方差分析的基本思想
       二、方差分析的步驟
       三、方差分析常用的方法
      第四節 定性資料的假設檢驗
       一、樣本率與總體率的比較
       二、兩個樣本率的比較
       三、X2檢驗
      第五節 非參數檢驗
       一、秩和檢驗的概念
       二、秩和檢驗的基本步驟
       三、秩和檢驗的常用方法
       附:Ridit分析
      第六節 直線相關與回歸
       一、直線相關
       ……
    第二篇 應用篇
  • 2008年5月14日 星期三

    成功的引擎——日本的创新与技术管理

    Recovering from Success: Innovation And Technology Management in Japan

    Recovering from Success: Innovation And Technology Management in Japan
    D. Hugh Whittaker (編集), Robert E. Cole (編集) Oxford Univ Pr (Txt) (2006/10/12)

    成功的引擎——日本的创新与技术管理

    2008年5月12日 星期一

    日科技連出版社『クオリティマネジメント』誌2008年5月号

    2008年5月号の目次

    『クオリティマネジメント』誌

    広告募集中!

    媒体資料はこちらから



    定価 『クオリティマネジメント』誌
    1,020円(本体971円)
    年間購読料11,040円(本体10,514円)
    申込先
    日科技連出版社営業部
    電話:(03)5379-1238
    FAX:(03)3356-3419
    ご購入はこちら


    2008年5月号の目次

    トップの視点

    ユニオンツール(株) 代表取締役社長 片山 貴雄

    特集 国際分業化時代におけるものづくり
    グローバル化と比較優位-アーキテクチャと組織能力の観点から
    東京大学大学院 経済学研究科 教授 藤本 隆宏
    生産の国際競争力強化に向けたトヨタの取組み
    トヨタ自動車(株) グローバル生産企画部 部長 橋本 克司
    国や地域に密着した生活研究と文化・習慣・風土に配慮したものづくりを
    松下電器産業(株) 松下ホームアプライアンス社 クリーナービジネスユニット
    技術グループ 掃除機設計チーム チームリーダー 近藤 也寸志
    神戸製鋼所における生産拠点の海外展開
    (株)神戸製鋼所 技術開発本部 開発企画部 担当部長 金丸 盛宣
    ソフトウェア開発における国際分業
    日本電気(株) ソフトウェア事業推進ユニット 海外ソフトウェア開発推進本部
    統括マネージャー 中尾 宏幸
    日本電気(株) ソフトウェア事業推進ユニット 海外ソフトウェア開発推進本部
    グループマネージャー 三瓶 敦史
    日本電気(株) ソフトウェア事業推進ユニット 海外ソフトウェア開発推進本部
    主任 高橋 秀和
    追悼
    ジュラン博士 ジュラン博士のご逝去を悼む
    東京理科大学 名誉教授 狩野 紀昭
    ジュラン博士の日本の品質革新へのご貢献を振り返る
    東京理科大学 名誉教授 狩野 紀昭
    連載 創造的TQM-品質革新賞受賞組織の活動-
    第2回QFD活用による品質を基軸とした経営
    日産車体(株) 車両要素開発部 主管 前川 久志
    連載 品質保証の統計的手法
    第2回QCストーリーと推定・検定
    電気通信大学 システム工学科 准教授 椿 美智子
    連載 安心・安全を確保する
    第5回家電製品業界の取組み-家電製品協会ガイドラインから見えるもの-
    JAB/ISO 9001公開討論会 ルポ/IPCだより-ISO文殊の知恵/
    マネジメントシステム審査登録リスト/バックナンバーのご紹介/編集部だより/次号予告

    2008年5月9日 星期五

    Marionette Theatre in Quanzhou

    Marionette Theatre in Quanzhou
    Robin Ruizendaal

    Books
    Available
    Publication year: 2006



    Series:Sinica Leidensia, 73
    ISBN-13 (i)The ISBN (International Standard Book Number) has been changed from 10 to 13 digits on 1 January 2007:978 90 04 15104 8
    ISBN-10:90 04 15104 4

    Cover:Hardback
    Number of pages:x, 470 pp., 96 illus.
    Google Book Search:View this book at Google Book Search

    List price:€ 126.00 / US$ 188.00

    Readership
    About the author(s)

    From the 1990's to 2003 the author followed four marionette theatre companies in the Quanzhou area. Based on this unique fieldwork the author describes both the theatrical and social context of the marionette theatre. He shows it as a complex entity in which elements of religion, ritual, language, history and social structure all come together. The study includes an analysis of the companies' organization, libretti, music and puppets, as well as of the social and religous context of the performances and their ritual aspects. Its important insights into the functioning of a traditional form of theatre in the economically advanced region of southern Fujian provide a fascinating window on contemporary China.


    Front Cover

    Published 2006
    Brill

    羅斌 Dr. Robin Ruizendaal


    荷蘭萊登大學漢學博士
    Ph.D. Sinology, Leiden University, the Netherlands
    林柳新紀念偶戲博物館館長
    Director of Lin Liu-Hsin Puppet Theater Museum
    台原偶戲團藝術總監
    Artist Director of Taiyuan Puppet Theater

    學歷 Academic background

    1999 年 荷蘭萊登大學漢學博士 Ph.D. Sinology, Leiden University, the Netherlands
    1995 年 中央圖書館漢學研究中心訪問學者 Visiting scholar National Library, Taipei, Taiwan
    1994 年 牛津大學Merton College訪問學者 Visiting scholar, Merton college, Oxford University
    1992 / 3 年 廈門大學中文系訪問學者 Visiting scholar, Xiamen University
    1991 年 國立台灣大學中文系訪問學者 Visiting scholar, Taiwan National University
    1987 年 荷蘭萊登大學漢學碩士 M.A. Sinology, Leiden University
    1986 年 廈門大學中文系留學生 Chinese study, Xiamen University

    經歷 Professional experience (past three years)

    2000 年至現在 From 2000 to the present
    ●(台原藝術文化基金會)大稻埕偶戲館館長與台原偶戲團團長
    Director of the TTT Puppet Centre in Taipei and director of the Taiyuan Puppet Theatre Company
    ●大稻埕偶戲館劇作家及導演(包括「馬克波羅」、「廖添丁」、「老鼠娶新娘」、「秋葉梧桐雨等等」)Author and director of plays
    ●2003 年元月故宮博物院「福爾摩沙:17 世紀的台灣、荷蘭與東亞」策展人
    Curator of the exhibition “Formosa” at the Palace Museum in Taipei

    2001 年
    ●香港光華新聞中心「世界偶戲展」策展人
    Curator of the exhibition 「A World of Puppets」 at the Kwuanghua Information Centre in Hong Kong
    ●宜蘭童玩節「史艷文」策展人
    Curator of the exhibition「Shi Yanwen Puppet Theatre」in Yilan, Taiwan
    ●大稻埕偶戲館「線緣」策展人
    Curator of the marionette theatre exhibition 「Strings Attached」, Taipei, Taiwan
    ●中華民俗藝術文化基金會「台灣民俗技藝之美」英文版編輯
    Editor of the book 「Island in the Stream」on Taiwanese folk art
    ●大稻埕偶戲館創辦及展示規劃人
    Founder of the TTT Pupppet Centre

    1999 / 00 年
    ●台灣荷蘭文化節總監
    Director of the Taiwan Holland Festival
    ●台北市政府偶戲博物館籌備小組主任
    Director of the Taipei Puppet Theatre Museum Planning Committee
    ●荷蘭「福爾摩沙-台灣」偶戲展策展人
    Curator of the puppet theatre exhibition 「Formosa-Taiwan」in Hoorn, the Netherlands

    1982 - 1987
    ●荷蘭 Micro Imperium Theater 導演(Buechner, Ibsen 等劇作家戲劇導演)

    1987
    ●廈門大學音樂劇「小王」編劇兼導演

    部分學術出版 Selection of academic publications

    1994
    Performance as a Ritual; The Performance Practice of the Marionette Theatre in Southern Taiwan (儀式性的演出:台灣南部傀儡戲表演), Aijmer & Boholm (Eds.), Images and Enactments; Possible Worlds in Dramatic Performances, Gothenburg, IASSA, 1994, 135-178.

    1995a
    Quanzhou Marionette Theatre: A Fieldwork Report (1986-1995) (泉州傀儡戲田野調查報告), China Information X/I (1995), 1-18.

    1995b
    泉州傀儡(提線木偶)地方社會發展的窗口 (Quanzhou marionette theatre: a window on local society), Yishu jiaoyu (1995), 3-17.

    1996a
    Marionette Theatre in Quanzhou: Tradition and Transformation (泉州傀儡戲:傳統與變化), Papers from the International Symposium on East Asian Folklore and Performing Arts, Tokyo, Waseda University, 1996, 229-236.

    1996b
    Vietnam 8.Theatre (i) Opera; (ii) Water Puppets (越南水傀儡)
    Cambodia VI. Theatre “Puppets” (柬埔寨偶戲)
    Grove Dictionary of Art, Macmillan, London, New York, 1996

    1997
    East Meets East: Relations Between Asian Puppet Theatre(東方相見東方:亞洲偶戲關係)(in Japanese / 日文), Art and Nature, 55 (special issue on Asian Puppet Theatre), Tokyo, 1997, 4-12

    1999a
    Ritual Text and Performance in the Marionette Theatre of Southern Fujian and Taiwan (福建南部與台灣傀儡戲儀式劇本與表演), De Meyer & Engelfriet (Eds.) Linked Faiths; Essays on Chinese Religions & Traditional Culture in Honour of Kristofer Schipper, Leiden, Brill, 1999, 336-360.

    1999b
    論二十世紀亞洲偶戲從地方娛樂到民族象徵的發展 (Mass Media and Asian Puppet Theatre in the 20th century), International Puppet Theatre Conference Proceedings, Taipei, Council for Cultural Planning and Development, 1999, 296-304.

    2001
    印度面具 (Indian Masks), Zhou Jinhong Ed. Mianju yishu, Miaoli, Council for Cultural Planning and Development, 2001, 95-106.

    Plays and other writings 戲劇劇本與其他創作

    1999
    吟子的偶戲朋友,藝術教育館.
    The Puppet Friends of Yin-tzu (Children’s book)

    2000
    Formosa: 一座島嶼的故事,(童書)台原出版社.
    “Formosa: a short story of an island” (Children’s book)
    (2003 年再版)

    2001
    Script traditional Taiwanese puppet show “Marco Polo”
    傳統布袋戲「馬克波羅」編劇及導演

    2002
    Script “Liao Tianding” puppet show
    傳統布袋戲「廖添丁」編劇及導演

    2003
    Script “Autumn Rain” marionette show
    舞台劇「秋夜梧桐雨」編劇(與伍姍姍)及導演

    2004
    Script “Matchstick Girl”
    皮影戲「賣火柴的小女孩」編劇及導演
    Script “Liao Tianding 2”
    傳統布袋戲「廖添丁 II」編劇及導演

    2005
    「台灣追鄉曲」巡迴展策展人
    人偶劇 「你是我媽媽」導演
    「林柳新紀念偶戲博物館」展覽【亭仔腳下看布袋戲】、【衣錦返鄉-官的特展】
    【金光閃閃-金光布袋戲特展】、【線緣】、【高棉之影】之策展人

    2006
    林柳新紀念偶戲博物館�展覽「婀娜多姿話胭脂」策展人
    林柳新紀念偶戲博物館�展覽「水傀儡」策展人
    台原音樂意象劇場「電梯裡的小孩」藝術總監

    2007
    高雄現偶戲娃娃節�「偶藝地球村」策展人
    台原偶戲團「小豬當國王」藝術總監
    台原音樂意象劇場「絲戀」藝術總監
    台原音樂意象劇場「重別」劇本創作







    2008年5月7日 星期三

    《达赖十問》

    文化社会 | 2008.05.05

    《向达赖所提的10个问题》

    拉萨骚乱、圣火传递、西藏与北京代表谈判等一系列牵动国际视线的大事又将达赖喇嘛推到了世界前台的聚光灯下。长期以来,这位被西方媒体称为“和平天使”、 “政治明星”的宗教领袖受到的旗鼓相当的爱戴和攻击、赞美和非议使其承受了生命难以承受的误会。一位名为瑞克·雷(Rick Ray)的美国电影人在其精神力量的感召之下,决定不计报酬地为好莱坞制片商拍摄一部穿越印度的风光片,以此换取一次采访达赖的机会。

    电影拍完了,制片商早将承诺忘到了九霄云外。无可奈何的雷只好另谋出路。听取同他一起横穿印度的司机的建议,雷给达赖写了一封信。"先生, "司机告诉他说,"请不要把信扔进邮筒,要用电子邮件的方式。"因为印度的邮政太不靠谱。可是,日理万机的达赖哪里会有上网查信的工夫?事实证明,雷有些 多虑了。邮件发出几天之后,来自加利福尼亚的独立电影导演就收到了达赖的正面答复。采访将在达兰萨拉进行,可以提10个问题,时间大约限定在45分钟左 右。

    背景

     Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 现 在,雷还有三个月的准备时间。他利用这段空档研究佛学教义,走访藏传寺庙,并收集了一批有关西藏历史的电影胶片。这段精心剪辑的背景资料构成了纪录片《向 达赖所提的10个问题》的第一部分,带领观众完成了一次追溯佛教起源的历史之旅。因此,"向达赖提问"的影片内涵远远超过了"所提的10个问题",在形式 上有些类似于心灵探索、公路片、名人传记、采访摘录的混合体,并揉进青年达赖的生平传奇,间或可以听到音乐人Peter Kater谱写的大提琴配乐,同"世界屋脊"的山间云朵一般时隐时现。

    访谈

    随后,影片进入了导演与达赖的访谈部分,雷的提问包括:为什么穷人要比富人显得快乐?中东还有和平希望吗?我们是不是应该跟中国政府较劲?互联网给 人们带来的自由是不是一件好事儿?还会选下一位达赖灵童吗?以及,当汉藏冲突达到了一个临界点,是否存在着放弃和平路线的可能性?……

    据雷本人的表述,达赖先前并未提出预览问题的要求,是一位非常理想的谈话伙伴,"他全心投入到采访中来,仔细聆听你的提问,再尽可能详实地给出答案。"

    花絮

     Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 采访开始之前,雷的麦克风突然出了点儿故障。"没关系,让我来修理它。"达赖一副胸有成竹的样子。

    在长达70分钟的摄制过程中,达赖同工作小组的每一位成员讲话,与摄影师、灯光师握手、拥抱,这些花絮其实也是很有观看价值的影片的一部分,但鉴于制作常规,不得不忍痛裁掉。

    此外,美国人拍的电影终需迎合美国人的口味。一个极具代表性的例子是:当雷问道,如何设想生命的终结?达赖的回答是,宁愿像一只受伤的野兽一样孤独 地死去。这句出人意料的苦涩陈词太不符合笑口常开的"智慧之海"给人留下的一贯印象。仿佛受到了惊吓,镜头突然避重就轻地由达赖面部特写遁入西藏高原景象 --令人不禁想起一位印度僧侣说过的话:"西方人善于提聪明的问题,但他们真的愿意倾听吗?"

    从5月8日开始,《向达赖所提的10个问题》将在德国影院全面上映。

    亚思明

    Share this article

    Guide des jolies femmes de Paris(巴黎美人指南)

    Guide des jolies femmes de Paris(パリ美人ガイド
    色情 v 情色

    「パリ美人ガイド」、地域別に女性の特色を解説 写真4枚 国際ニュース ...



    【5月6日 AFP】フランス外相のスピーチライターを務める男性が、文学調だが好色と言えるガイドブック「パリ美人ガイド」を出版した。紳士然とした「公正さ」を鼻で笑う内容だ。

    「それぞれの地域にそれぞれの美食があるように、パリ(Paris)のカルチエ(区画)にはそれぞれの女性の特色がある」と書くのは、ベルナール・クシュネル(Bernard Kouchner)外相の最近の著作を共著したPierre-Louis Colin氏(34)。

    ■区画ごとに観賞スポットを紹介

     Colin氏は、先月発売された自著の中で、「メニルモンタン(Menilmontant)では、マドレーヌ(Madeleine)地区で見られるような崇高な脚線美を見ることはできないが、ブラジャーで寄せられた輝くばかりの胸元に、慎みのない谷間を見いだすことができるのだ」と記している。

     パリは世界で最も訪問者の多い都市だが、人々はモナリザ(Mona Lisa)やエッフェル塔(Eiffel Tower)だけでなく、素晴らしい女性たちを眺めるために訪れるのだと、AFPの取材に対して、コリン氏は話した。

     パリの人々の魅力を伝えるガイドブックがなかったから、自ら書くことに決めたという同氏。その結果生まれたのが、情報が詰め込まれたガイドブックという よりは、文学エッセーと呼ぶのがふさわしい、190ページの「Guide des jolies femmes de Paris(パリ美人ガイド)」だ。

     Colin氏は、さまざまなパリジェンヌたちの例を、目の肥えた人々がゆっくり眺めることができるよう、バーやスーパーマーケット、公園、美術館、あるいは地下鉄の車両の中など、区画ごとの観賞スポットを、最も適した時間帯とともに紹介している。

     たとえば、「たいていはGストリング下着を着用し、ほぼノーブラ」と特徴付けられる「はやり物に敏感な若い女性」は、カフェや高級食材店の並ぶ歩行者地区のモントルグイユ(Montorgueil)で見かけることができる。ちなみに、著者はモンドリグイユを「パリのエロチックな放射エネルギーの発生地」と呼び、称えている。

    ■「美女観賞は仏文化の重要な一部」

     だが、Colin氏は、著作には女性をナンパする方法も、パリに無数に存在する不道徳な館の住所も書いてないと指摘している。

    「観賞することは、遭遇することではない。この点にこそ、『観賞する人』が現代の消費社会に持つ深いオリジナリティが疑いようもなく横たわっている。観賞する人の目的は所有することではないのだ」と、Colin氏は序文に記している。

     Colin氏は、「真に芸術を愛する人々は、美術館を訪問しても、ガイドブックやポストカードをたくさん買い込まなければならないといった義務感にとらわれることがないものだ。観賞する人はそれに似ている」と述べている。

     Colin氏はまた、アングロサクソン的な紳士然とした「公正さ」を一蹴(いっしゅう)し、美しい女性を観賞する自由はフランス文化の重要な一部だと大胆に述べている。(c)AFP/Rory Mulholland

    花都美女地圖 教你看個夠

    法國外交部長的文膽撰寫了一本「法國美女指南」,對於所謂的政治正確不屑一顧,其特色是充滿文學氣息,卻也顯得好色,甚至可能有些邪淫。

    現年三十四歲、身材短小精幹的外交部新聞公關人員柯林(Pierre-Louis Colin)在書中寫道:「就跟每個區都有獨特的美食一樣,每個區的女性都有特點。」柯林也是法國外長庫希納最新著作的共同作者。

    柯林這本新書上個月才發行,他在書中說:「你在瑪德蓮區看見的美腿,在梅尼蒙頓區可看不到。但你確實可以發現完美無暇的乳溝,通常沒有胸罩襯托的亮麗胸部。」

    柯林說,巴黎是遊客最多的城市,大家來這裡看蒙娜麗莎和艾菲爾鐵塔,也來看美女。

    柯林找不到有關巴黎美女的指南,所以他決定自己出版一本。這本一百九十頁的「巴黎美女指南」,與其說是描述實際狀況的指南,不如說是一本散文著作。柯林指出巴黎每個區的最佳觀察站,例如酒吧、超市、公園、博物館與地鐵,也指出每天哪個時段可以欣賞到哪一類美女。

    他說,蒙特古街(Mon-torgueil)是「情色光芒的中心」,「時髦辣妹最多,特點是丁字褲及幾乎不見蹤影的胸罩」。奢華的精品店與咖啡雅座,是中產階級美女的自然棲息地,更是作者口中「自所有文學肇始以來一切幻想之母」。

    要觀察四十歲至六十歲的「美熟女」,最好的地點就是內衣店,這些婦女的存在「證明了激切狂野的性生活,而在這趟迂迴的性愛之旅中,她們始終拒絕繳械」。

    柯林認為他的作品主要任務之一是反制古板的美國氛圍。他畢業自巴黎名校「高等師範學院」,著名校友包括哲學家沙特。

    舉例來說,柯林對於無法繼續在中學外面閒晃深感遺憾,因為「當前的立法與某種形式的集體心理疾病,創造出一種懷疑的氣氛,認為每個欣賞少女的人都會性侵兒童。」

    柯林也提供許多訣竅,像是當女性爬螺旋式階梯時,要站在什麼位置才能取得「無懈可擊的景觀」。但柯林堅持,一切行為仍必須儘可能維持得體。

    有人認為他的作品應該改名為「偷窺狂的巴黎美女指南」,柯林予以駁斥,但他坦承,一開始這本書的構想讓他的女友覺得不舒服,但後來她也喜歡上它。

    他說,書中並沒有提到如何勾引女性,也沒有提供任何巴黎聲色場所的地點。

    Berlin Bookstore Turns Customers into Fairy Tale Heroes

    Literature | 29.04.2008

    Berlin Bookstore Turns Customers into Fairy Tale Heroes

    Ever dream of becoming a fairy tale princess or knight in shining armor? A Berlin bookstore can make your dreams a reality -- albeit in extremely limited printing runs.

    "Once upon a time, when the stars had names and the moon spent the boring days thinking how nice it would be to speak to it with the names of the night, a ship reached the Arabian shore ..."

    The beginning of the story is printed on a plaque outside, but to find out how it ends, passers-by have to step inside Michael Waeser's store in Berlin's Prenzlauer Berg neighborhood.

    Once inside, visitors can select from a collection of especially prepared stories, including the one on the front door, and -- abracadabra! -- their names appear throughout the book in place of the main character.

    To help get in their new role, the customers-turned-heroes can try on hats or wigs and look in the mirror to see if the character is a fit.

    Waeser first set up shop in November of last year, but had been tossing around the business idea for years after walking by a store stocking odds and ends.

    John Wayne as a cowboyBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Wild West or big city?

    "I stood in front of it and thought, I'd love to go in and buy a story for my niece -- where she's the main character," said Waeser, who is an author himself.

    From Westerns to mysteries

    In addition to the ready-made stories, it's also possible to order an exclusive, personalized tale. Waeser said he enjoys the broad spectrum of imaginative ideas that have been generated.

    "From Grimm fairy tales to excessive Arab style to succinct crime stories -- I really like trying my hand at all types of story telling," he said.

    Before the writing can begin, important decisions have to be made. Should the adventure take place in the Wild West with lots of guns and good-looking cowboys? Or should the big city detective get a mysterious case to solve?

    On the questionnaire customers fill out, Waeser asks what the personalized story should not include. "No cheap hotels, no sex," is one of the boxes that can be checked, for example.

    A child listens with headphonesBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Personalized books-on-tape are available too

    "I read through the specifications, play around with them a bit in my head, and at some point an idea emerges," said Waeser.

    Personal book-on-tape

    On average, the personalized tales fill between 10 and 40 pages and are completed within a week. They cost 169 euros ($264) and can be recorded as a book-on-tape for an extra 200 euros.

    Before placing an order, visitors to the shop can get a taste of what's on offer by listening to sample books-on-tape in the foyer.

    Isabelle Mueller (kjb)

    2008年5月5日 星期一

    青木正儿 著 琴棋书画

    青木正儿《中华名物考》〔外一种〕


    书名:琴棋书画
    上架日期:2008-03-14
    印次:1-1
    丛书名:日本中国学文萃
    作者:青木正儿 著 卢燕平 译注
    书号:978-7-101-05992-2
    开本:32开
    装帧:平装
    版式:简体横排
    定价:18.00元
    作者简介:青木正儿(1887—1964),日本著名汉学家。20世纪30年代被中国学术界誉为“日本新起的汉学家中有数的人物”,后更被誉为“日本研究中国曲学的泰斗”。
    该书简介:《琴棋书画》是青木正儿的一部文化随笔集,主要讲述中国文人生活及其趣味之谈,也收入了几篇回忆师友的文章。


    琴棋書畫》( 春秋社,1958/1964年增補)

    故實



    目錄
    新春隨想 讀書和著書--代為序


    琴棋书画
    文房趣味
    中華文人的生活
    宋人趣味生活之二典型
    惠山竹茶爐佳話
    聯句淺說
    白樂天的朝酒詩
    詩酒雅集
    人日草堂詩
    水繪園的修禊
    宮僚雅集杯
    張維屏之《花甲間談》
    顏真卿的書法
    虛字考
    書抄
    夜來香
    祗園豆腐
    給“三都”挑刺兒的狂詩
    味三題
    五味之說
    苦菌頌
    中國的鰻魚菜
    竹窗夢
    京都帝國大學教官時代的露伴先生
    蝸牛庵夜譚和蝸牛庵聯話
    狩野君山先生、元曲和我
    鐵齋翁和考社
    有關過听花先生的回憶
    《支那學》發刊和我
    白川集序——書于亡友傅芸子之著
    鄉愁
    赤女關
    河豚和松蘑
    泡雪和龜甲煎餅
    “九年母”
    奇兵隊的戰利品
    奇兵隊的讀書欲
    白敘片影
    語師
    我的少年時代
    我珍愛的藏書
    路苔
    鼓東隱所
    解題(高橋忠彥)

    譯後記

    2008年5月3日 星期六

    生死疲勞 [莫言]LIFE AND DEATH ARE WEARING ME OUT

    這是一部關於鄉土中國當代史的大敘述。
    也是一部豪情壯闊、充滿自由自在性格的小說。

      《生死疲勞》敘述了1950年到2000年中國農村50年的歷史,圍繞土地這個沉重的話題,莫言闡釋了農民與土地的種種關係,並透過生死輪迴的藝術圖像,展示了新中國成立以來中國農民的生活和他們頑強、樂觀、堅韌的精神。
      ──在這個大敘述裡,有家族的仇恨,有情欲的糾葛,有驚人的貧困和匱乏帶來的焦慮,有狂熱的理想國追求的幻滅和失落,有新的市場化之下鄉土中國的新希望、困擾和挑戰……

     這是一部向中國古典小說和民間?事致敬的大書。在這次的「認祖歸宗」儀式中,小說將六道輪迴這一東方想像力隱沒在全書的字裡行間,寫出了中國農民對生命無比執著的頌歌和悲歌。

     在莫言對偉大古典小說呼應的那一刻,聆聽到了「章回體」那最親切熟悉的聲音;莫言承受著生死疲勞的磨礪以及冤纏孽結,將中國人百感交集、龐雜喧嘩的苦難經驗化為純美準確的詩篇,莊嚴而寧靜,祥和而自然。

    《生死疲勞》:「動物之眼」述50年鄉村史
    ● 小說的敘述者,是土地改革時被槍斃的一個地主,他認為自己雖有財富,並無罪惡,因此在陰間裡他為自己喊冤。在小說中他不斷地經歷著六道輪回,一世為人、一 世為馬、一世為牛、一世為驢……每次轉世為不同的動物,都未離開他的家族,離開這塊土地。小說正是通過他的眼睛,準確說,是各種動物的眼睛來觀察和體味農 村的變革。

    莫言解讀:鄉村人物的個性價值
    ■寫作速度創紀錄。莫言隻用43天寫就長達55萬字的《生死疲勞》。從八月起,最多一天寫作1.65萬字,平均一天隻睡三小時,突破了他自己寫作速度的最高紀錄,自稱睡覺時也有一半的腦細胞在工作,有的夢也變成現實。

    ●書名來自佛經。《生死疲勞》來自佛經中的一句:「生死疲勞由貪欲起,少欲無為,身心自在。」莫言說,佛教認為人生最高境界是成佛,隻有成佛才能擺脫令人痛苦的六道輪回,而人因有貪欲則很難與命運抗爭。

    ■ 以人物的命運作突破口。「沒有土地,農民像浮萍一樣飄搖。」莫言稱,20世紀80年代之後,農民不再是單純的土地使用者,而是土地的經營者。如今,「當年 眷戀土地的農民紛紛逃離土地。」莫言說,農民飽經患難的歷史,實際上反映了一種螺旋上升的歷史規律。但他坦言,寫作的時候,他並未按照這一規律寫作,而是 以人物的命運作為突破口。

    ●探索鄉村人物的個性價值。莫言認為,歷史大致由兩種人物擔當,一種人是有價值的個性,而另一種人是無價值的個性。《生死疲勞》中就有這樣的兩個主人公。“這是個性相似的兩個人走了不同的方向,互為正負,合起來是一個人,像一枚硬幣的兩面。

    作者簡介

    莫言,山東高密人,一九五五年二月生。

       少時在鄉中小學讀書,十歲時輟學務農,後應徵入伍。曾就讀於解放軍藝術學院和北京師範大學,獲文學碩士學位。一九九七年脫離軍界到地方報社工作。著有 《紅高梁家族》、《酒國》、《豐乳肥臀》、《紅耳朵》、《食草家族》、《檀香刑》及散文集《會唱歌的牆》、《小說在寫我》等。

    Born Again


    Published: May 4, 2008

    In the summer of 1976, as Chairman Mao lay on his deathbed in Beijing, the pigs at the Ximen Village Production Brigade Apricot Garden Pig Farm in Gaomi County, Shandong Province, also began to die. The first batch of five were found with “their skin dotted with purple splotches the size of bronze coins, their eyes open, as if they’d died with unresolved grievances.” The commune vet declared they had succumbed to “what we call the Red Death” and ordered them to be cremated and buried immediately. But it had been raining for weeks and the ground was too waterlogged. Dousing the carcasses with kerosene and trying to set them alight simply filled the farm with vile-smelling smoke. Soon 800 more pigs were infected. A fresh team of vets arrived by motorboat with more sophisticated medicines, but their ministrations were of little help. Dead pigs were piled up throughout the farm, their bloated forms expanding and exploding in the heat.

    Skip to next paragraph
    Yuko Shimizu

    LIFE AND DEATH ARE WEARING ME OUT

    By Mo Yan.

    Translated by Howard Goldblatt.

    540 pp. Arcade Publishing. $29.95.

    Related

    Up Front (May 4, 2008)

    Unable to bury the corpses, the farmers “had no choice but to wait until the veterinarians left and, in the fading light of dusk, load the carcasses onto a flatbed wagon and haul them down to the river, where they were tossed into the water to float downstream — out of sight and out of mind.” The farm was in ruins, proof that its “glorious days” were “now a thing of the past.” The foundations of the hog houses collapsed, and raging flood waters toppled the utility poles, cutting the commune off from the wider world. Thus it was only through the village’s single transistor radio that these farmers learned Mao had died. “How could Chairman Mao be dead? Doesn’t everyone say that he could live at least 158 years?”


    set piece 或 setpiece 或 set-piece

    Mo Yan’s powerful new novel, “Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out,” contains many such vivid set pieces. His canvas covers almost the entire span of his country’s revolutionary experience — from 1950 until 2000, in the so-called “reform era” of post-Deng Xiaoping China. At one level, therefore, “Life and Death” is a kind of documentary, carrying the reader across time from the land reform at the end of the Chinese Civil War, through the establishment of mutual-aid teams and lower-level cooperatives in the early and mid-1950s, into the extreme years of the Great Leap Forward and the famine of the late ’50s and early ’60s, and on to the steady erosion of the collective economy in the new era of largely unregulated “capitalism with socialist characteristics.” At the novel’s close, some of the characters are driving BMWs, while others are dyeing their hair blond and wearing gold rings in their noses.

    Yet although one can say that the political dramas narrated by Mo Yan are historically faithful to the currently known record, “Life and Death” remains a wildly visionary and creative novel, constantly mocking and rearranging itself and jolting the reader with its own internal commentary. This is politics as pathology. From the start, the reader must be willing to share with Mo Yan the novel’s central conceit: that the five main narrators are not humans but animals, albeit ones who speak with sharply modulated human voices. Each of the successive narrators — a donkey, an ox, a pig, a dog, a monkey — are the sequential reincarnations of a man named Ximen Nao, as determined by Yama, lord of the underworld.

    Ximen Nao, a 30-year-old wealthy landlord in Gaomi County, is shot on a cold December day at point-blank range by one of his fellow villagers in the first period of land reform after the Communist takeover. Confident that his life on earth has been honest, constructive and valuable to the community, that he has been a good son and devoted father, a loving spouse to a principal wife and two concubines, Ximen Nao protests against the injustice of his fate. Yama responds by observing that it is well known that many people “who deserve to die somehow live on while those who deserve to live die off.” Therefore, Yama agrees to grant a transmigration for Ximen Nao, and it is from that moment that he returns to earth, first in animal and finally again in human form.

    Such a fictional procedure is, of course, fraught with difficulties of tone and narration. The five different animal narrators must describe their own experiences in their own animal voices, tinged with some of the emotions and knowledge of their previous lives on earth. Their main anchor to what we might call reality lies in the fact that each has some connection to Ximen Nao’s surviving hired hand, Lan Lian, a tough, dour, hard-working farmer who insists on clinging to his own small plot of family land and adamantly refuses to join any of the successive socialist organizations. Willful, proud and enduring, Lan Lian is the owner or companion of each of the animals in turn. They share their scanty rations and labor together. Though they cannot talk to one another, Lan Lian somehow senses in each of these five beings some joint and nostalgic memory of his own murdered landlord.

    Such a brief summary may make the book sound too cute when it is, in fact, harsh and gritty, raunchy and funny. The revolutionaries’ village politics are deadly; sex in the village (whether human or animal) is flamboyant and consuming. Death is unexpected and usually violent. Coincidences of plotting abound. The zaniest events are depicted with deadpan care, and their pathos is caught at countless moments by the fluent and elegant renderings of the veteran translator Howard Goldblatt. One might have thought it impossible, but each animal does comment with its own distinctive voice — the mordant view of the multiple deaths on the pig farm, for instance, comes largely from the reincarnated pig persona. In addition, either Lan Lian or some other human will often pick up the burden of narration and commentary.

    The book’s author is also frequently in evidence within the narrative structures. His limitations as a writer and a person are consistently mocked, and we are regularly reminded by Mo Yan the author that the character of Mo Yan represented in the novel is not to be trusted. “Mo Yan was never much of a farmer,” we are told. “His body may have been on the farm, but his mind was in the city. Lowborn, he dreamed of becoming rich and famous; ugly as sin, he sought the company of pretty girls; generally ill-informed, he passed himself off as a knowledgeable academic. And with all that, he managed to establish himself as a writer, someone who dined on tasty pot stickers in Beijing every day.” By the end of the novel, Mo Yan has developed a separate existence as one of the main characters. It is at his home in the city of Xi’an that Lan Lian’s son is able to take shelter with his lover for five difficult years. Mo Yan even makes sure that the couple have a supply of Japanese condoms.

    “Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out” is not unremittingly hostile to the Communist system, and at times Mo Yan seems eager to rebuild the very bridges he has been burning. “I have nothing against the Communist Party,” Lan Lian says at one despairing stage, “and I definitely have nothing against Chairman Mao. I’m not opposed to the People’s Commune or to collectivization. I just want to be left alone to work for myself.” But such reassurances of party loyalty seem frail in the context of such a vast, cruel and complex story.

    The kind of critique that we find in this book has many echoes within China today. In his new novel, “Wolf Totem,” Jiang Rong includes a ferocious account of the battle between a starving wolf pack and a herd of wild horses that seems tightly geared to showing the value of older ways of living in the steppe, in contrast with the ultimately disastrous values insisted on by the Party. Mo Yan has his own version of such a battle in his account of the donkeys’ struggle against the wolves near the collective farm. Yan Lianke’s “Serve the People!” gives a common soldier and his mistress, the wife of the division commander, a summer of passionate lovemaking, culminating in a wild and randy spree in which they smash all the once-treasured artifacts and memorabilia of Mao Zedong and his outmoded, pointless policies. Such antipolitical passion also surfaces in many of the sexual entanglements Mo Yan describes in “Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out.” It seems that novels in China are coming into their own, that new freedoms of expression are being claimed by their authors. Mao has become a handy villain. One wonders how much longer his successors will be immune from similar treatment.

    Jonathan Spence teaches modern Chinese history at Yale. His latest book is “Return to Dragon Mountain: Memories of a Late Ming man.”

    網誌存檔