2015年11月29日 星期日

Günter Grass 1927-2015; 臺灣人眼中的君特·格拉斯 啟蒙的冒險:與諾貝爾文學獎得主葛拉斯對談

1999年諾貝爾文學獎得主,德國小說家Günter Grass逝世,享年87歲。

鈞特 葛拉斯《我的世紀》蔡鴻君譯,時報,2000。

Günter Grass, Nobel-winning German novelist, dies aged 87

Author of The Tin Drum and figure of enduring controversy

Günter Grass
 Günter Grass. Photograph: Graeme Robertson/Graeme Robertson

The writer Günter Grass, who broke the silences of the past for a generation of Germans, has died in hospital in Lübeck at the age of 87.
German president Joachim Gauck led the tributes, offering his condolences to the writer’s widow Ute Grass. “Günter Grass moved, enthralled, and made the people of our country think with his literature and his art,” he said in a statement. “His literary work won him recognition early across the world, as witnessed not least by his Nobel prize.”
“His novels, short stories, and his poetry reflect the great hopes and fallacies, the fears and desires of whole generations,” the statement continued.
Tributes began to appear within minutes of the announcement of Grass’ death on Twitter by his publisher, Steidl.
In the UK, Salman Rushdie was one of the first authors to respond, tweeting:

The Turkish Nobel laureate Orhan Pamuk had warm personal memories: “Grass learned a lot from Rabelais and Celine and was influential in development of ‘magic realism’ and Marquez. He taught us to base the story on the inventiveness of the writer no matter how cruel, harsh and political the story is,” he said.
He added: “In April 2010 when there was a mushroom cloud over Europe he was in Istanbul and stayed more than he planned. We went to restaurants and drank and drank and talked and talked ... A generous, curious and a very warm friend who also wanted to be a painter at first!”

Grass found success in every artistic form he explored – from poetry to drama and from sculpture to graphic art – but it wasn’t until publication of his first novel, The Tin Drum, in 1959 that he found the international reputation which brought him the Nobel prize for literature40 years later. A speechwriter for the German chancellor Willy Brandt, Grass was never afraid to use the platform his fame afforded, campaigning for peace and the environment and speaking out against German reunification, which he compared to Hitler’s “annexation” of Austria.
Grass was born in the Free City of Danzig – now Gdansk – in 1927, “almost late enough”, as he said, to avoid involvement with the Nazi regime. Conscripted into the army in 1944 at the age of 16, he served as a tank gunner in the Waffen SS,bringing accusations of betrayal, hypocrisy and opportunism when he wrote about it in his 2006 autobiography, Peeling the Onion.
The writer was surprised by the strength of the reaction, arguing that he thought at the time that the SS was merely “an elite unit”, that he had spoken openly about his wartime record in the 1960s, and that he had spent a lifetime “working through” the unquestioning beliefs of his youth in his writing. His war came to an end six months later having “never fired a shot”, when he was wounded in Cottbus and captured in a military hospital by the US army. That he avoided committing war crimes was “not by merit”, he insisted. “If I had been born three or four years earlier I would, surely, have seen myself caught up in those crimes.”
Instead he trained as a stonemason, studied art in Düsseldorf and Berlin, and joined Hans Werner Richter’s Group 47 alongside writers such as Ingeborg Bachmann and Heinrich Böll. After moving to Paris in 1956 he began working on a novel which told the story of Germany in the first half of the 20th century through the life of a boy who refuses to grow.
A sprawling mixture of fantasy, family saga, bildungsroman and political fable,The Tin Drum was attacked by critics, denied the Bremen literature prize by outraged senators, burned in Düsseldorf and became a global bestseller.

Speaking to the Swedish Academy in 1999, Grass explained that the reaction taught him “that books can cause offence, stir up fury, even hatred, that what is undertaken out of love for one’s country can be taken as soiling one’s nest. From then on I have been controversial.”
A steady stream of provocative interventions in debates around social justice, peace and the environment followed, alongside poetry, drama, drawings and novels. In 1977 Grass tackled sexual politics, hunger and the rise of civilisation with a 500-page version of the Grimm brothers’ fairytale The Fisherman and His Wife. The Rat (1986) explored the apocalpyse, as a man dreams of a talking rat who tells him of the end of the human race, while 1995’s Too Far Afield explored reunification through east German eyes – prompting Germany’s foremost literary critic, Marcel Reich-Ranicki, to brand the novel a “complete and utter failure” and to appear on the cover of Der Spiegel ripping a copy in half.
His last novel, 2002’s Crabwalk, dived into the sinking of the German liner Wilhelm Gustloff in 1945, while three volumes of memoir – Peeling the Onion, The Box and Grimms’ Words – boldly ventured into troubled waters.
Germany’s political establishment responded immediately to the news of Grass’s death. The head of the German Green party, Katrin Göring-Eckardt, called Grass a “great author, a critical spirit. A contemporary who had the ambition to put himself against the Zeitgeist.”
“Günter Grass was a contentious intellectual - his literary work remains formidable,” tweeted the head of the opposition Free Democratic party, Christian Lindner.

The foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier was “deeply dismayed” at the news of the author’s death, a tweet from his ministry said.
Steinmeier is a member of the Social Democratic party, which Grass had a fraught relationship with - after campaigning for the party in 1960s and 70s, he became a member in 1982, only to leave ten years later in protest at its asylum policies.
“Günter Grass was a contentious intellectual who interfered. We sometimes miss that today,” SPD chairwoman Andrea Nahles said.

Speaking to the Paris Review in 1991
, Grass made no apology for his abiding focus on Germany’s difficult past. “If I had been a Swedish or a Swiss author I might have played around much more, told a few jokes and all that,” he said. “That hasn’t been possible; given my background, I have had no other choice.”While there were plenty of tributes recognising Grass as one of Germany’s most important post-war writers, social media users swiftly revived many of the controversies of his divisive career, bringing up his membership of the SS and his alleged anti-Semitism.
The controversy flared up again following by publication of his 2012 poem What Must be Said, in which he criticised Israeli policy. Published simultaneously in the Süddeutsche Zeitung, the Italian La Repubblica and Spanish El País, the poem brought an angry response from the Israeli ambassador to Germany, Shimon Stein, who saw in it “a disturbed relationship to his own past, the Jews, and Israel”.
Despite his advanced age, Grass still led an active public life, and was due to appear at a reading in Hamburg in two weeks.


(德國之聲中文網)即便是在格拉斯過85歲生日的時候,對他的批評聲都沒有完全停止。在德國,有關他發表批評以色列的詩作的爭論還遠遠沒有結束。但在世界其他地方,人們對格拉斯是否毀了自己聲譽的問題並不感興趣。 在臺北,人們感到興奮和自豪的是格拉斯給他在臺灣的讀者發來的一段視頻。格拉斯說:"女士們先生們,我很高興我的繪畫和雕塑作品在臺灣展出。"一個格拉斯藝術作品展剛剛在國立臺灣文學館開幕。本來格拉斯是想親自前來參加開幕式的,但因為身體原因他最終還是放棄了乘坐12小時飛機的打算。




Buchcover: Günter Grass - Mein Jahrhundert 《我的世紀》德文版封面


格拉斯的特點是:大聲說出那些別人別人試圖抹去的記憶;揭開這個社會的瘡疤。正是憑著這樣的勇氣,格拉斯在過去數十年在德國、在全世界贏得了尊重。他是一個不招人喜歡的知識份子,一個樂於參與意見表達,包括政治意見表達的作家。臺北歌德學院院長威恩哈德(Markus Wernhard)指出,這是一種西方人的處世哲學,"格拉斯這種主動參與政治,表明立場的態度,在東亞社會不是很典型的。在臺灣也缺少一點這種精神。因此(認識格拉斯)或許是此間作家反思自己的社會責任的一個機會。"


格拉斯特展" 鼓動的世紀" 記者會


作者:Klaus Bardenhagen 編譯:葉宣



(德国之声中文网)即便是在格拉斯过85岁生日的时候,对他的批评声都没有完全停止。在德国,有关他发表批评以色列的诗作的争论还远远没有结束。但在世界 其他地方,人们对格拉斯是否毁了自己声誉的问题并不感兴趣。 在台北,人们感到兴奋和自豪的是格拉斯给他在台湾的读者发来的一段视频。格拉斯说:"女士们先生们,我很高兴我的绘画和雕塑作品在台湾展出。"一个格拉斯 艺术作品展刚刚在国立台湾文学馆开幕。本来格拉斯是想亲自前来参加开幕式的,但因为身体原因他最终还是放弃了乘坐12小时飞机的打算。
在台湾,德国文学其实是一个小众话题。连国立文学馆的馆长也承认,他自己也并不熟悉格拉斯的作品,因此得抓紧时间在展览开幕前补补课。不过林刘惠安女士可 以提供帮助,她是台北辅仁大学德语文学教授,也是台湾受到公认的格拉斯专家。正是她把格拉斯的文学、版画和雕塑作品介绍到了台湾。
Buchcover: Günter Grass - Mein Jahrhundert 《我的世纪》德文版封面
君特·格拉斯成了历史老师。这次展览的重头戏是100多幅水彩画,是格拉斯为自己的小说《我的世纪》创作的插图。他在这部作品中从不同视角回顾了 20世纪的历史。对台湾读者尤其不同寻常的是,其中有一章的故事发生在中国,背景是1900年八国联军血腥镇压义和团起义的历史。"书中有一个来自巴伐利 亚的士兵",林刘惠安介绍说,"他叙述了自己经历的这场侵略战争,他看到了什么,隐瞒了什么,他向自己的未婚妻讲述了什么事,又没有讲述什么。"
格拉斯的特点是:大声说出那些别人别人试图抹去的记忆;揭开这个社会的疮疤。正是凭着这样的勇气,格拉斯在过去数十年在德国、在全世界赢得了尊重。他是一 个不招人喜欢的知识分子,一个乐于参与意见表达,包括政治意见表达的作家。台北歌德学院院长维恩哈德(Markus Wernhard)指出,这是一种西方人的处世哲学,"格拉斯这种主动参与政治,表明立场的态度,在东亚社会不是很典型的。在台湾也缺少一点这种精神。因 此(认识格拉斯)或许是此间作家反思自己的社会责任的一个机会。"
林刘惠安说:"或许来参观展览的人也能反思一下自己国家的历史。"她认为像格拉斯这样一个作家在台湾也会发现许多值得书写的议题。台湾今天虽然是亚洲为数 不多的真正意义上的民主国家之一,但仍然没有完全摆脱持续数十年的独裁统治的阴影。直到上世纪80年代后期,台湾才解除了战时的戒严令。直到今天,台湾社 会的裂痕犹在,而对历史的反思还刚刚开始。与此同时,台湾的民主受到中国的威胁。林刘惠安说,她定期到德国拜访格拉斯时,谈到过这样的话题。"他问了我很 多关于台湾,关于中国的问题。他非常好奇,直到今天都是如此。"
格拉斯特展" 鼓动的世纪" 记者会
有关格拉斯对以色列立场的争论,林刘惠安在《中国时报》的文艺副刊上发表过介绍文章。她表示,格拉斯在批评面前不退缩的作法一点也不让她感到意外。"我只 能说,格拉斯就是格拉斯。如果你读过他的书,就知道,他从来不会保持沉默,他有意见就会大声说出来。这是人们不得不认可的一点。我觉得这是他的一个优 点。"
作者:Klaus Bardenhagen 编译:叶宣

2008.12這本書中 葛拉斯 說 要求出版商將各國翻譯者聚會討論是其創舉

(這種作法為 米蘭 昆德拉等大作家所彷效)


:與諾貝爾文學獎得主葛拉斯對談 浙江人民出版社 2001


啟蒙的冒險:與諾貝爾文學獎得主葛拉斯對談 Vom Abenteuer der Aufclarung

  本書是德國不萊梅廣播電臺文學部主管哈羅�齊默爾曼,自1998年6 月至8月對諾貝爾文學獎得主葛拉斯進行的訪談錄。這些訪談沒有導演的事先安排,而是大膽地共同進行一場觀點的遊戲,是一場「啟蒙的冒險」。在坦誠的交談 中,葛拉斯對其作品《錫鼓》、《狗年月》、《局部麻醉》、《蝸牛日記》、《比目魚》、《母鼠》、《遼闊的原野》的寫作背景、創作的過程、敘述手法等等一一 作了介紹。他除了談到他的作品,還談到作為畫家、雕塑家、「公民」及「公開政治化」的葛拉斯。
  一九九九年諾貝爾文學獎得主鈞特�葛拉斯 透過寫作逝去的歷史,引領讀者回憶過去,同時預視未來。葛拉斯以「但澤三部曲」為首的所有小說、詩歌、文集,都在亦真亦幻、似夢非夢、荒誕的描寫中,引導 讀者發現真實,以文學的形式對讀者進行啟蒙。本書是葛拉斯本人對所有重要作品的寫作背景、創作過程、敘述手法的解說,是深入了解葛拉斯的最重要著作。
  鈞特‧葛拉斯(Gu nter Grass)
  德國著名文學作家、畫家、雕塑家。1927年生於但澤,1999年獲頒諾貝爾文學獎,其小說深受十七世紀流浪漢小說(La Novela picarsca)的影響。
   葛拉斯的主要作品有「但澤三部曲」:《錫鼓》(1959)、《貓與鼠》(1961)、《狗年月》(1963)。繼「但澤三部曲」之後,他幾乎每十年便有 一部大作品問世:《比目魚》(1977)、《母鼠》(1986)、《遼闊的原野》(1995)。在世紀之交,葛拉斯又推出新作《我的世紀》(1999)。
  哈羅‧齊默爾曼(Harro Zimmermann)