河西著《自由的思想—海外學人訪談錄‧許倬雲：獨立之精神，自由之思想》北京：三聯，2009，頁07--2 (2008. 11 28訪問) 內容豐富 河西訪問的人可能只有許先生說魯迅不怎一回事 各種文類比他強的人多得是.對王世杰(雪艇 1891-1981)的描述很妙...
河西著《自由的思想—海外學人訪談錄‧漢寶德：建築乃大地的文章》北京：三聯，2009，頁150- 61 (2009.4.24訪問)
河西所著的《自由的思想——海外學人訪談錄》是繼《革命的標記——今日先鋒訪談錄》的又一力作，前者多談人生歷程，而這本主要側重於文學思想。書中這些居於英國、法國、美國、中國香港和台灣的學者，暢所欲言地討論了民主、改革、學術自由、身份認同、城市發展、文學垃圾問題等，形成思想的碰撞。作者簡介 · · · · · ·河西，本名何映字，1976年生，在《天涯》、《花城》、《大家》、《文景》、《字花》(香港)等刊物上發表作品二百餘萬字，著有《折子書》、《革命的標記——今日先鋒訪談錄》、《弗里達》；譯有《我們都愛普魯斯特》、《彼得·布魯克訪談錄》等多部。現居上海。
目錄 · · · · · ·序言：自由的問題意識
目錄 · · · · · ·序言：自由的問題意識
Robertson, Geoffrey (23 April 2011). "My hero: John Cooke". The Guardian.諾曼·馬內阿：“我已接受了自己的命運”
Audio from a talk on John Cooke by Geoffrey Robertson for Bristol Radical History Group
Ivan Illich's sweeping claim, "All over the world the school has an antieducational effect on society," is an extreme but not atypical example of this sort of accusation.
尋訪行家 ( Experten By Gabriele Goettle )
譯者 / 丁娜/ 吳鵬飛
出版社 ／ 北京三聯
出版日期 ／ 2007/07/01
商品語言 ／ 中文/簡體
內容簡介多年來，本書作者每月在德國的日報上發表關於值得矚 目的當代人物的寫真文章，這些人物都以特殊的方式承擔著一種理念或一個項目的實現，並對自己的所作所為進行著思考。本書所採訪的德語國家32位各行各業公 認的專家中，約半數是自然科學和社會科學領域的著名人物和新興應用科學領域的代表，另一半則活躍在全然普通而實用的行當中，也有少數人從事著具有異國情調 的職業。在對被訪的專業領域進行簡介、描述其職業活動之後，在更加私人化的第二次採訪中，作者只是偶爾提問或插話，而任被訪者自由呈現，甚至會誘導出激烈 的抗辯——這些行家不僅具有非同尋常的淵博知識，談到自己的工作尤其熱情滿懷。
文明异化批评家 Wikipedia article "Ivan Illich"
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Born||September 4, 1926
|Died||December 2, 2002 (aged 76)
|Main interests||Philosophy of education, Philosophy of technology|
Personal lifeIllich was born in Vienna to a Croatian Catholic father, engineer Ivan Peter Illich, and a Sephardic Jewish mother, Ellen née Regenstreif-Ortlieb. His maternal grandmother was from Texas. Illich had Italian, Spanish, French, and German as native languages. He later learned Croatian, the language of his grandfathers, then Ancient Greek and Latin, in addition to Spanish, Portuguese, Hindi, English, and other languages. He studied histology and crystallography at the University of Florence (Italy) as well as theology and philosophy at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome (from 1942 to 1946), and medieval history in Salzburg.
He wrote a dissertation focusing on the historian Arnold J. Toynbee and would return to that subject in his later years. In 1951, he "signed up to become a parish priest in one of New York’s poorest neighborhoods—Washington Heights, on the northern tip of Manhattan, then a barrio of fresh-off-the-airplane Puerto Rican immigrants." In 1956, at the age of 30, he was appointed as the vice rector of the Catholic University of Puerto Rico, "a position he managed to keep for several years before getting thrown out—Illich was just a little too loud in his criticism of the Vatican’s pronouncements on birth control and comparatively demure silence about the bomb." It was in Puerto Rico that Illich met Everett Reimer and the two began to analyze their own functions as "educational" leaders. In 1959, he traveled throughout South America on foot and by bus.
In 1961, Illich founded the Centro Intercultural de Documentación (CIDOC, or Intercultural Documentation Center) at Cuernavaca in Mexico, ostensibly a research center offering language courses to missionaries from North America and volunteers of the Alliance for Progress program initiated by John F. Kennedy. His real intent was to document the participation of the Vatican in the "modern development" of the so-called Third World. Illich looked askance at the liberal pity or conservative imperiousness that motivated the rising tide of global industrial development. He viewed such emissaries as a form of industrial hegemony and, as such, an act of "war on subsistence." He sought to teach missionaries dispatched by the Church not to impose their own cultural values and to identify themselves instead as guests of the host country. "Throughout the late ’60s and early ’70s, CIDOC was part language school and part free university for intellectual hippies from all over the Americas."
At the CIDOC, "Illich was able to develop his potent and highly influential critique of Third World development schemes and their fresh-faced agents: Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress, the Peace Corps, and countless other missionary efforts bankrolled and organized by wealthy nations, foundations, and religious groups." After ten years, critical analysis from the CIDOC of the institutional actions by the Church brought the organization into conflict with the Vatican. Unpopular with the local chapter of Opus Dei, Illich was called to Rome for questioning, due in part to a report from the CIA. In 1976, Illich, apparently concerned by the influx of formal academics and the potential side effects of its own "institutionalization," shut the center down with consent from the other members of the CIDOC. Several of the members subsequently continued language schools in Cuernavaca, of which some still exist. Illich himself resigned from the active priesthood in the late 1960s (having attained the rank of monsignor), but continued to identify as a priest and occasionally performed private masses.
In the 1970s, Illich was popular among leftist intellectuals in France, his thesis having been discussed in particular by André Gorz. However, his influence declined after the 1981 election of François Mitterrand as he was considered too pessimistic at a time when the French Left took control of the government.
In the 1980s and beyond, Illich traveled extensively, mainly splitting his time between the United States, Mexico, and Germany. He held an appointment as a Visiting Professor of Philosophy, Science, Technology and Society at Penn State. He also taught at the University of Bremen and University of Hagen. During his last days of his life he admitted that he was greatly influenced by one of the Indian economists and adviser to M.K.Gandhi, J.C.Kumarappa's thinking and his book, Economy of Permanence.
During his later 20 years, he suffered from a cancerous growth on his face that, in accordance with his critique of professionalized medicine, was treated with non-traditional methods, such as meditation and Yoga. In the last few years, he regularly smoked opium to deal with the pain caused by this tumor. At an early stage, he consulted a doctor—who told him he would live only for 3 months—about having the tumor removed, but was told that there was too great a chance of losing his ability to speak, and so he lived with the tumor as best he could. He called it "my mortality."
Deschooling SocietyThe book that brought Ivan Illich to public attention was Deschooling Society (1971), a radical critical discourse on education as practised in "modern" economies. Giving examples of what he regards as the ineffectual nature of institutionalized education, Illich posited self-directed education, supported by intentional social relations, in fluid informal arrangements:
The last sentence makes clear what the title suggests—that the institutionalization of education tends towards the institutionalization of society and that ideas for de-institutionalizing education may be a starting point for a de-institutionalized society.Universal education through schooling is not feasible. It would be no more feasible if it were attempted by means of alternative institutions built on the style of present schools. Neither new attitudes of teachers toward their pupils nor the proliferation of educational hardware or software (in classroom or bedroom), nor finally the attempt to expand the pedagogue's responsibility until it engulfs his pupils' lifetimes will deliver universal education. The current search for new educational funnels must be reversed into the search for their institutional inverse: educational webs which heighten the opportunity for each one to transform each moment of his living into one of learning, sharing, and caring. We hope to contribute concepts needed by those who conduct such counterfoil research on education--and also to those who seek alternatives to other established service industries.—Ivan Illich, 
The book is more than a critique—it contains suggestions for a reinvention of learning throughout society and lifetime. Particularly striking is his call (in 1971) for the use of advanced technology to support "learning webs."
According to a contemporary review in The Libertarian Forum, "Illich's advocacy of the free market in education is the bone in the throat that is choking the public educators." Although it is important to note that Illich's opposition was not merely to publicly funded schooling, as with the libertarians, but to schooling as such; the disestablishment of schools was for him not a means to a free market in educational services, but a deschooled society, which was a more fundamental shift. As he later asserted in After Deschooling, What? (1973): 'We can disestablish schools, or we can deschool culture'. He actually opposed advocates of free-market education as "the most dangerous category of educational reformers."The operation of a peer-matching network would be simple. The user would identify himself by name and address and describe the activity for which he sought a peer. A computer would send him back the names and addresses of all those who had inserted the same description. It is amazing that such a simple utility has never been used on a broad scale for publicly valued activity.—Ivan Illich
Tools for ConvivialityTools for Conviviality (1973) was published only two years after Deschooling Society. In this new work Illich generalized the themes that he had previously applied to the field of education: the institutionalization of specialized knowledge, the dominant role of technocratic elites in industrial society, and the need to develop new instruments for the reconquest of practical knowledge by the average citizen. He wrote that "[e]lite professional groups . . . have come to exert a 'radical monopoly' on such basic human activities as health, agriculture, home-building, and learning, leading to a 'war on subsistence' that robs peasant societies of their vital skills and know-how. The result of much economic development is very often not human flourishing but 'modernized poverty,' dependency, and an out-of-control system in which the humans become worn-down mechanical parts." Illich proposed that we should "invert the present deep structure of tools" in order to "give people tools that guarantee their right to work with independent efficiency."
Tools for Conviviality attracted worldwide attention. A resume of it was published by French social philosopher André Gorz in Les Temps Modernes, under the title "Freeing the Future." The book's vision of tools that would be developed and maintained by a community of users had a significant influence on the first developers of the personal computer, notably Lee Felsenstein.
Medical NemesisIn his Medical Nemesis, first published in 1975, also known as Limits to Medicine, Illich subjected contemporary Western medicine to detailed attack. He argued that the medicalization in recent decades of so many of life's vicissitudes—birth and death, for example—frequently caused more harm than good and rendered many people in effect lifelong patients. He marshalled a body of statistics to show what he considered the shocking extent of post-operative side-effects and drug-induced illness in advanced industrial society. He introduced to a wider public the notion of iatrogenic disease  which had been scientifically established a century earlier by British nurse Florence Nightingale (1820–1910). Others have since voiced similar views, but none so trenchantly, perhaps, as Illich.
- The main notion of Ivan Illich is the concept of counterproductivity: when institutions of modern industrial society impede their purported aims. For example, Ivan Illich calculated that, in America in the 1970s, if you add the time spent to work to earn the money to buy a car, the time spent in the car (including traffic jam), the time spent in the health care industry because of a car crash, the time spent in the oil industry to fuel cars ...etc., and you divide the number of kilometres traveled per year by that, you obtain the following calculation: 10000 km per year per person divided by 1600 hours per year per American equals 6 km per hour. So the real speed of a car would be about 3.7 miles per hour.
- Specific diseconomy
- Specific diseconomy is another term Illich used, as a measure of the degree of institutional counterproductivity that is occurring—referring to the exact degree to which, for example, the medical industry induces illness, educational institutions induce ignorance, the judicial system perpetuates injustice, or national defense may make a nation less secure. When specific diseconomy is on the increase, this means an institution or industry is increasingly counterproductive to its original intentions.
- Radical monopoly
- He invented the concept of radical monopoly: when a technical medium is or appears to be more effective, it creates a monopoly which denies access to other media. The mandatory consumption of a medium which uses a lot of energy (for example motorised transportation) narrows the fruition of use value (innate transit ability).
By "radical monopoly" I mean the dominance of one type of product rather than the dominance of one brand. I speak about radical monopoly when one industrial production process exercises an exclusive control over the satisfaction of a pressing need, and excludes nonindustrial activities from competition.
- Illich worked to open new possibilities. Illich devotes a chapter of Deschooling Society to the proposal to the Rebirth of Epimethean Man. He argued that we need convivial tools as opposed to machines. A tool may have many applications, some very different from its original intended use. A tool may be thought of as an expression of its user. The opposite of this is the machine, where humans become its servants, their role consisting only of running the machine for a single purpose.
List of works
- Die philosophischen Grundlagen der Geschichtsschreibung bei Arnold J. Toynbee. Salzburg: Diss. 1951.
- Celebration of Awareness. 1971. ISBN 0-7145-0837-3.
- Deschooling Society. 1971. ISBN 0-06-012139-4.
- Tools for Conviviality. 1973. ISBN 0-06-080308-8, ISBN 0-06-012138-6.
- Energy and Equity. 1974. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/0-06-136153-5|0-06-136153-5[[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- Medical Nemesis. London: Calder
- Medical Nemesis. 1975. ISBN 0-394-71245-5, ISBN 0-7145-1095-5, ISBN 0-7145-1096-3.
- The Right to Useful Unemployment. 1978. ISBN 0-7145-2628-2.
- Toward a History of Needs. 1978. ISBN 0-394-41040-8, ISBN 0-394-73501-3.
- Shadow Work. 1981. ISBN 0-7145-2711-4, ISBN 0-7145-2710-6.
- Gender. 1982. ISBN 0-394-52732-1.
- H2O and the Waters of Forgetfulness. 1985. ISBN 0-911005-06-4.
- ABC: The Alphabetization of the Popular Mind. 1988. ISBN 0-86547-291-2.
- In the Mirror of the Past. 1992. ISBN 0-7145-2937-0.
- In the Vineyard of the Text: A Commentary to Hugh's Didascalicon. 1993. ISBN 0-226-37235-9.
- Blasphemy: A Radical Critique of Our Technological Culture. We the People. Morristown, NJ: Aaron
- interviews with [[David
- The Rivers North of the Future - The Testament of Ivan Illich as told to David Cayley. Toronto: [[House
- Critical pedagogy
- Critique of technology
- Development criticism
- Holistic education
- Shadow work
- See inogolo:pronunciation of Ivan Illich.
- Madar, Chase (2010-02-01) "The People's Priest", The American Conservative, February 1, 2010.
- Hansom 2001
- "Ivan Illich". The Daily Telegraph. December 5, 2002.
- Paquot, Thierry (January 2003). "The Non-Conformist". Le Monde diplomatique. (FR)
- du Plessix Gray 1970, pp. 44 & 49
- Illich, Ivan (1999)."Editorial - 'Deschooling Society by Ivan Illich'. Marion Boyars Publishers, 1999.
- Solomon Victus, Jesus and Mother Economy: An Introduction to the Theology of J.C.Kumarappa, New Delhi: ISPCK, 2007.
- "Ivan Illich - biography". Marion Boyars Publishers.
- Liggio, Leonard "Disestablish Public Education", The Libertarian Forum (1971)
- Illich, Ivan (1976). After deschooling, what? (Repr. ed.). London: Writers and Readers Pub. Cooperative. p. 48. ISBN 0-904613-36-4.
- Illich, Ivan (1977). Toward a history of needs. Berkley: Heyday Books. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-930588-26-7.
- Illich 1973
- "Définition André Gorz". techno-science.net (in FR). Encyclopédie scientifique en ligne.
- "Convivial Cybernetic Devices, From Vacuum Tube Flip-Flops to the Singing Altair, An Interview with Lee Felsenstein (Part 1)". The Analytical Engine (Computer History Association of California) 3 (1). November 1995. ISSN 1071-6351.
- Illich 1974b
- Postman 1992
- Illich 1973, p52.
- "Indagini su Epimeteo tra Ivan Illich, Konrad Weiss e Carl Schmitt". Il Covile. 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Hansom, Paul (2001). Twentieth-century European cultural theorists. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Group. p. 212. ISBN 0-7876-4659-8.
- Illich, Ivan (1973). Tools for Conviviality. ISBN 0-06-080308-8, ISBN 0-06-012138-6.
- Illich, Ivan (1974). Medical Nemesis. London: Calder & Boyars. ISBN 0-7145-1096-3. OCLC 224760852.
- du Plessix Gray, Francine (April 25, 1970). Profiles: The Rules of the Game. The New Yorker. pp. 40–92.
- Postman, Neil (1992). Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Knopf. OCLC 24694343.
- Derber, Charles; Schwartz, William A.; Magrass, Yale (1990). Power in the Highest Degree: Professionals and the Rise of a New Mandarin Order. Oxford University Press.
- Gabbard, D. A. (1993). Silencing Ivan Illich: A Foucauldian Analysis of Intellectual Exclusion. New York: Austin & Winfield. ISBN 1-880921-17-0.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Ivan Illich|
|Wikiversity has learning materials about Ivan Illich: Deschooling Society|
- The People's Priest
- Thinking After Illich
- Collection of Illich Resources, including MP3s
- Ivan Illich Archives
- Full text of Tools for Conviviality
- Illich's writing on the web at The Preservation Institute
- Text of To Hell With Good Intentions - Cuernavaca, Mexico, on April 20, 1968
- Ivan Illich with Jerry Brown, KPFA - March 22, 1996
- An extensive set of Illich's writings and recordings
- Article in The encyclopaedia of informal education
- American Educational Research Association Ivan Illich Special Interest Group website
- The International Journal of Illich Studies
- The Challenges of Ivan Illich: A Collective Reflection at Google Books
- "A Turbulent Priest in the Global Village" by Richard Wall, LewRockwell.com
- Obituary from The Guardian
- "Remembering Ivan Illich" Whole Earth Magazine, Spring 2003
- Obituary from The Lancet Volume 361, Issue 9352, Page 185, 11 January 2003  by Pearce Wright,
Deschooling Society (1971) is a critical discourse on education as practised in modern economies. It is a book that brought Ivan Illich to public attention. Full of detail on programs and concerns, the book gives examples of the ineffectual nature of institutionalized education. Illich posited self-directed education, supported by intentional social relations in fluid informal arrangements:
The last sentence makes clear what the title suggests—that the institutionalization of education is considered to institutionalize society and conversely that ideas for de-institutionalizing education may be a starting point for a de-institutionalized society.Universal education through schooling is not feasible. It would be no more feasible if it were attempted by means of alternative institutions built on the style of present schools. Neither new attitudes of teachers toward their pupils nor the proliferation of educational hardware or software (in classroom or bedroom), nor finally the attempt to expand the pedagogue's responsibility until it engulfs his pupils' lifetimes will deliver universal education. The current search for new educational funnels must be reversed into the search for their institutional inverse: educational webs which heighten the opportunity for each one to transform each moment of his living into one of learning, sharing, and caring. We hope to contribute concepts needed by those who conduct such counterfoil research on education--and also to those who seek alternatives to other established service industries.
The book is more than a critique—it contains suggestions for changes to learning in society and individual lifetimes. Particularly striking is his call (in 1971) for the use of advanced technology to support "learning webs."
Illich argued that the use of technology to create decentralized webs could support the goal of creating a good educational system:The operation of a peer-matching network would be simple. The user would identify himself by name and address and describe the activity for which he sought a peer. A computer would send him back the names and addresses of all those who had inserted the same description. It is amazing that such a simple utility has never been used on a broad scale for publicly valued activity.
Lawrence Cremin asserts that Illich has not thought through how his educational networks would work in the real world:A good educational system should have three purposes: it should provide all who want to learn with access to available resources at any time in their lives; empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them; and, finally, furnish all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known.
Illich would like to abandon schooling in favour of what he calls educational networks, but he does not deal with the inevitable impact of the media and the market on those networks.
- Sugata Mitra on self-teaching kids
- "Introduction", Deschooling Society.
- Deschooling Society, chapter six
- Deschooling Society, chapter six, 'General Characteristics of New Formal Educational Institutions
- Terrence E. Deal, Robert R. Nolan, ed. (1978). "Chapter 16: The Free School Movement by Lawrence Cremin". Alternative schools: ideologies, realities, guidelines. Nelson-Hall. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-88229-383-7. Retrieved 4 June 2013.