2008年3月31日 星期一

那一夜,佛洛伊德遇見佛陀,聊欲望

這本書的內容 舉例精彩 有意思
翻譯高手之"深入淺出"之作
粗讀只發現編者自創"三乘" 與梁永安先生的翻譯不同

".....他對tricycle 季刊的直接翻譯,覺得奇怪。到英文出版社的網站才知道他們的自圓其說。"





那一夜,佛洛伊德遇見佛陀,聊欲望 Open to Desire: Embracing a Lust for Life: Insights from Buddhism & Psychotherapy


  不要害怕和壓抑欲望,而是應該重新疏導、駕馭它,為我們所用。

  因為欲望乃是最強有力的生命能量,可把我們引領至自由與極樂。

  你常滿懷興致去吃期待已久的大餐,食畢不僅沒有滿足感,甚至更為失落?總是嫌另一半陪你的時間不夠多,常在愛中感到孤單?沒有辦法忍受別人不將你放在眼裡,老是覺得自己不被喜歡?稍不順心,就暴飲暴食,焦躁難耐?孩子不聽你的話,即憤怒不已,斥聲責罵?

  追根究柢,一切都是欲望在作祟。

   不過,佛洛伊德與佛法認為欲望是人對人世痛苦現實的自然反應,一旦脫離欲望,我們就不再是自己。透過欲望,反而能幫助我們了解自我,面對生活的煩瑣與生 命的困頓。因此,本書以佛陀的「四聖諦」為架構,印度神話《羅摩衍那》為經緯,融會貫通佛洛伊德的精神分析學,並結合個案研究,提出各種實際建議,調和我 們對欲望的矛盾觀點,讓我們對人類最弔詭的欲望情緒,有耳目一新的認識,進而透過欲望的驅力,達到身心靈的和諧與平靜。

  書中分為四個主要章節:

  〈欲望的渴求〉,講述人面對欲望的一般心理與反應;

  〈執著〉說明人一旦了解世上絕無可以帶來滿足的客體時,將會產生何種變化;

  〈執之止息〉點出,對待欲望,除了放棄與執著之外,仍有第三種方式能引領我們,讓精神驚人地成長;

  〈欲望之道〉告訴我們如何利用欲望而非為其所用,進而達到喜樂的境界。

作者簡介

馬克.愛普斯坦(Mark Epstein)

   精神科醫師,在紐約市自行開業,常受邀演講,談論佛教禪修法對心理治療的價值。已有著作包括《沒有思考者的思考》(Thoughts without a Thinker)、《碎散而不分崩離析》(Going to Pieces Without sFalling Apart)和《繼續存在》(Going on Being)。常為《三乘︰佛法概論》(Tricycle: The Buddhist Review)、《瑜伽期刊》(Yoga Journal)和《O雜誌》(O: The Oprah Magazine)撰稿。

to: JP 和 SU之友

to: JP SU之友

周日略讀紐約時報的導遊 · 36 Hours in Berkeley, Calif.,碰到些舊識,譬如說說,這家書店(Moe’s Books)90年代與我(hc)有緣,所以特別一記。而這書緣是陳巨擘先生(jp)引我入門的。我們當時各買了好幾箱的書郵寄台灣,jp的遺失-損失不少,我似乎丟掉(滿滿的)一大箱而已。不管怎麼說,我當時向jp說,應該買貨櫃裝書回台灣的壯舉並沒有落實:一兩年後我還去光顧一次,還買本近萬元台幣的舊書”…….

幾年後,JP在巨流出版社當主編,進口不少美國大學出版社的書,我還代理過,似乎賣出近萬元的台版書…….

去年年中,JP說他換工作,要去政大創出版社。我笑談美國的同行,以芝加哥大學的為最大(不過我懷疑它比得上OUP);也說一下Herbert Simon說為什麼著名的CMU前身在60年前發現,他們想成立出版社,已「為時太晚」,因為美國已列強林立

美國大學出版社印象頗深的是他們出版翻譯作品。以我們SU討論過的,加州大學出版· The Age of Constantine the Great: Jacob Burckhardt...;MIT出版Journey to the East by Le Corbusier, Edited by Iv...;哥倫比亞出版羅蘭 巴爾特;哈佛大學”海德格”;史丹佛大學”繁華物語;芝加哥大學”西遊記(全譯本和簡易本)…….

我與梁永安先生周日培他寶貝女兒上政大書城(羅斯福路):我指行人出版社的品質標竿Gibbon的羅馬衰亡史全譯令我想Boswell's Life of Johnson…..

晚上猛KJourney to the East by Le Corbusier, Edited by Iv...之餘,翻閱 Examined Life: Philosophical Meditations: Robert Nozick (1989)

作者:(美)罗伯特·诺齐克 《經過省察的人生:哲學沉思錄》译者:严忠志

北京:商务,2007

(這本書極少附原文,非常不方便)從索引知道這本作品:

Samuel Johnson
W. Jackson Bate

知道:第20章 邁入五十歲;皇家津貼;Boswell;文學俱樂部

2008年3月30日 星期日

Moe’s Books

這家書店在90年代與我有緣 所以特別一記

BOOKMARK THIS

Old and new Berkeley, activists and high-tech workers, all head to Moe’s Books (2476 Telegraph Avenue; 510-849-2087; www.moesbooks.com). Founded in 1959 and piled high with used books, Moe’s is a reminder that Amazon can’t shut down all the little folks. You can wander its upper floors for hours, flipping through out-of-print tomes on everything from 1950s African history to kabbalah manuals. The store also has frequent in-store readings; check its Web site for coming dates.


main drag, hipster, patchouli



2008年3月20日 星期四

Myself and Other More Important Matters by Charles Handy(2)

2007年7月23日 星期一


Myself and Other More Important Matters by Charles Handy

Myself and Other More Important Matters by Charles Handy
查爾斯‧韓第(Charles Handy){你拿什麼定義自己?組織大師韓第的生命故事}台北:天下文化,2007
這本書中國在年初出版(早台北半年),書名為{思想者:查爾斯‧漢迪自傳}北京:中國人民大學,2007

它的論點是,字眼很重要,因為它們表達思想。
六標準差(Six Sigma)等為胡說、空話(另外,REENIGEERING, Core Competence, Just In Time, 360-degree Feedback, CRM, Social Network Analysis, Globalization, Format Competition, ROI Marketing {思想者:查爾斯‧漢迪自傳} p.190。「這些詞都是假冒的偽劣技術術語,目的在於把顯而易見的道理,變個說法,顯得更聰明。」

管理要從日常經驗來學習,而不是像MBAMaster of Business Analysis)。
“manage” 在英文日常用語和劇場管理等領域之中,只及於「物」。而 leader 是政治學的論述。
經營管理要尋求自己適用的標準。學習哲學般,重視設問和探討的過程。


A Business Guru's Portfolio Life

By ADRIAN WOOLDRIDGE
March 19, 2008; Page D10
Myself and Other More Important Matters
By Charles Handy
(Amacom, 213 pages, $25)
[myself and other more important matters]
Charles Handy is one of the world's most unusual creatures -- a very British management guru. If the average management thinker seems like the kind of person who yearns to spend time in anonymous lecture rooms giving PowerPoint presentations on the "five forces" and "seven paradigm shifts," Mr. Handy, now 75, seems more comfortable at home reclining in his favorite leather armchair. He is more interested in meditating on Aristotle's concept of "happiness" -- eudaimonia -- than in recycling the latest thinking about "optimizing organizational core competencies."
Mr. Handy was one of the first management gurus to recognize, back in the 1970s, that organizations were undergoing dramatic changes, flattening out their hierarchies and hiving off ancillary functions. His writing on business was striking for its colorful metaphors, such as "shamrock organizations" (the three leaves represent core employees, subcontractors and temporary workers), and for its focus on the people who were on the receiving end of these changes.
"Myself and Other More Important Matters" is a charming autobiography, recounting Mr. Handy's life in genial prose. Like the best Oxford tutorials, it is much more substantial than it first appears. It is not only an excellent introduction to Mr. Handy's thinking; it is a valuable account of how British attitudes to business have changed over the past 50 years.
Mr. Handy grew up in a world of all-enveloping organizations. He belonged to a very peculiar British tribe: the Anglo-Irish, descended from the British Protestants who had conquered Ireland and had called themselves, with scant regard to the sensibilities of the natives, the Ascendancy. His clergyman father devoted his life to a single organization, his parish. The Handys belonged to the tightly knit group of Irish Protestants -- not properly Irish but not English either.
Still, Mr. Handy had a traditional British education -- English public (i.e., private) school followed by classics at Oxford. He could easily have been a civil servant or a teacher, like most of his contemporaries at school. But his Irish side turned him into an outsider; and he lusted after the world of "travel and money and power" that he imagined came with a career in business.
In fact, business meant another cocoon-like organization -- Shell. Mr. Handy spent six years as an expatriate manager, alternately navigating the rivers of Borneo ("Shell had ninety-five per cent of the market, a number that, I sensed, could only go down") and living in palatial splendor in Singapore. He then returned to England to work in Shell's monster headquarters on the banks of the Thames.
His time as an expat had not been a stunning success -- at one point he was talked into a harebrained scheme for improving the delivery of oil in Borneo by a bibulous old Etonian. (Building storage tanks at river's edge seemed like a great idea until dry season, when the tank turned out to be stranded on new high ground.) Back in London he was so bored by all the paper-shuffling that, for the only time in his life, he counted the minutes and joined the mass exodus from the building at precisely 5:20 p.m. every day.
At one point he failed to forward a refinery-building proposal to the proper committee members, as he should have done, because he disagreed with it. Pondering his pointed inaction ("I'm not proud of what I did that day"), he stops to comment on the "negative power" of disgruntled employees. He observes that 72% of British workers in a recent survey claimed to be dissatisfied with their business organization, nearly a fifth of them saying that they actively wanted to sabotage it. "Looking back on those days in the Shell head office," Mr. Handy writes, "I know how they feel."
Teaching management provided him with an escape from the corporate grind. Shell drafted him for its in-house training college. The new London Business School offered him a professorship. The government asked him for advice on management education. He was given one of those eccentric establishment positions that Britain specializes in, Warden of St. George's House, living in splendid apartments in Windsor Castle and introducing the great and the good, including highflying clergymen, to the new science of management.
The amateurishness of Mr. Handy's Britain in the 1950s and 1960s is shocking, as is the antibusiness prejudice that he routinely encountered. Shell gave him a job as an economist (he had been to Oxford, after all) though he had no acquaintance with the dismal science. The London Business School made him a full professor though he had no academic training or publications in the field. (He was sent off to MIT for a year to mug up on the subject.) He was once told, when he used the word "economics," to avoid jargon.
Yet his very British career gave him a unique approach to his adopted subject. He assigned his first class at London Business School just two books, "The Meaning of Company Accounts" and Sophocles'"Antigone." He illustrated his arguments not with buzzwords but with examples culled from everyday life (or at least his version of everyday life): He would note, for instance, that theaters thank everybody involved in the production, not just the stars; or that an Oxford rowing eight had improved its performance by sacking a star rower.
This idiosyncratic approach also gave him insights into management. He invented the concept of the "portfolio life" -- the idea that more and more people, in a modern economy, would end up as independent workers, putting together a collection of different jobs, clients and types of work. He produced fascinating studies of the way that a change of course in mid-career can give people a new lease of life.
Mr. Handy knew whereof he spoke: He found himself reinventing his own career, though at first he discovered that trying to make it as a "portfolio worker," after resigning from St. George's House at the age of 49, was surprisingly difficult. He did not realize that you could charge money for speeches. His agent thought that "boasting" about his client was bad form.
Britain has changed out of all recognition since Mr. Handy joined Shell roughly a half-century ago. It has, in a sense, become Americanized. The old antibusiness prejudices have all but evaporated. Business studies is the most popular undergraduate course in most British universities. British managers are all too familiar with the latest business jargon.
Of course something has been lost along the way. Mr. Handy's crystal-clear prose in "Myself and Other More Important Matters" is proof that you can write about business without butchering the English language. And his predilection for finding management wisdom in the classics is a reminder that people were thinking about how to run organizations long before the Harvard Business School was founded. Now that Peter Drucker has died, it is hard to think of another management guru who could write such an idiosyncratic and engaging book.
Mr. Wooldridge, the Economist's Washington bureau chief, is the author, with John Micklethwait, of "The Witch Doctors: Making Sense of the Management Gurus."

2008年3月15日 星期六

Peopleware: 腦力密集產業的人才管理之道

Peopleware: 腦力密集產業的人才管理之道

Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams, 2nd ed.

簡單評


湯姆.狄馬克 提摩西.李斯特Peopleware 腦力密集產業的人才管理之道 (Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams, 2nd ed.)台北:經濟新潮社,2007

這是重譯本。有索引。書中章節標題如第13章「 雨傘步」(兒童遊戲)等,如果沒有作者幫忙解釋,很少人會懂得它的。

gradient

這字在數學上稱為"梯度"
不過在日長常用語以"漸次變化(率)"等比較好
如室內各空間的私密程度與它們與大門之距離有關

hairy 不是吃重 是極難
令人怕到快抓狂
proximity 喻空間"接近"而非"近似" (p.99)



第16章
很高興能待在這裡
本章一開始先來一段隨堂測驗:   
第一題:貴公司這幾年來,員工離職率是多少?   
第二題:取代一名離職者的平均成本是多少?

計分方式:兩題都答得出來,就算過關,此外皆不及格。結果大多數人都過不了關。   

說句公道話,這種事可能不是你份內的工作。好吧,再提供另一種計分方式:只要貴公司有任何人知道這兩題的答案,就算過關。大多數人還是過不了關。我們避免量測離職率的原因,一如癮君子避免與醫生認真地討論健康問題──這會造成許多困擾,而且結果都是壞消息。

離職率:明顯的成本   
一 般我們所接觸到的離職率在每年80%~33%之間,這代表員工的平均在職時間為15至36個月,假設貴公司目前的離職率落在這個範圍,則員工平均兩年多一 點就會離職。無論是透過人力仲介或公司內部的人事單位,聘雇一位新人的成本相當於一個半月至兩個月的薪水。新人一旦錄用,或許就會立即參與專案,於是他的 時間便完全奉獻給專案。然而,這是帳目上的假象,眾所皆知,新人第一天上班幾乎不會有任何貢獻,甚至更糟,因為其他人還得花時間引導他進入狀況。   

幾 個月後,新人開始有一點貢獻,五個月內,他終於完全上手,於是,公司為新人起步所付出的合理代價,估計大約是每位新人會損失三個月的工時。(顯然,如果工 作內容更加深奧難懂,起步成本就會更高,或高很多。)所以取代一位離職者的總成本,大約是四個半月至五個月的員工薪水,相當於這位新人做下去整整兩年後累 計付給他的薪水的兩成。  

離職率的隱性成本
員工離職的成本占所有人力成本的兩成,但這只是看得見的人員流動成本,更令人感到不安的是看不見的成本,而且情況更糟。   

在高離職率的公司裡,員工傾向採取一種破壞性的短期觀點,因為他們知道自己不會待太久。於是,舉例來說,當你為部屬爭取更好的工作場所時,別太驚訝某個高層人士會這樣反駁:   

「等 等,老兄。你講的都是要花大錢的事,我們要是給工程師那麼大的空間,還有噪音防護,甚至隱私,說不定到最後每個月都得為每個人多花五十塊錢!再乘上全公司 的工程師總數,這可是成千上萬的一大筆數目,我們怎麼可能花這麼多錢!我跟大家一樣都很重視生產力,但你沒看到我們第三季的數字有多糟嗎?」當然,對於以上說法,最無懈可擊的回答就是,現在先投資一個合理的環境,未來便可避免另一個可怕的第三季。不過,勸你還是省省吧,你遇到的是一個眼光短淺 的人,再怎麼無懈可擊也左右不了他,此人大概也快離開公司了,短期支出對他而言是一筆實實在在的支出,至於長期利益則根本不具任何意義。

在高離職率的組織裡,沒有人願意採取長期觀點。

員工為何離職
對正打算換工作的人而言,其理由跟所牽涉到的人的個性一樣,有各式各樣的。一個流動率高到近乎病態(超過50%)的組織中,大部分走人的原因不外乎以下幾點:

●過客心態:同事之間缺乏長期的工作參與感。
●可有可無的感覺:管理就只是把員工當成可替代的零件(既然離職率這麼高,沒有人是無可取代的)。
●覺得對公司忠誠很可笑:誰會效忠一個把員工當成零件的公司?

此處還包括無形的影響,也就是離職率會刺激離職率。由於員工做沒幾天就離職,公司便不需要把錢花在訓練上,既然公司對員工不做任何投資,員工便會認為離職也無妨。

永續經營的理念   
這 些年來,我們有幸能為少數幾家離職率超低的公司效命並擔任顧問,這些最優秀的公司並非都一個樣,不過,有一個共通點就是它們全部都著迷於使自己成為最優秀 的,無論在走廊上、工作會議,以及閒聊時,這始終是共同的話題。相反的情況也是如此:不是「最優秀」的公司很少或從不討論這個話題。

最 優秀的公司本能地會去努力使自己變成最優秀的,此一共同目標帶來了一致的方向、共同的滿足感,以及強大的凝聚效果,在這裡可以感受到永續經營的氣氛,讓人 覺得只有笨蛋才會去別處找工作──其他人會覺得你瘋了。有些很有企圖的公司會直接營造出這種社區感,例如,讀者文摘和部分惠普公司的辦公地點,就有公司為 員工們開闢的社區花園,每到午休時間,花園裡便充滿了業餘耕種或鋤草的農夫,也有人隔著圍籬討論番茄的種種,有時還會舉辦最甜的豌豆或最長的胡瓜比賽,也 有以物易物的活動,你可以拿一些大蒜跟別人交換玉米。   

你可以證明社區花園在短期內根本沒有任何意義,這些開銷都會出現在本季的財務報表上,於是大部分的公司都會立即打消這個念頭。但對最優秀的公司而言,短期利潤並非唯一考量,更重要的是成為最優秀的,而這是個長期的概念。   

員工傾向留在這樣的公司,是因為這裡四處瀰漫著期待你留下的感覺,公司願意大量投資在個人成長,無論是攻讀碩士或時間更長的新人訓練,某些機構甚至長達一年。當公司在培育人才上投資這麼多心力時,你很難不注意到這種期待你留下的訊息。   

低 流動率公司還有另一項共同特徵,就是廣泛的再訓練(retraining)。你很容易碰到從祕書、發薪職員,或收發室小弟升上來的經理或主管。這些人當初 進公司時毫無經驗,通常才剛從學校畢業,當他們需要新技能以做些改變時,公司便提供了這些技能。沒有哪一項工作是死路。

第33章
終極的管理罪惡是……
終極的管理罪惡就是浪費人的時間,聽起來,這個罪惡好像很容易避免,但其實沒那麼簡單,身為管理者,你也有自己的需要,而這些需要可能剛好跟保留並明智運用下屬時間的念頭相牴觸。

例如
你召集部屬開會,自己卻姍姍來遲(你得接一通老闆打來的緊急電話),把大家留在那裡枯等;會議當中,你被人叫出去,就為了跟客戶進行短暫而重要的會談,至於會議,則因你的離席而失去了重點;或者,這場會議本身就是浪費所有人的時間(或許除了你之外)。

會 議一開始,頭幾分鐘都在說笑,老闆安布魯茲跟每個人都能聊上兩句,被點到的人也會哈啦回去,鬧著玩。然後,氣氛驟變,安布魯茲正式主持會議,諸多議題迅速 而有效地提出來,每個議題他都會跟其中一位與會者討論,藉由雙方短暫的交談,安布魯茲會聽取現況報告,以便掌握該週的進度。會議期間,時間大致會平均分配 給每一位與會者,當某一位跟老闆交談時,其他人就在一旁安靜聆聽。輪到伊蓮向老闆報告時,我看到羅傑心不在焉,顯然正在盤算等一下要怎麼向安布魯茲報告。 當會議結束時,安布魯茲分派交辦事項,幾乎人人都有。以上這幅令人熟悉的畫面有什麼問題嗎?我覺得這根本不是一場會議,而是一項儀式。 ──狄馬克

當你召集一群人開會,基本的前提就是為了取得某種共識,因而有必要讓大家聚在會議室裡相互交流。這要是變成與會者輪流跟某位關鍵人物交談,便喪失了大家齊聚一堂的用意,也許老闆個別跟每位部屬私下交談就夠了,其他人沒有必要在場聆聽。   

我 們一開始就說過,這是為了滿足你的需要──身為老闆的需要──才開的會,或許會耽誤幾位部屬的時間,但有何不妥?為了能持續控管,老闆不就是該這麼做嗎? 難道這不是管理並協調眾人行動一致的合理代價嗎?可以說是,也可以說不是。就了解現況的目的而言,召開會議並非絕對必要,還有很多比較不浪費時間的方式可 用。之所以要開會,並不在於滿足老闆對資訊的需求,而是為了一再保證(reassurance),這項儀式提供了一再保證的機會,保證每個人都知道老闆就 是老闆,既然是老闆開的會,大家就該出席,以示對統治階級的尊重。

現況報告會議是跟身分地位有關
召開真正的工作會議必須具 備真正的動機,這才把人都找來,針對某個事情集思廣益,目的在於達成共識。根據定義,這樣的會議是一件特別的事,所謂特別,意味著會議不太可能例行性地召 開,所以,任何例行的會議多少都令人懷疑具有儀式的目的,而不是為了取得眾人的共識。每週召開一次的現況報告會議(status meeting)就是一個明顯的例子,它的目的看起來像是現況報告,然其真正的意圖卻是現況確認,而且此現況並非工作的現況,而是對老闆的身分地位 (status)的確認。

組織是需要儀式,若真的是為了儀式而召開會議也絕對合理,特別是當專案達到某個里程碑、歡迎新進人員,或慶祝共 同完成了某個優秀的工作成果。這種會議並未浪費任何人的時間,它不僅滿足了表達感恩的實際需要,也肯定了所有成員──包括其重要性,及其價值。儀式性的會 議若只是用來歌頌老闆,那才叫浪費。

Peopleware

How to run a project

peopleware.jpg

Hard-won wisdom fills this small book: How to create a team, place, or company that is productive. First published 20 years ago, and updated once since then, copies of it have quietly served as a guru for many start ups and successful projects in Silicon Valley. Neither academic nor faddish, two veteran consultant authors offer real intelligence. This book has totally informed how I do projects. I learned about the myth of overtime, the need for closure and ceremonies, how teams jell, and why everyone should and can have a window. I first read it decades ago and re-read it every time I embark on anything involving more than one person and several years of my life. Unlike a lot of management lore, it is aimed at the project level (where I want to be) rather than the large organization. The message in the book touts productivity, without ever mentioning the dreary idea of time management. It's more about optimizing people, and thus the title, Peopleware.

-- KK

Peopleware:
Productive Projects and Teams, 2nd ed.
Tom Demarco, Timothy Lister
1999, 245 pages
$35
Available from Amazon

Sample excerpts:

I was teaching an in-house design course some years ago, when one of the upper managers buttonholed me to request that I assess some of the people in the course (his project staff). He was particularly curious about one woman. It was obvious he had his doubts about her: "I don't quite see what she adds to a project -- she's not a great developer or tester or much of anything." With a little investigation, I turned up this intriguing fact: During her twelve years at the company, the woman in question had never worked on a project that had been anything other than a huge success. It wasn't obvious what she was adding, but projects always succeeded when she was around. After watching her in class for a week and talking to some of her co-workers, I came to the conclusion that she was a superb catalyst. Teams naturally jelled better when she was there. She helped people communicate with each other and get along. Projects were more fun when she was part of them. When I tried to explain this idea to the manager, I struck out. He just didn't recognize the role of catalyst as essential to a project.

*

Any regular get-together meeting is somewhat suspect to have a ceremonial purpose rather than a focused goal of consensus.

But organizations have a need of ceremony. It's perfectly reasonable to call a meeting with a purpose that is strictly ceremonial, particularly at project milestones, when new people come on board, or for celebrating good work by the group. Such meetings do not waste anyone's time. They fulfill real needs for appreciation. They confirm group membership -- its importance and its value.

*

Modern office politics makes a great class distinction in the matter of allocating windows. Most participants emerge as losers in the window sweepstakes. People who wouldn't think of living in a home without windows end up spending most of their daylight time in windowless workspace.

We are trained to accept windowless office space as inevitable. The company would love for every one of us to have a window, we hear, but that just isn't realistic. Sure it is. There is a perfect proof that sufficient windows can be built into a space without excessive cost. The existence proof is the hotel, any hotel. You can't even imagine being shown a hotel room with no window. You wouldn't stand for it. (And this is for a space you're only going to sleep in.)

peopleware1.jpg
Women's dormitory at Swarthmore College; everyone has windows.

*

The purpose of a team is not goal attainment but goal alignment.

*

A few very characteristic signs indicate that a jelled team has occurred. The most important of these is low turnover during projects and in the middle of well-defined tasks. The team members aren't going anywhere till the work is done. Things that matter enormously prior to jell (money, status, position for advancement) matter less or not at all after jell. People certainly aren't about to leave their team for a rinky-dink consideration like a little more salary.
There is a sense of eliteness on a good team. Team members feel they're part of something unique. They feel they're better than the run of the mill. They have a cocky, SWAT Team attitude that may be faintly annoying to people who aren't part of the group.

*

In my two years at Bell Labs, we worked in two-person offices. They were spacious, quiet, and the phones could be diverted. I shared my office with Wendl Thomis who went on to build a small empire as an electronic toy maker. In those days, he was working on the ESS fault dictionary. The dictionary scheme relied upon the notion of n-space proximity, a concept that was hairy enough to challenge even Wendl's powers of concentration. One afternoon, I was bent over a program listing while Wendl was staring into space, his feet propped up on the desk. Our boss came in and asked, "Wendl! What are you doing?" Wendl said, "I'm thinking." And the boss said, "Can't you do that at home?"

*

Organizations also have some need for closure. Closure for the organization is the successful finish of the work as assigned, plus perhaps an occasional confirmation along the way that everything is on target (maybe a milestone achieved or a significant partial delivery completed). How much confirmation corporations require is a function of how much money is at risk. Frequently, closure only at the end of a four-year effort is adequate for the needs of the organization.
The problem here is that organizations have far less need for closure than do the people who work for them. The prospect of four years of work without any satisfying "thunk" leaves everyone in the group thinking, "I could be dead before this thing is ever done." Particularly when the team is coming together, frequently closure is important. Team members need to get into the habit of succeeding together and liking it. This is part of the mechanism by which the team builds momentum.

*

peopleware2.jpg
Lost production due to change of personnel.

Productivity took a hit when Louise left, even passing below zero for a while as others scurried to make up for the loss of a well-integrated team member. Then, eventually, it worked its way up to where it was before.

The shaded area on the graph represents the lost production (work that didn't get done) caused by Louise's departure. Or, viewed differently, it is the investment that the company is now making to get Ralph up to where Louise was after the company's past investments in her skills and capabilities.

*

Once a team begins to jell, the probability of success goes up dramatically. The team can become almost unstoppable, a juggernaut for success. Managing these juggernaut teams is a real pleasure. You spend most of your time just getting obstacles out of their way, clearing the path so that bystanders don't get trampled underfoot: "Here they come, folks. Stand back and hold onto your hats." They don't need to be managed in the traditional sense, and they certainly don't need to be motivated. They've got momentum.

*

Have you ever been in an organization that simply glowed with health? People were at ease, having a good time and enjoying interactions with their peers. There was no defensiveness, no sense that single individuals were trying to succeed in spite of the efforts of those around them. The work was a joint product. Everybody was proud of its quality.

Presented below is an admittedly simplistic list o the elements of a chemistry-building strategy for healthy organization:
-Make a cult of quality.
-Provide lots of satisfying closure.
-Build a sense of eliteness.
-Allow and encourage heterogeneity.
-Preserve and protect successful teams.
-Provide strategic but not tactical direction.

*

When you first start measuring the E-Factor, don't be surprised if it hovers around zero. People may even laugh at you for trying to record uninterrupted hours: "There is no such thing as an uninterrupted hour in this madhouse." Don't despair. Remember that you're not just collecting data, you're helping to change people's attitudes. By regularly noting uninterrupted hours, you are giving official sanction to the notion that people ought to have at least some interruption-free time. That makes it permissible to hide out, to ignore the phone, or to close the door (if, sigh, there is a door).
At one of our client sites, there was a nearly organic phenomenon of red bandannas on dowels suddenly sprouting from the desks after a few weeks of E-Factor data collection. No one in power had ever suggested that device as an official Do Not Disturb signal; it just happened by consensus. But everyone soon learned its significance and respected it.

*

When you observe a well-knit team in action, you'll see a basic hygienic act of peer-coaching that is going on all the time. Team members sit down in pairs to transfer knowledge. When this happens, there is always one learner and one teacher. Their roles tend to switch back and forth over time with, perhaps, A coaching B about TCP/IP and then B coaching A about implementation of queues. When it works well, the participants are barely even aware of it. They may not even identify it as coaching; to them it may just seem like work.
Whether it is named or not, coaching is an important factor in successful team interaction. It provides coordination as well as personal growth to the participants. It also feels good. We tend to look back on significant coaching we've received as a near religious experience. We feel a huge debt to those who have coached us in the past, a debt that we cheerfully discharge by coaching others.

*

Learning is limited by an organization's ability to keep its people.

*

The most likely learning center for any sizable organization is the white space that lies between and among middle managers. If this white space becomes a vital channel of communication, if middle managers can act together as the redesigners of the organization, sharing a common stake in the result, then the benefits of learning are likely to be realized. If, on the other hand, the white space is empty of communication and common purpose, learning comes to a standstill. Organizations in which middle managers are isolated, embattled, and fearful are nonstarters in this respect.

peopleware3.jpg
Learning happens in the white space.

*

peopleware4.jpg
The proper curve of hiring for a project. Looks odd (so many at the end), but may be the ideal.

*

If you have ever undertaken a major development effort, you almost certainly know the wisdom of the adage, "Build one to throw away." It's only after you're finished that you know how the thing really should have been done. You seldom get to go back and do it again right, of course, but it would be nice.

This same idea can be applied to whole careers. Between the two of us, we've spent nearly thirty years managing projects or consulting on project management. Most of what we've learned, we've learned from doing it wrong the first time. We've never had the luxury of managing any of those projects over again to do it entirely right. Instead, we've written this book.

2008年3月4日 星期二

Tekkon Kinkreet by Michael Arias

Michael Arias

Wikipedia article "Michael Arias".

Michael_Arias.jpg
Michael Arias discusses Tekkon Kinkreet in December of 2006 (photo by Yoshiaki Miura)


惡童當街 Tekkonkinkreet

放映場次
時間: 11/24(六) 12:50
地點: 日新威秀
導演:麥可阿里亞(Michael Arias)
國別:日
年份:2006
片長:111min
規格:35mm
參展/得獎紀錄:

殘 暴冷酷的小黑和天真無邪的小白是街頭的惡童,以特立獨行的生活方式稱霸他們所居住的寶町;貪財的地主欲將寶町開發為商業區,小黑和小白要如何捍衛屬於他們 的城市?松本大洋經典漫畫奇蹟似地躍上大螢幕!與《心靈遊戲》系出同門,保留了原作的風格與精髓,加上最新的CG技術,將復古又超寫實的奇幻世界塑造得令 人目眩神迷。

In Treasure Town, where the moon smiles and young boys can fly, life can be both gentle and brutal. This is never truer than for our heroes, Black and White, two street urchins who watch over the city, doing battle with an array of old-world Yakuza and alien assassins vying for control of the decaying metropolis.

惡童當街(2)(HC0092)

類別: 其他類型漫畫
叢書系列:HIGH COMIC
作者:松本大洋
譯者:林妙賢、高琦智
出版社:時報文化
出版日期:1998年01月18日
世紀末的日本,在一個奇妙的城市中,有兩個被稱為「貓」的少年:小黑與小白。他們為求生存偷搶拐騙無所不來,無法無天的行徑令大人們頭痛不已……。有一 天,和小黑結怨的大尾流氓[老鼠]回來了,為了保護自己的城市,惡童們不惜以暴力為手段,展開一場「貓抓老鼠」的遊戲……。

Thursday, Dec. 21, 2006

'Animatrix' producer Michael Arias becomes the first foreign director to enter Japan's cult domain

Special to The Japan Times

Much has been written about how Japanese anime has stomped across the globe like an out-of-control juggernaut, scooping up legions of fans along the way. Such unbridled success usually results in cross-pollination; new talent floods in from far-flung shores, as was the case with the hordes of Europeans who swarmed to Hollywood in its golden age and still go there today. But Japan's anime industry has remained largely closeted, and certainly no foreigner has ever made the logical move of stepping behind the camera to seize the controls. Until now, that is.

Southern California native Michael Arias is the first foreigner ever to helm a feature-length anime film in Japan.

"No one was ever stupid enough to try before," he says of the distinction that defines "Tekkonkinkreet," his animated adaptation of Taiyo Matsumoto's cult-classic manga (published abroad as "Black and White").

Although "Tekkon" is Arias's directorial debut, the Japan resident of 15 years has long been active behind the scenes on a number of high-profile movie projects, including stints as a special-effects technician on James Cameron's "The Abyss" (1989) and "Total Recall" (1990). Arias, who admits that he's "not much of a draftsman," went into developing software, a career move that eventually led to work on animated films in the United States and elsewhere. His patented "Toon Shaders" plug-in (which gave 3-D computer graphics the look of traditional 2-D animation) helped bring life to some of the more fantastic characters in Hayao Miyazaki's Oscar-winning "Princess Mononoke" (1997). He says, "It brought my work to the attention of the industry in Japan and opened quite a few doors."

Arias formed a strong relationship with the cutting-edge anime production house Studio 4C and wound up as the producer of "The Animatrix" (2003), a package of short films inspired by "The Matrix" movie series. Says Arias of the project, "I'm not really cut out to be a producer, and there I was wrangling nine different animated films from different directors -- a lot of personalities. But it was great that I got to see a lot of aspects of the industry that I wouldn't have otherwise." Arguably more fun to watch than the two disappointing live-action "Matrix" sequels that followed the original, "The Animatrix" is now the best-selling direct-to-video anime title ever in the U.S.

Soon after "The Animatrix," Hollywood started to take a noticeable shine to anime and manga. Quentin Tarantino spiced up "Kill Bill Vol. 1" (2003) with an animated sequence. Samuel L. Jackson provided the voice of the main character in the upcoming Japan-U.S. coproduction "Afro Samurai." Even Arias' old boss Cameron is trying to bring to the screen a live-action film based on the Japanese manga "Battle Angel."

Given his experience, Arias could have cashed in on the wave by attaching himself to a big-name project to further bridge the gap between Herculean Hollywood and the animation industry in Japan. Instead, for the last decade he has spent untold hours toiling on a single-minded quest to bring to the big screen Matsumoto's emotional tale of friendship and its stunning European-influenced artwork, which appeared in 33 installments between 1993 and 1994.

Rather than mount the project in Hollywood, where a watered-down version would probably (and almost did) result, Arias decided to make the film in Japan, where "there's less money, less time, but the ideas are better." Created in collaboration with Studio 4C, the story of two street orphans struggling to survive in an imaginary surreal Pan-Asian city called Takara Machi was named the No. 1 film of 2006 in the annual "Best of" roundup by the New York Museum of Modern Art's Artforum magazine.

Still, Arias believes that the Japanese anime industry, cooler than ever according to rest of the world, may be in danger of drying up at home. It's a good thing then that Arias is in Japan helping to keep it on track.


See related stories:
Anime through an American eye
Outlander gazes into Showa's soul













男性月刊誌 GOETHE」(ゲーテ)

日本的幻冬舍http://www.gentosha.co.jp/ 竟發行、出版雜誌"哥德GOETHE"(男性月刊誌「GOETHE」(ゲーテ))

主題:在工作中自得其樂的人生才會愉快

創字 BUSINESSHOLIC

".......米其林東京美食指南如願在日本創下銷售佳績,自去年11月開賣以來,已賣出逾29萬本。日本人這種既歡迎又排斥的複雜心理,反映米其林美食指南和星級評鑑系統在進入全然不同的飲食文化時,所面臨的考驗。

米其林正極力拓展新興市場,以彌補在歐洲日漸式微的影響力。網路和消費者需求轉變,導致米其林在歐洲的讀者愈來愈少,消費者品味不再受美食指南左右。米其林說,一年在全球賣出100萬本美食指南,歐洲以外市場銷售不斷成長。

不少東京人抱怨,米其林給予不起眼的餐廳很高的評鑑,日本師匠級的餐廳未能入選,反倒是徒弟自立門戶的餐廳得到青睞,讓人懷疑給東京這麼多顆星只是米其林的行銷伎倆。

幻冬舍出版集團會長見城徹說:「了解東京餐廳的人都知道,這份評鑑很可笑。米其林自毀招牌,美食指南將來肯定賣不好。」"
東京美食界 嗆米其林可笑 【經濟日報╱編譯于倩若/綜合東京二日電】 2008.03.03



2008年3月2日 星期日

Pro Domo by Yona Friedman

(1923– )

Hungarian-born, he moved to Paris in 1957, and made his reputation as an architectural theorist and visionary designer. With Frei Otto and others he founded the Groupe d'Étude d'Architecture Mobile (GEAM—Group for the Study of Mobile Architecture), and evolved the notion of the city as a primary permanent infrastructure or framework with a changeable impermanent secondary structure determined by the users and erected using simple technologies. He published several books expounding his ideas, including L'Architecture Mobile (1970) and Alternatives Énergétiques (1980). He has been considered as contributing to Experimental architecture, and is associated with Megastructures and Mobile architecture.


b Budapest, 5 June 1923). French architect of Hungarian birth. He studied architecture at the Technical University, Budapest (1943), but he left Hungary in 1945, completed his training at the Technion, Haifa (Dip. Arch., 1948) and subsequently taught. In 1956 he attended CIAM X in Dubrovnik, which confirmed his belief that requirements generated by technological progress and demographic growth were too great to be solved by traditional social, urban and architectural values and structures. In 1957 he settled in Paris and founded the Groupe d'Etude d'Architecture Mobile (GEAM) with Paul Maymont, Frei Otto, Eckard Schultze-Fielitz, Werner Runhau and D. G. Emmerich. The group's manifesto was Friedman's L'Architecture mobile (1958), in which he rejected the idea of a static city. In contrast he developed the principle of ‘infrastructure', a skeletal metal ‘space-frame grid' of several levels, on which mobile lightweight ‘space-defining elements' would be placed. He proposed to adapt these ideas for large cities by superimposing this grid on the existing fabric of London, Tunis and New York, or by allowing commercial facilities to be built over the network of high speed roads in Los Angeles.


Extract from "Pro Domo"

Monday, September 17, 2007

The following extract was taken from Yona Friedman's "Pro Domo" (Actar, 2006), pp. 118-123.

I believe that each animal species interprets the experience we call the "world" in its own way. I base this hypothesis on the observation I have made of dogs, the only other species I have known well enough as the human species.
In order to be able to define human interpretations, I have first tried to refer to what seems to me to be characteristic of a dog's interpretation of universe, although I cannot be absolutely sure.
It seems to me that dogs do not "see". What I mean by that is they do not pay attention to separated, individual "things". Their sight is holistic, images of a group of "things" at a given moment. These images contain everything that fits in a fixed and immobile "setting" which lasts a split second. As visual experience consists of a sequence of a non-determined length of images, their attention is absorbed by each change between two consecutive "settings," two movements. But the change they perceive is not the movement of any random thing, but it is the movement of the whole "setting". The whole universe changes, not just some parts of it.
Dogs seem to consider the whole universe as the "reservoir" of their means of survival. They take what they need from this reservoir at the moment they need it and do not care about what is left. Thus other dogs or any other living being wishing to take from the reservoir remain free to do so. Dogs do not accumulate reserves.
The fact that they do not collect goods prevents them from understanding the abstract idea of "property" and consequently, they do not understand the "barter system." If they leave something for others, they do not ask to be "paid" for it.
Beyond any doubt, a hierarchy of domination between dogs exists. The leader of the pack has preference over others to food or to court a female. "Canine society" is patriarchal.
But, very importantly, canine society never tries to have slaves; it never forces some dogs to do the jobs which others consider hard. A leader of a pack does not have servants.
Dogs seem to possess a developed sense of chronology. They notice that some events are followed by others with a seemingly exact certitude. But they do not seem to attribute the course of events to a causal chain. Dogs do not have "metaphysics".
My last remark about dogs has to do with the way they communicate.
Communication between dogs does not seem to need abstract symbols, phonetics or anything else. I think that the only components of canine communication are emotions, expressed by gestures and individual onomatopoeia, and that it does not imply a common code shared by all dogs. This communication between dogs is not useful to collective information.
Though dogs do not possess a language which carries information, they do know the "signals." The "signal" is not a symbol. All animals are attentive to signals, especially the larger felines.



Because Hugo was right - architecture today is about the press, not the building!

Pro Domo

Monday, September 17, 2007

It proudly states on the cover of this book that "this book is not actually a 'book'."
This isn't true - it is, in fact, a book and demonstrates all the attributes of bookiness.
The next sentence on the book's cover says "It is a collection of fragments on scattered topics produced in different periods of my life."
This is actually true and it makes the book quite interesting, largely due to the fact that its author, Yona Friedman, is quite an interesting person in that unorthodox kind of way.
So the book presents snapshots of Friedman's work from over the past 50 years as a kind of retrospective.
Friedman is not an architect whose name crops up regularly, even though his 1958 manifesto on "mobile architecture" and his "ville spatiale" influenced the much more famous Archigram group's plug-in city. More the theorist than practitioner, Friedman's work seems to be something of a contradiction of humanity and cold science. He says that "the two most important impulses in 20th century architecture, as it seems to me, are 1) space frame structures... and 2) the Merzbau of Kurt Schwitters." It is the combination of these that create the megastructure of the ville spatiale which is a huge framework built on stilts above the existing city. Within the framework, users can construct their own dwellings. This framework was proposed to be several stories high and can certainly not be called a thing of beauty. Friedman proposed it for cities all over the world as a kind of self-organisation: "My goal since 1945 has been to conceive a work of architecture without a plan, in other words, an improvised work."

But it's not just these ideas that occupied Friedman's fertile mind. He tinkered with processes to allow users to design their own dwelling plans - the Flatwriter - which is kind of like a typewriter with symbols to help users design their own dwellings within a larger framework. He also invented the concept of "continent cities", a network of railways connecting each city. This new vision of Europe is simlar to an idea in the Global Cities exhibition at last year's Venice Biennale, showing how much of Europe could be reached within x hours of a city using only railway travel, now that the Eurotunnel has linked the UK with the continent. This is a preferable situation to the megalopolis, claims Friedman, and The Sesquipedalist cannot disagree.

Friedman goes beyond the physical city to more involved social issues and discusses economics at length. According to economic theory, the three-sector hypothesis divides economies into three sectors of activity: extraction of raw materials (primary), manufacturing (secondary), and services (tertiary). Friedman augments this with his so-called "quaternary sector":
I call "quaternary sector" that fraction of the population called "inactive" (as opposed to "active") that performs socially useful work, but whose work does not figure in the gross national product."
This is all commensurate with him constantly thinking about the world as a whole, placing particular emphasis on the undeveloped nations. Other aspects of this thinking that are explored in this memoire are the participatory design exercises, erratic (or random) structures and structures built from rubbish. He covers the gamut from ground level interventions to abstract mathematics and seems to have a theory on all scales of life.

Interleaved between these writings are pages of quick cartoons, a method he devised to create "manuals" for self-plan projects. These are line drawings with stick men to quickly get a message across in an un-selfconscious style. It's these small ideas and ways of looking at things, rather than the "grands projets" that makes Friedman interesting and worth a look at. For example, The Sesquipedalist's favourite piece is his leap into dog interpretation, extracted here. Maybe it's just me as a dog-lover, but these unfounded notes are a combination of the bizarre, touching and insightful, which pretty much sums up this "non-book".


Pro Domo (2006) by Yona Friedman
Actar

Hardback, 320 pages.






£17.00 from Amazon.co.uk here
$25.08 from Amazon.com here

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2007-05-22 09:29:46   來自: 蒼間 (上海)

Yona Friedman: Pro Domo
的評論 *****

   西元前57年,古羅馬第一雄辯家西賽羅從流放地回到家鄉,發現他的宅第已被對手Publius Clodius拆毀,在原址建造了神廟。為了維護自己的權益,西賽羅發表了一篇雄辯演說“Pro Domo Sua” (為家園辯護),最終說服了長老院,拆除神廟,重建了他的家園。


  歸還他人的家園,真正使得使用者成為其主人,使得建築盡可能的自主建造,這也正是Yona Friedman作為一個建築師,一個城市與人類的思考者,用其畢生事業來努力實現的人生理想。這本《為家園辯護——尤納弗萊德曼》正是他在眾多領域所 做的眾多成績中隨意選取的片段。從這些不同時期不同研究的文章和圖像中,不難看出Yona Friedman對人類社會所賴以棲居的家園的熱愛與觀照,他從獨特的建築視角出發,用那些簡明的象形語彙、草圖模型等獨創工具,為我們建構出一個更加理 想,更加美好的生活世界,同時得以讓使用者重新成為家園的主人。而這也正是這本書借用西塞羅的演說“Pro Domo”作為本書書名的良苦意願。


  早在上個世紀50年代,Yona Friedman提出的移動建築Mobile Architecture)的設想就引起了建築界的廣泛爭論。隨著研究的深入,他不斷涉獵不同的領域,從社會學、經濟學、美學、物理學、心理學等諸多視野 審視建築的本質,並且對使用者的空間權益等問題提出可行性探討。他由居住者決定住宅與城市規劃的理念以及由此具象化生成的空中城市橋鎮等計 劃,給當時的城市規劃帶來不小的震動,開啟了建築設計與城市規劃的新思路,更對今日的城市形成影響深遠。上世紀60年代出現的英國建築電訊Archigram)和日本的新陳代謝派Metabolism)都受其影響。


  Yona Friedman現定居在法國巴黎,雖然已有83歲的高齡,但是依然充滿著令人驚異的各種奇思妙想。隨著老人閱歷的積澱,除卻那些早期那些極端民主化理念的延續,這本《Pro Domo》中更散發出睿智豁達意味深長的哲理光芒,久而彌篤。


  誠然,如他本人所言,這本《Pro Domo(為家園辯護——尤納 弗萊得曼)》並不算是一本建築理論的專著,書中編集了他一生中不同時期的零散思想片段,甚至沒有選用他那些已經被廣為流傳的經典文章。同時因為 Yona是憑感性判斷來任意摘選的,這些不同時期寫就與發表的文章與圖像似乎聯繫不大。初讀此書,眾多陌生且鮮活的理論概念在腦海中不斷跳躍湧動,從二戰 廢墟到天空城市,從莫斯堡空間到大跨度結構,從粒子時空到第四產業,從蛋白質鏈到洲際城市等等,不得不讓人在驚歎其思維空間之廣博,並贊佩其理念的超前。 而當這些概念及其解釋逐漸清晰,彼此拼合,便顯現出一幅迥異于現世的人類生活世界的美好圖景。


  本書開始的自述部分使我們初步瞭解Yona建築理念的發展歷程;隨後的自我訪談則更深入的闡述了移動城市空中城市不確定性等核心理念的架構與肇源;沿用這些理念,城市部分闡述其可變城市理論、洲際城市等概念,並描繪出未來城市的迷人景象;普遍理論則是從動物的視角出發,描述出另一種對於世界的詮釋,那是哲與詩;舉措部分則說明一種體現自助建造的輔助工具Flatwriter;在剖析今日建築師至上的社會經濟體制過程中,他用簡單的圖像語彙向我們講解了國際社會經濟運作過程,並指出第四產業的隱性能量,從而在生存章節裏驗證了自主建造的可能性;近些年來,Yona則致力於研發展示各種不規則結構在建築中的應用,將自主性建造形象化為各種不確定的即興的空間結構形態類型;沿用其可變建築以及空中城市理念,最後的方案部分是他在各個時期在各個地區所做的概念性設計方案。


   當我們終日沉迷於圖紙上的空間形態,執著於建築定勢的鞏固,或頂禮膜拜,或熱衷效仿,或逆來順受時,Yona也許正在牽著他的愛犬,散步於巴黎的某條小巷 中,而在他眼裏,100年後的城市風貌已然清晰。這位建築師,奇跡般的超然於當代建築主流思潮的喧囂之外,用一種簡單的智慧,提醒著我們切莫執著於建築的意義而放棄了建築的自由,提醒著我們:基本框架建造+自主生活調整=生活世界(海德格爾所言的人類存在原點)。


  如他所言,建築,其實更應該像每個人的拿手好菜,建築,其實更應該是親自動手的試錯過程。試錯意味著有所為有所不為,意味著清規戒律越少越好,越不精確越好。事實上,這也就是的特性。

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