2010年1月16日 星期六

stigma by Erving Goffman

污名——受损身份管理札记
作  者: (美)戈夫曼 著,宋立宏
出 版 社: 商务印书馆
  • 出版时间: 2009-12-1
  • 字  数:
  • 版  次: 1
  • 页  数: 200
  • 印刷时间: 2009-12-1
  • 开  本: 大32开
  • 印  次: 1



stigma

n., pl., stig·ma·ta (stĭg-mä'tə, -măt'ə, stĭg'mə-), or stig·mas.
  1. A mark or token of infamy, disgrace, or reproach: "Party affiliation has never been more casual . . . The stigmata of decay are everywhere" (Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.). See synonyms at stain.
  2. A small mark; a scar or birthmark.
  3. Medicine. A mark or characteristic indicative of a history of a disease or abnormality.
  4. Psychology. A mark or spot on the skin that bleeds as a symptom of hysteria.
  5. stigmata Bodily marks, sores, or sensations of pain corresponding in location to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus, usually occurring during states of religious ecstasy or hysteria.
  6. Biology. A small mark, spot, or pore, such as the respiratory spiracle of an insect or an eyespot in certain algae.
  7. Botany. The receptive apex of the pistil of a flower, on which pollen is deposited at pollination.
  8. Archaic. A mark burned into the skin of a criminal or slave; a brand.

[Middle English stigme, brand, from Latin stigma, stigmat-, tattoo indicating slave or criminal status, from Greek, tattoo mark, from stizein, stig-, to prick.]

stigmal stig'mal adj.

Erving Goffman
(born June 11, 1922, Manville, Alta., Can. — died Nov. 19, 1982, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) Canadian-U.S. sociologist. Goffman taught principally at the Universities of California and Pennsylvania. He studied primarily face-to-face communication and related rituals of social interaction; his The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959) laid out the dramaturgical perspective he used in subsequent studies, such as Asylums (1961) and Stigma (1964). In Frame Analysis (1979) and Forms of Talk (1981), he focused on the ways people "frame" or define social reality in the communicative process. See also interactionism.


“污名”之成为社会科学中的一个核心概念要归功于戈夫曼。在本书中,戈夫曼将污名定义个体在人际关系中具有的某种令人“丢脸”的特征,这种特征使其拥有者 具有一种“受损身份”。作者分析了蒙受污名者的自我感受以及他们与“常人”问的微妙互动,重点阐述了蒙受污名者在人际互动中进行“信息控制”的各种技巧。

目录

第一章 污名与社会身份
一些初步概念
自己人和明白人
道德生涯
第二章 信息控制与个人身份
丢脸者与会丢脸者
社会信息
可见度
个人身份
传记
传记性的他人

信息控制的技巧
打掩护
第三章 群体定位与自我身份
暖昧
职业的呈现
内群体的定位
外群体的定位
身份的政治学
第四章 自我及自我的他人
偏常行为与规范
正常的越轨者
污名与现实
第五章 偏常行为与越轨
译后小记

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