By CHARLES M. BLOW
Like Pinocchio, Mitt Romney will make a plea to be normal, to be made real.
昨天讀某本Florence, Italy 翡靈翠(胡適翻譯)
旅遊書 發現此書 參考牛津兒童文學手冊 可知1940年的迪斯尼卡通完全"軟化"改寫 Pinocchio
|The Adventures of Pinocchio character|
Original art by Enrico Mazzanti
|First appearance||The Adventures of Pinocchio|
|Created by||Carlo Collodi|
 Fictional character biographyPinocchio is known for having a short nose that becomes longer when he is under stress (chapter 3), especially while telling a lie. His clothes are made of flowered paper, his shoes are made of wood and his hat is made of bread (page 16 of Collodi's Le Avventure di Pinocchio). Despite the fact that in Italian the name Pinocchio might be a version of 'baby pine' (a portmanteau of pino, pine, and marmocchio, brat), in fact it means pine nut which is distinctly, probably willfully illogical as the book clearly states that the puppet was made out of cherry wood. The name actually comes from a nickname: Geppetto wryly gave the puppet the name Pinocchio as an omen of good fortune: Ho conosciuto una famiglia intera di Pinocchi [...] e tutti se la passavano bene. Il più ricco di loro chiedeva l’elemosina (chapter 1) (I have known the entire Pinocchio family [...] and all of them managed well. The richest begged). However the surname itself may be derived from the Italian word nocchio, meaning a gnarl or knot in wood.
 Comic booksIn Europe there were several adaptations to the comics medium from different artists, including Salvador Bartolozzi in Pinocho (Calleja, 1925), Salvador Mestres in Aventuras de Pinocho (Cliper, 1944), Benito Jacovitti in Il Vittorioso (1946), or Martz Schmidt in Pinocho (Bruguera, 1957).
Pinocchio and Geppetto are both major characters in the ongoing comic book series Fables, written by Bill Willingham, first published in 2003. Pinocchio briefly appears in the 2001 movie Shrek and has a larger role in the 2004 sequel Shrek 2 and the 2007 sequel Shrek the Third. Pinocchio also appears in two episodes of the animated TV show The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy: "Nursery Crimes / My Peeps" and "Billy Ocean", only this version needs to eat human flesh to become human and is evil.
Japanese manga artist Osamu Tezuka was inspired by this story when he created the popular icon Astro Boy. In addition, the story of Pinocchio was made into an anime television series by Tatsunoko Productions in 1972 as Kashi no Ki Mokku (Mokku the Oak Tree), and again by Nippon Animation in 1976 as The Adventures of Piccolino (Pinocchio was renamed "Piccolino" in this version). Tatsunoko's series was shown on HBO in the United States in 1992 as Saban's Adventures of Pinocchio. The Japanese superhero Kikaider (1972), created by Shotaro Ishinomori, was partly inspired by Pinocchio (and by Frankenstein's monster). A character named "Pino", who was inspired by the Pinocchio character, appeared in the video games Toy Pop (1986) and Wonder Project J (1995).
 Disney versionPinocchio was the second feature-length animated film made by the Disney company. Walt Disney took several liberties in rewriting the story of Pinocchio and there are only a few similarities when compared with the original Italian version of 1883.
Pinocchio is seen as a living puppet, who must prove himself to become a real boy. He is seen in a slightly pudgy face, blue eyes, 4 fingers (later 5 as his flesh-and-blood form at the end), a yellow hat, a blue bow tie, white opera gloves, red overalls, black vest, and white socks (in his flesh-and blood form at the end).
His first appearance in the film is as a lifeless puppet. When it was time for bed, Geppetto caught sight of a wishing star and wished Pinocchio to become a real boy. Once Geppetto fell asleep, his home was visited by the Blue Fairy, who brought Pinocchio to life and Jiminy Cricket became his official conscience to tell him right from wrong, for, if Pinocchio proved himself brave, truthful and unselfish, he would be transformed into a real boy. Geppetto discovered his puppet is alive and celebrated along with Figaro the kitten and Cleo the goldfish.
The next morning, Pinocchio is ready for school, but is stopped by two villainous actors: J. Worthington Foulfellow (a.k.a. "Honest John") and his silent sidekick, Gideon, who trick him into working for Stromboli, a puppeteer. They tell him being rich and famous is the only way to live. Pinocchio listens, believes, and ends up following the wrong path. Jiminy tries to stop him, but is unsuccessful, so he chases after him.
Stromboli is paid beyond his wildest dreams for Pinocchio's magnificent performance. After the show, Pinocchio and Stromboli are dining and the man's true nature is revealed as parsimonious, evil and rotten. He cages Pinocchio and threatens him to perform. Pinocchio manages to escape with the help of Jiminy and the Blue Fairy.
During their trip home, Pinocchio and Jiminy race home, but Pinocchio is stopped once again by Honest John and Gideon. They tell Pinocchio he's sick and the only cure is a vacation on Pleasure Island. They take him to the Coachman, along with many other boys, including a brat named Lampwick, who Pinocchio calls his best friend.
Once the place is torn apart, everyone has vanished, except Lampwick and Pinocchio, who are smoking and drinking while playing pool. Once Jiminy confronts the two, he is so upset, he storms out. Soon, Jiminy discovers the plan; Pleasure Island has the power to transform bad boys into donkeys, which the Coachman sells into slavery, and rushes back to get Pinocchio. Lampwick's transformation is complete, but Pinocchio and Jiminy escape the island. Unfortunately, Pinocchio has grown donkey ears and a tail.
The two reach home, but realize there's no one home. They sit and wait on the steps for everyone to return. Suddenly, the Blue Fairy comes in the shape of a dove and gives them a letter which tells them Geppetto was eaten by Monstro the Whale.
The pair start searching the ocean for Monstro with very little luck. When they ask sea creatures such as clams and seahorses, they swim and hide in fear at the mention of Monstro's name. Meanwhile, after a nap, Monstro awakens and begins an eating frenzy. Everything in his path was either devoured or destroyed (including Pinocchio). Once Monstro was found, Pinocchio was able to reunite with Geppetto, Figaro and Cleo. Pinocchio soon thinks of a plan to escape Monstro by making him sneeze.
Once Pinocchio is able to get Monstro to sneeze, the enraged animal chases after him and his father. The whale destroys the raft, sending Pinocchio and Geppetto into the unforgiving sea. After witnessing his father almost drowning, Pinocchio grabs him and swims to shore as quick as he can, but it's too late. Even before he gets there, Monstro slams into a rocky wall, creating a forty foot tidal wave and killing him. Geppetto, Figaro, Cleo, and Jiminy survive. When Jiminy looks for Pinocchio, he makes a very depressing discovery - Pinocchio is lying face down in a large puddle.
Geppetto, Figaro, Cleo, and Jiminy return home and grieve over Pinocchio. Then the Blue Fairy revives Pinocchio and transforms him into a real boy because he has now proved himself brave, truthful and unselfish. Jiminy is then awarded with a certified 18-karat conscience badge.
Pinocchio appears in House of Mouse in several episodes, voiced by Michael Welch and in the direct-to-video films Mickey's Magical Christmas: Snowed in at the House of Mouse and Mickey's House of Villains. He also made a cameo in Phineas and Ferb in two episodes and can be seen in Who Framed Roger Rabbit. He also appears in cameo in the film Aladdin and is also seen in another film Teacher's Pet, and made a cameo in Tangled.
 Updated illustrationsIn 2002, the original story of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi was illustrated by Gris Grimly. This version of the book gave a new visual style to the classic fairy tale which led to a planned stop motion animated feature co-directed by Grimly and Adam Parrish-King, and produced by Guillermo Del Toro and The Jim Henson Company. Takashi Nakamura's A Tree of Palme (2002) takes the viewer into a darker and more twisted version of Pinocchio (although Steven Spielberg also shows a glimpse of this shattered childhood psyche in his Pinocchioesque character David in A.I. Artificial Intelligence).
 Use in musicMusic inspired by Pinocchio and his adventures first appeared in the film version of Pinocchio in 1940, with the most notable tunes from this being "Give a Little Whistle" and "When You Wish upon a Star". Jazz saxophonist Wayne Shorter composed the tune "Pinocchio" while with the second Miles Davis Quintet; Shorter's composition was recorded on the Miles Davis album "Nefertiti" for Columbia Records in 1968. Cursive released a song that draws heavily on a Pinocchio allegory, entitled "Driftwood: A Fairy Tale," on The Ugly Organ in 2003. The lyrics describe a fairy bringing the boy to life, only for him to drift away. While on tour in Singapore, rapper Kanye West performed the freestyle "Pinocchio Story", comparing himself to Pinocchio in the sense that his own life lacked depth, that he yearns for a simple, family-oriented social life instead of the pressure of fame, and thus he states 'I just wanna be a real boy'. He also mourns the death of his mother, comparing her to Geppetto. The freestyle can be heard as a bonus track on 808s and Heartbreak. In 2009, Tech N9ne referenced the story in the chorus of his song "Pinocchiho" from his album K.O.D., in which he sings "I just want to be a normal boy". In 2011, a popular dancing girl group in South Korea, f(x), released a song entitled "Pinocchio (Danger)" which topped charts in an instant. Electronic musician Doctor Steel also has a track labeled "Donkey Town", which refers to the grim realities of Pleasure Island.
 Picture bookPinocchio: The Boy is a children's picture book by Lane Smith. It was originally published in 2002 by Viking Books.
 Pinocchio paradoxThere is a popular conception that Pinocchio's nose grows only when he lies. Under this condition, the Pinocchio Paradox is an analogy for the liar paradox, expressing the dilemma of what will happen if Pinocchio says "My nose will grow now." If he is lying, his nose should grow, but if his nose grows, then he is actually telling the truth. On the other hand, if he is telling the truth and his nose starts growing, then it will violate the condition that his nose grows only when he is lying.
 Sculpture in BoråsIn Borås a nine meters high bronze sculpture of the fairy-tale figure was unveiled in May 2008. It is called Walking to Borås and is the American pop artist and sculptor Jim Dine's figurative interpretation of Pinocchio.
 Other versionsPinocchio is a major supporting character in the Shrek film series. While he only appears briefly in the first film, he becomes an important friend and ally to Shrek in the second and third films. His is portrayed as obnoxious and dim-witted, but good hearted, often giving aid to the protagonists through the use of his extendable nose.
- ^ British English and American English: http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/dictionary/pinocchio
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. 1989. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/79506
- ^ López, Félix (20 de septiembre de 2011). "Le avventure di Pinocchio (Saga de Pinocho)" (in spanish). Tebeosfera.
- ^ http://www.bloody-disgusting.com/news/14321
- ^ McNary, Dave (14 November 2008). "Guillermo del Toro plots 'Pinocchio'". Variety.
- ^ "The Pinocchio Paradox". Maverick Philosopher.
- Pinocchio | Short Stories
- The Adventures of Pinocchio
- Pinocchio Park (Italian)
- New Pinocchio Stop Motion Film ventured by Guillermo Del Toro, Gris Grimly, The Henson Company, and Adam Parrish King.
- Full text of Le Avventure di Pinocchio in the original Italian
The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in Nottinghamshire|
|Genre(s)||Children's literature, historical fiction|
 PlotThe plot follows Robin Hood as he becomes an outlaw after a conflict with foresters and through his many adventures and run-ins with the law. Each chapter tells a different tale of Robin as he recruits Merry Men, resists the authorities, and aids his fellow man. The popular stories of Little John defeating Robin in a fight with staffs, of Robin's besting at the hands of Friar Tuck, and of his collusion with Alan-a-Dale all appear. In the end, Robin and his men are pardoned by King Richard Lionheart and his band are incorporated into the king's retinue, much to the dismay of the Sheriff of Nottingham.
 Development and significancePyle had been submitting illustrated poems and fairy tales to New York publications since 1876, and had met with success. The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood was the first novel he attempted. He took his material from old ballads and wove them into a cohesive story, altering them for coherence and the tastes of his child audience. Pyle's book continued the 19th century trend of portraying Robin Hood as a heroic outlaw who robs the rich to feed the poor; this portrayal contrasts with the Robin Hood of the ballads, where the protagonist is an out-and-out crook, whose crimes are motivated by personal gain rather than politics or a desire to help others. The novel was first published by Scribner's in 1883, and met with immediate success.
Pyle's work ushered in a new era of Robin Hood stories. It helped solidify the image of a heroic Robin Hood, which had begun in earlier works such as Walter Scott's 1819 novel Ivanhoe. In Pyle's wake, Robin Hood has become a staunch philanthropist protecting innocents against increasingly aggressive villains. Along with the publication of the Child Ballads by Francis James Child, which included most of the surviving Robin Hood ballads, Pyle's novel helped increase the popularity of the Robin Hood legend in the United States. The Merry Adventures also had an effect on subsequent children's literature. It helped move the Robin Hood legend out of the realm of penny dreadfuls and into the realm of respected children's books. After Pyle, Robin Hood became an increasingly popular subject for children's books: Louis Rhead's Bold Robin Hood and His Outlaw Band (1912) and Paul Creswick's Robin Hood (1917), illustrated by Pyle's pupil N. C. Wyeth, were children's novels after Pyle's fashion.
- ^ a b c d e "Robin Hood: Development of a Popular Hero". From The Robin Hood Project at the University of Rochester. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
- ^ Chandler, John. "Robin Hood: Select Literary Biography". From The Robin Hood Project at the University of Rochester. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
- ^ a b Wright, Allen W. "Changes to the Legend: Children's Stories and Comic Operas". From Wolfshead Through the Ages: The History of Robin Hood. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
- ^ Allen and Allen, p. 202.
- Allen, Douglas, and Douglas Allen Jr., N. C. Wyeth: The Collected Paintings, Illustrations, and Murals, New York, Crown Publishers, 1972, ISBN 051750054X
- The Robin Hood Project at the University of Rochester.
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