2016年6月10日 星期五

茨威格Stefa Zweign 《昨日的世界》The World of Yesterday 《蒙田》《一个古老的梦:伊拉斯谟传 》畫傳《巴爾扎克傳》

看了描述奧地利作家褚威格Stefan Zweig的傳記電影《拂曉之前》Vor der Morgenröte,非常感動。
納粹在歐洲擴張,猶太裔奧地利作家褚威格不得不流亡南美,四處旅行、演說,沿途書寫。1942年,他和第二任妻子在巴西Petrópolis自殺。關於他的生平,我就不多說,網路上有很多資料。
導演Maria Schrader以一個Long Take開啟電影,帶領觀眾進入褚威格的南美流亡日子,電影紓緩展開,不激情不造作,慢慢進入作家的飄浪孤寂,最蔥綠的熱帶,對比最冰冷的心靈,最後電影再以一個Long Take處理作家的自殺,緩慢關上記憶。結尾的長鏡頭真的很節制,以一面櫥櫃鏡子映照,間接拍下作家的死。
這是我今年看到最好的德國電影。


Stefan and Lotte Zweig's South American Letters: New York, ... - Google 圖書結果



《茨威格畫傳》上海: 復旦大學 2011
台灣話: 無魚蝦亦好 多少可參考

本書是我國著名翻譯家高中甫先生最近的力作,以優美的文筆和翔實的資料勾勒出了茨威格傳奇的一生,尤其是全書收入了200多幅有關茨威格的珍貴照片,是國 內第一本最權威的茨威格畫傳。斯蒂芬‧茨威格是偉大的猶太小說大師,是著名的心理分析大師。他以《一個女人一生的24小時》、《陌生女人的來信》、《象棋 的故事》、《三大師》等一系列杰作征服的世界,通過對人類靈魂的挖掘與刻畫,其作品以濃郁的抒情性和人物傳記強烈的時人感與現實性使用中國讀者為之傾倒。 而茨威格生性內斂抑郁,帝人很難洞翻他的內心世界。他的婚戀,他的政治態度以及他和妻子雙雙自殺,都構成了世界文壇之謎。


序言
家世,童年
求學年代(1900-1914)
第一次世界大戰(1914-1918)
第一共和國時期(1918-1938)
最後的歲月(1939-1942)
茨威格年表
後記


在德語作家中,特別是在奧地利作家群中,斯‧茨威格在中國是最為熟悉的作家之一了。他在1939年用英文寫的一份簡歷中這樣寫道︰“我的著作的影響也超出 了民族,這是一種特別幸運的機緣,甚至是生活所給予我的最偉大的祝福。正如我感到整個世界是我的家鄉一樣,我的書在地球上所有語言中找到了友誼和接受。” 在他生前,特別是在死後,歷史為他的這段話做了印證。據聯合國教科文組織的統計,斯,茨威格是作品被翻譯成最多語言的作家之一,是世界上擁有讀者最多的作 家之一。我沒有看到近期的資料,但我這里有1981年為紀念茨威格逝世一百周年發表的一篇署名盧道夫‧J‧克拉維特的文章︰《一份最新的茨威格研究現 狀》。此文對1965年之前和之後直到1980年茨威格作品的出版和翻譯情況做了詳細的統計。以他的《人類命運攸關的時刻》為例,到1980年為止,共印 制了62版,被翻譯成23種語言,被翻譯了41次。這位研究者肯定在他的統計中沒有把中文包括在內。在1981年之前,茨威格的名字在中國還不廣為人知, 雖然茨威格本人在他撰寫《昨日的世界》時,就已經知道,他的作品被譯成中文。在三四十年代,茨威格的個別著作,如傳記《羅曼‧羅蘭》、《巴爾扎克傳》和小 說《馬來亞狂人》(即《熱帶癲狂癥患者>)被譯成中文出版,但此後就歸于消寂之中。直到80年代初,以茨威格百年祭為起點,茨威格在中國文學藝術新 的春天的到來之際為中國讀者所熟悉、所喜愛,並且形成了可說是“茨威格熱”的年代。茨威格是一位勤奮的作家,雖說一生只活了六十個年頭,但創作了十二部傳 記、九部散文集、七部戲劇、六本小說集、兩部長篇(一部未完成)小說、兩本詩集、一部中篇小說的殘稿以及一部題為《昨日的世界》的自傳。這些作品,除戲劇 和部分詩歌,都已被譯成了中文,並且有多個譯本和各種版本。這是茨威格在中國擁有大量的、不同階層的讀者群的一個明證。

歌德在他的自傳《詩與真》的附錄中寫道︰“無論是對一個藝術家還是對一個藝術流派,都不能孤立地去進行觀察,他是同他生活于其中的國家,同他的民族中的人 民大眾,同時代連在一起的……”這確是至理名言。我們要了解茨威格的成長過程,要了解他走的文學之路,我們就要認識19世紀末期的奧匈帝國,認識它的首都 維也納那種世紀末的氛圍。奧匈帝國是一個多民族國家,建于1867年,是一個二元帝國,奧地利皇帝兼匈牙利國王。到19世紀末,它的興盛期已過,國運式 微;帝國內部的民族矛盾日益激烈,歐洲列強間的爭奪日益頻仍;工人運動蓬勃發展,民族解放的革命,階級之間的斗爭都正蓄勢待發。到20世紀頭一個十年,第 一次世界大戰爆發,終于導致這個曾顯赫一時的帝國的滅亡,奧地利第一共和國成立了。然而這個奧匈帝國瀕臨覆滅的世紀交替之際卻正是奧地利歷史上科學和文學 藝術一個生機勃發的時期。如茨威格所言︰“維也納是西方一切文化的綜合。”當時的維也納文化藝術界形成了一個百家競榮的局面。如馬赫 (1838-1911)在哲學上的成就,弗洛伊德(1886-1939)的精神分析學的創立,古‧馬勒(1860-1911)、里‧施特勞斯 (1864-1949)、勛伯格(1874-1951)在音樂上創新和贏得的世界聲譽,建築和繪畫藝術上的分離派和印象派的飲譽歐洲,而文學上則是“青年 維也納”的崛起。“青年維也納”代表著1890年至1914年第一次世界大戰爆發前這段時間的文學主流,涌現了海爾曼‧巴爾、卡爾‧克勞斯、阿’施尼茨 勒、霍夫曼斯塔爾、彼‧阿爾敦伯格、里‧貝爾一霍夫曼以及斯’茨威格等一批杰出的作家、戲劇家、批評家、政論家。正是由于“青年維也納”的出現使這個時代 的奧地利文學達到了一個前所未有的高峰,不僅它被提升到與其他的德語文學作品的同等地位,而且在整個歐洲乃至整個世界都得到了高度的承認。維也納在文學藝 術上的影響勝于柏林、慕尼黑,可以與巴黎媲美。

我們仔細觀察這一時期奧地利文學的發展,會發現一個值得注意的現象,“青年維也納”的一些代表性的作家、藝術家都出身猶太人血統,如卡爾,克勞斯、阿‧施尼茨勒、霍夫曼斯塔爾、彼‧阿爾敦伯格、里‧貝爾-霍夫曼等人,這其中也包括斯‧茨威格。


****

Fear by Stefan Zweig

Nicholas Lezard on there still being a place for Stefan
  • A few weeks ago, the London Review of Books published a review of Stefan Zweig's The World of Yesterday by Michael Hofmann. It wasn't just a review of the book; it was a splenetic, infuriated attack on Zweig's writings in general, on Zweig the man and, I couldn't help noticing, on those who praise him. ". . . Now again book of the week here, rediscovery of the century there, and indulgently reviewed more or less everywhere . . ." writes Hofmann, and as I rashly made The World of Yesterday my pick of the week when I reviewed it – as well as a few others by him over the last few years – I can't help feeling as though he has me, among others, in his sights.
    1. Fear
    2. by Stefan Zweig
    3. Buy it from the Guardian bookshop
    The case against Zweig, as set out by Hofmann, is that he is simply no good: "Every page he writes is formulaic, thin, swollen, platitudinous." Now the funny thing is that this review was discussed like no other review I can remember since Tibor Fischer tore into Martin Amis's Yellow Dog. Honestly, tout Londres was talking about it, darling. Had Hofmann gone barmy? Was he trying to reignite some ancient family grudge? One thing I couldn't help noticing was that no one was asking, "is he right?"
    That such a flap about a long-dead Viennese writer should be bothering some people now is itself a testament to the success Pushkin and others have had in engineering a Zweig revival. (Which, of course, drives Hofmann bananas.) But Hofmann is no idiot and, as an accomplished translator of Zweig's sort-of-friend Joseph Roth, has probably forgotten more about Viennese literary circles than I have ever known. And, as Dan Brown has reminded us, just because a writer sells by the million it doesn't mean he or she is any good. (Zweig was, for quite a while, pretty much the most popular author in the world.) So, immersing myself in self-doubt, I picked up this novella. This had better be good, I thought, especially as it comes in at about 10p a page.
    It begins as Irene, a young married woman, is leaving her lover's apartment, already suffering the pangs of guilt and anxious to get back to "her placid, bourgeois world". She is accosted by a woman who, speaking in a voice which Anthea Bell renders in deliberately archaic cockney, accuses her of stealing her man. Petrified and ashamed, Irene begins a descent into insane fear. The woman demands ever larger sums in blackmail, while Irene tries to hide everything from her husband, her children and the staff.
    This is the stuff of melodrama: the typical Zweigian scenario in which, beneath the trappings of respectability, storms of carnal passion, guilt and shame rage. It is no accident, you feel, that Zweig was writing at the same time and in the same city as Sigmund Freud.
    But is this "formulaic, thin, swollen and platitudinous"? I suppose there is a formula to this, which can be attested to by the fact that there are at least three film versions of this story, the most famous being by Rossellini. Leaving aside the question of how something can be swollen and thin at the same time, I don't think you can call it platitudinous, unless you count the very notion of the woman haunted by her adultery as a platitude in itself. Zweig picked again and again at this weeping scab, of how to indulge desire in a society which asserted the importance of denying it.
    That Irene, though, realises her affair is nothing more than self-indulgence born from boredom and complacency may make the book more of an endorsement of bourgeois values than we might like today, but I can't gainsay the fact that I was groaning in anguish throughout the work as her sufferings became more acute. Handing an engagement ring to a blackmailer may be corny, but by the time it happens here, there is an affecting inevitability about the act.
    Clive James, in Cultural Amnesia, sticks up for Zweig, and says he is "still paying the penalty" for his success. Of course, Hofmann may well have a point. Zweig may not, to use a simplistic comparison, be as "good" as, say, Arthur Schnitzler – but there's still a place for him. Make up your own minds.


台北去年又出版斯蒂芬.茨威格( Stefan Zweig)的回憶錄『昨日世界』( Die Welt Von Gestern )(譯者:史行果,台北:邊城出版,2005
這本書沒索引,所以無買,因為大陸版有兩本:
Stefan Zweig 《昨日的世界:一個歐洲人回憶》(舒昌善等譯,北京:三聯出版社,1991
這一歐洲文豪 Stefan Zweig,著作達數十本,似乎一半以上是暢銷書。最近,還一直與他的話語和著作不期而遇:(約 40年前,他的「一位陌生女子的來信」似乎震盪全台灣的喜愛文學的朋友…….

此書對於莎士比亞的引詞至少有二處 書前語從德文再回譯有點失真:
Epigraph "Let's withdraw
And meet the time as it seeks us."
Shakespeare: Cymbeline


The World of Yesterday (German title Die Welt von Gestern) is the autobiography of Austrian writer Stefan Zweig.[1] He started writing it in 1934 when, anticipating Anschluss and Nazi persecution, he uprooted himself from Austria to England and later to Brazil. He posted the manuscript, typed by his second wife Lotte Altmann, to the publisher a day before his wife's and his suicide in February 1942. The book was first published in Stockholm in 1942, as Die Welt von Gestern.[2] It was first published in English in April 1943 by Viking Press.[1]
The book describes the life in Vienna at the start of the 20th century with detailed anecdotes.[1] It depicts the dying days of Austria-Hungary under Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, including the system of education and the sexual ethics prevalent at the time, the same that provided the backdrop to the emergence of psychoanalysis.
According to Zweig, earlier European societies, where religion (i.e. Christianity) had a central role, condemned sexual impulses as work of the devil. The late 19th century had abandoned the devil as an explanation of sexuality; hence it lacked a language able to describe and condemn sexual impulses. Sexuality was left unmentioned and unmentionable, though it continued to exist in a parallel world that could not be described, mostly prostitution. The fashion at the time contributed to this peculiar oppression by denying the female body and constraining it within corsets.
The World of Yesterday details Zweig's career before, during and after World War I. Of particular interest are Zweig's description of various intellectual personalities, including Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism, the composer Ferruccio Busoni, the philosopher and antifascist Benedetto Croce, Maxim Gorky, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, the German industrialist and politician Walther Rathenau and the pacifist and friend Romain Rolland. Zweig also met Karl Haushofer during a trip to India. The two became friends. Haushofer was the founder of geopolitics and became later an influence on Adolf Hitler. Always aloof from politics, Zweig did not notice the dark potential of Haushofer's thought; he was surprised when later told of links between Hitler and Haushofer.
Notable episodes include the departure from Austria by train of the last Emperor Charles I of Austria in 1918, the beginning of the Salzburg festival and the Austrian hyperinflation of 1921-22. Zweig admitted that his younger self had not recognized the danger coming from the Nazis, who started organizing and agitating in Austria in the 1920s. Zweig was a committed pacifist but hated politics and shunned political engagement. His autobiograaphy shows some reluctance to analyse Nazism as a political ideology and a tendency to regard it as simply the rule of one particularly evil man, Hitler. Zweig was struck that the Berghof, Hitler's mountain residence in Berchtesgaden, was just across the valley from his own house outside Salzburg. Berchtesgaden was an area of early Nazi activity. Zweig believed strongly in Europeanism against nationalism.
Zweig also describes his passion for collecting manuscripts, mostly literary and musical.
Zweig collaborated in the early 1930s with composer Richard Strauss on the opera Die schweigsame Frau, which is based on a libretto by Zweig. Strauss was then admired by the Nazis, who were not happy that the new opera of their favourite composer had a libretto by a Jewish author. Zweig recounts that Strauss refused to withdraw the opera and even insisted that Zweig's authorship of the libretto be credited; the first performance in Dresden was said to have been authorized by Hitler himself. Zweig thought it prudent not to be present. The run was interrupted after the second performance, as the Gestapo had intercepted a private letter from Strauss to Zweig in which the elderly composer was asking Zweig to write the libretto for another opera. This led, according to Zweig, to Strauss' resignation as president of the Reichsmusikkammer, the Nazi state institute for music.
Nothing is said of Zweig's first wife; his second marriage is briefly touched upon. The tragic effects of contemporary antisemitism are discussed but Zweig does not analyse in detail his Jewish identity.
Zweig's friendship with Sigmund Freud is described towards the end, particularly while both of them lived in London during the last year of Freud's life. The book finishes with the news of the start of World War II.
"When I attempt to find a simple formula for the period in which I grew up, prior to the First World War, I hope that I convey its fullness by calling it the Golden Age of Security."[1]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d The World of Yesterday, Viking Press.
  2. ^ Darién J. Davis, Oliver Marshall (ed.), Stefan and Lotte Zweig's South American Letters: New York, Argentina and Brazil, 1940-42, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010, p. 41.

External links





「然後我就要跟我一切的熱望與野心的計畫告別,不必再打鑼打鼓。」( Stefan Zweig《巴爾扎克傳( Balzac )》陳文雄譯,台北處志文出版社,1977334 頁。)

「巴爾扎克當時寄宿的閣樓『冬天的時候像冰塊一樣冰冷,夏天則有如地獄一般地炎熱。』」(鹿島茂『巴黎時間旅行』吳怡文譯,台北:果實, 2005

「我相信再沒有比褚威格( Zweig )這位奧國小說家說得更適切了,他在一九二八年前往雅莊參加托翁百年冥誕回國完成的《蘇俄之旅》書裡寫道: 這是世上最美麗、最動人、最雋永的墓 …… 巴黎傷兵大院圓穹下拿破崙的石棺、威瑪公侯墓園中歌德的陵寢、倫敦西敏寺裡莎士比亞的雕像,看去都遠不如這森林——— 只有微風低吟、枯葉飄落、莊嚴肅穆、刻骨銘心的無名孤墓來得震顫每位訪客的心。」(東方白「一個托爾斯泰迷的好奇與求知」)





一个古老的梦:伊拉斯谟传

作者: (奥)斯・茨威格
译者: 姜瑞璋
出版社: 辽宁教育出版社
出版年: 1998

目录

茨威格和伊拉斯谟
目标与意义
时代一瞥
模糊不清的青年时代
肖像
工艺大师
伟大与局限
强大的对手
为独立而挣
 ******
2009.12 蒙田  Montaigne (Stefan Zweig)
感謝蒙田 Montaigne

* 作者:斯蒂芬.褚威格
* 原文作者:Stefan Zweig
* 譯者:舒昌善
* 出版社:網路與書出版
* 出版日期:2009年04月30日

看這本書莞爾的是 Montaigne到羅馬 似乎靈肉兩全 逛妓院給金幣
這本書"後記"說中國的"嘗試集"流傳

這套1995年的號稱"蒙田隨筆全集" 其實並沒有翻譯"友誼"之後的數十首sonnets....
RL 可以當 第一人

(蒙田是一個活在古代的現代人。他不朽的隨筆,
充滿著冷峻的觀察、辛辣而幽默的批判、
豐富的知識、出入今古的精采摘錄。他無所不談,自有見地,留下的精神財富使後人至今 ...)

较量
结局
伊拉斯谟留下的遗产




沒有留言:

網誌存檔