2016年11月11日 星期五

Fyodor Dostoevsky杜斯妥也夫斯基《罪與罰》、The Brothers Karamazov (1880);《地下室手記》出版150年; Notes from Underground (Norton Critical Editions) by Fyodor Dostoevsky (Author), Michael R. Katz (Editor)


"Taking a new step, uttering a new word, is what people fear most."
― from CRIME AND PUNISHMENT(1866)




“Above all, don't lie to yourself. The man who lies to himself and listens to his own lie comes to a point that he cannot distinguish the truth within him, or around him, and so loses all respect for himself and for others. And having no respect he ceases to love.” 
―from THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV by Fyodor Dostoevsky

Today is the 195th anniversary of the birth of Fyodor Dostoevsky.
"But it has always happened that the more I detest men individually the more ardent becomes my love for humanity."
―from THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV

“In the end they will lay their freedom at our feet and say to us, Make us your slaves, but feed us.”
― from "The Grand Inquisitor" in The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoevsky




初2 (1966)買讀過《罪與罰》、大一讀狄濟之?翻譯的The Brothers Karamazov....後來這些書都找不到.....

讀書共和國新增了 4 張相片。
「我殺了一隻可惡的、有害的蝨子,一個放高利貸的老太婆,她對誰也沒有益處,她吸窮人的血,殺了她可以贖四十樁罪,這算犯罪嗎?
我可不認為這是犯罪,也沒有想去贖罪,為什麼大家都指著我說:『犯罪,犯罪!』現在我才明白,我的膽怯是愚蠢的,現在我已經下了決心要去受這種不該受的恥辱!
只是由於自己的卑鄙和無能,也許只是為了自己的利益,我才下了這個決心,就像這個……波爾菲里所建議的!……」
「哥哥,哥哥,你說什麼啊! 要知道你殺了人?」
「大家都殺人,現在世界上正在流血,從前也常常血流成河,他們殺人如麻,鮮血像香檳酒一樣流淌,這些人因殺人如麻竟然在卡庇托林舉行加冕,以後又被稱做人類的恩人。
你只要較為用心地觀察一下,就能看清楚! 我想為大眾造福,往後做成百成千件好事來彌補這樣一樁傻事,這甚至不是傻事,而只是一種笨拙的行為,因為這個主意根本不是像現在失敗了的時候看起來那麼傻……」
-摘自《罪與罰》
關注窮人的卑微處境,對被傷害與侮辱的小人物滿懷憐憫之情的俄羅斯作家杜斯妥也夫斯基(Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский, 1821-1881),本身也出生於貧困家庭,25歲時以處女作《窮人》出道,在雜誌《當代人》上連載並廣受好評。
他的代表作《罪與罰》,敘述窮大學生為生計所迫而殺死放高利貸的房東老太婆後,經歷漫長的內在省思,深入刻畫主角的精神狀態變化,並寫實地剖析了俄羅斯社會,和《戰爭與和平》並稱為最重要的俄羅斯小說。
杜斯妥也夫斯基影響福克納、卡繆、卡夫卡等作家,他和托爾斯泰、屠格涅夫並稱為俄羅斯文學「三巨頭」。
他在《罪與罰》中塑造的超人形象,十多年後尼采在出版的《查拉圖斯特拉如是說》中也有系統性地闡述期超人哲學。
1821年11月11日,杜斯妥也夫斯基生於莫斯科。



Notes from Underground (Second Edition) (Norton Critical Editions) Paperback
by Fyodor Dostoevsky (Author), Michael R. Katz (Editor)
The text for this edition of Notes from Underground is Michael Katz’s acclaimed translation of the 1863 novel, which is introduced and annotated specifically for English-speaking readers.

"Backgrounds and Sources" includes relevant writings by Dostoevsky, among them "Winter Notes on Summer Impressions," the author’s account of a formative trip to the West.

 New to the Second Edition are excerpts from V. F. Odoevksy’s "Russian Nights" and I. S. Turgenev’s "Hamlet of Shchigrovsk District." In "Responses", Michael Katz links this seminal novel to the theme of the underground man in six famous works, two of them new to the Second Edition: an excerpt from M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin’s The Swallows, Woody Allen’s Notes from the Overfed, Robert Walser’s The Child, an excerpt from Ralph Ellison’s The Invisible Man, an excerpt from Yevgeny Zamyatin’s We, and an excerpt from Jean-Paul Sartre’s Erostratus.

 "Criticism" brings together eleven interpretations by both Russian and Western critics from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, two of them new to the Second Edition. Included are essays by Nikolai K. Mikhailovsky, Vasily Rozanov, Lev Shestov, M. M. Bakhtin, Ralph E. Matlaw, Victor Erlich, Robert Louis Jackson, Gary Saul Morson, Richard H. Weisberg, Joseph Frank, and Tzvetan Todorov.

A Chronology and Selected Bibliography are also included.



About the author (2001)

One of the most powerful and significant authors in all modern fiction, Fyodor Dostoevsky was the son of a harsh and domineering army surgeon who was murdered by his own serfs (slaves), an event that was extremely important in shaping Dostoevsky's view of social and economic issues. He studied to be an engineer and began work as a draftsman. However, his first novel, Poor Folk (1846), was so well received that he abandoned engineering for writing. In 1849, Dostoevsky was arrested for being a part of a revolutionary group that owned an illegal printing press. He was sentenced to be executed, but the sentence was changed at the last minute, and he was sent to a prison camp in Siberia instead. By the time he was released in 1854, he had become a devout believer in both Christianity and Russia - although not in its ruler, the Czar. During the 1860's, Dostoevsky's personal life was in constant turmoil as the result of financial problems, a gambling addiction, and the deaths of his wife and brother. His second marriage in 1887 provided him with a stable home life and personal contentment, and during the years that followed he produced his great novels: Crime and Punishment (1886), the story of Rodya Raskolnikov, who kills two old women in the belief that he is beyond the bounds of good and evil; The Idiots (1868), the story of an epileptic who tragically affects the lives of those around him; The Possessed (1872), the story of the effect of revolutionary thought on the members of one Russian community; A Raw Youth (1875), which focuses on the disintegration and decay of family relationships and life; and The Brothers Karamazov (1880), which centers on the murder of Fyodor Karamazov and the effect the murder has on each of his four sons. These works have placed Dostoevsky in the front rank of the world's great novelists. Dostoevsky was an innovator, bringing new depth and meaning to the psychological novel and combining realism and philosophical speculation in his complex studies of the human condition.
Michael R. Katz , is C. V. Starr Professor of Russian and East European Studies at Middlebury College. He is the author of The Literary Ballad in Early Nineteenth-Century Russian Literature and Dreams and the Unconscious in Nineteenth-Century Russian Fiction . He has translated and edited the Norton Critical Editions of Fyodor Dostoevskyrsquo;s Notes from Underground and Ivan Turgenevrsquo;s Fathers and Children . He has also translated Alexander Herzenrsquo;s Who Is to Blame? , N. G. Chernyshevskyrsquo;s What Is to Be Done? , Dostoevskyrsquo;s Devils , Druzhininrsquo;s Polinka Saks , Artsybashevrsquo;s Sanin , and Jabotinskyrsquo;s The Five .



 http://vs-press.blogspot.tw/2014/05/CL004-newsletter.html

2014年5月8日星期四


櫻桃園文化推出新譯本紀念杜斯妥也夫斯基《地下室手記》出版150年

文/櫻桃園文化總編輯 丘光


為什麼讀杜斯妥也夫斯基?


櫻桃園文化 出版第四本俄國經典文學新譯,這次輪到了杜斯妥也夫斯基的《地下室手記》,從前次萊蒙托夫的《當代英雄》跳過了果戈里到這本,簡單的理由是這兩部作品有著 極為相似的脈絡,都試圖要描繪出一個負面形象的時代之子,藉此映出社會樣貌,而且針砭時代病症,也可以說,都是給社會一面鏡子,同時給自己辯證一條自由生 活之路。今年恰逢本作出版150週年,新譯本期待以現代閱讀的觀點來向大師致敬。

對台灣讀者 而言,杜斯妥也夫斯基似乎很深沉,但我們想像的往往比我們認知的還要多、還要複雜,如果實際翻閱杜斯妥也夫斯基的作品,會發現他一生大概只寫一件事情,那 就是研究人的心裡在想什麼,以及藉由這些想法人怎麼過生活,這是永恆的問題,也是他之所以到現今仍讓我們感興趣讀的最主要理由(因為我們許多人到現在還一 直不了解週遭人在想什麼不是嗎?)。當然,小說中難免遇到困惑不解,這正是我們喜歡杜斯妥也夫斯基的原因,他試著看透時代、提出疑問,他向我們展示的人心 並非一清二楚的科學觀察結果,而是要讓我們去思索不清不楚的部分,讓我們自己在內心思索後與文本對話,這裡面有無比的現代性,使我們每次重讀都會得到更多 東西,因為我們學會去獨立思考,學會去感受自己真正要的是什麼,而非大家(或說自然規律)給我們什麼就照單全收──在「開創新局」這個層面上,他可以說是 一個心靈的革命家。


如何進入杜斯妥也夫斯基的世界?


杜斯妥也夫 斯基不僅在創作生涯極具戲劇性,在生活上也萬分精彩。他雙親早逝,青春期被丟到軍校生活,年輕時即發現罹患癲癇症,文壇成名後在文化沙龍中交際的挫折與初 戀(其實是單戀)的失敗,與屠格涅夫一生始終維持著亦敵亦友的交情,被逮捕入獄成為政治犯,近十年的西伯利亞流放,包括苦役中與極惡罪犯共同生活的經歷, 兩段婚姻與一段婚外情,沉迷賭博近十年……種種這些「真實生活」大多反應在他的小說創作裡,如果我們進一步認識作家的生活,那麼對作品中的細節或許會有更 多共鳴。

小說文本的 詮釋上,新譯本除了將譯注增加至八十餘則,其中有許多是本版獨有的,也邀請台大外文系助理教授熊宗慧專文導讀杜斯妥也夫斯基創作的現代精神,期待閱讀時能 更全面地走進杜斯妥也夫斯基的作品世界觀中。另外,還試著重現作家的生活與創作的關聯,在書末編寫了全新的圖文作家年表,挑選杜斯妥也夫斯基一生各時期的 重要圖片,文字中收有關鍵的書信片段,輔助我們理解作家當時的生活風貌與思想心境的串連。

杜斯妥也夫斯基一輩子探索人的心靈,其實早在他十八歲的時候,便已經在信中向哥哥吐露這樣的心聲:「人是一個謎,需要解開它……我在研究這個謎,因為我想成為一個人。」


怎麼看《地下室手記》?


從櫻桃園文化一開始,就有不少人提議我們新譯《卡拉馬助夫兄弟》,當然這樣的大部頭作品不是一時間能夠好好處理的,而最主要的是,閱讀杜斯妥也夫斯基,或許從《地下室手記》起步較為合適。

一位杜斯妥 也夫斯基的崇拜者、作家羅贊諾夫(他甚至娶了杜斯妥也夫斯基的前女友蘇斯洛娃)這麼說:《地下室手記》與《罪與罰》一樣,都是杜斯妥也夫斯基的巨著,在前 者中你看得到思想,後者則是藝術。沒有讀過《地下室手記》,就不可能理解《罪與罰》,而沒有讀過這兩本,則無法讀懂《群魔》和《卡拉馬助夫兄弟》。

《手記》看 似個人的懺悔錄,實則是整個時代的雜症診斷,作家虛構出「地下室人」這麼一個封閉自我的人物,藉他的形象點出時代的問題(也包括作家自身的毛病),我們看 看這個角色集合了什麼樣的時代性格:自認比任何人聰明,但又矛盾於自貶與自傲中,以個人對抗全體,卻不敢正眼看他人,疏離了真實生活,跛行於生活,自滿於 講漂亮話,用幻想緩和現實的挫折與傷痛,生活上的一切不順都可避往美與崇高之中──再看看我們現在的生活週遭,有種多麼奇妙的似曾相似!

沒錯,也許可以直接讀後期的長篇小說,只不過會少了些理解和樂趣,少了這系列作品中一個個叛逆者一路添加的懷疑之火。如果我們從《地下室手記》這個源頭開始讀,則會更清楚杜斯妥也夫斯基的思想脈絡,更明白他在生前最後一本筆記簿寫下的這幾句話:

「我並不是像小孩子那樣信仰基督的,而是透過懷疑的大熔爐試煉之後,我的『和散那』(即讚美主之意,語出福音書)才傳揚出去,就像我小說裡的『鬼』所說的那樣(指《卡拉馬助夫兄弟》中伊凡與鬼對談的那章)……」

《地下室手記》正是這座「懷疑的大熔爐」中有計劃的、最初的那把懷疑之火。儘管杜斯妥也夫斯基的作品中常見懷疑人性、著迷描寫人性中的惡,但作家總會有心靈上、精神上或宗教上的觀點來與作品中的種種懷疑相抗衡,最終將朝著他所謂的「美拯救世界」而去。

現在不妨來細細重讀杜斯妥也夫斯基在《地下室手記》裡是怎麼翻動我們的靈魂,開始來走一趟懷疑的大熔爐試煉吧!


※相關連結:






杜斯妥也夫斯基 by N.A. Berdyaev 孟祥森譯 台北:時報 1986

杜斯妥也夫斯基的一生. 外語原名, ドストエフスキイの生活. 原作者, 小林秀雄. 作品國別, 日本. 原出版日期, 2003. 原出版社, 萬象文庫 1993杜斯妥也夫斯基小說論. 原作者, 小林秀雄. 作品國別, 日本. 原出版日期, 2003. 原出版社, 同上



● 杜思妥也夫斯基 杜斯妥也夫斯基/ 紀德演講 國立編譯館

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