2012年1月31日 星期二

允晨文化30年



 



《六四‧我的證詞》 座談會暨詩歌發表會
日期:2月3日(五)11:00~11:45 am
地點:世貿一館 迷你沙龍
主講:廖亦武
【活動簡介】名動歐美文壇,當代中國最禁忌的作家,廖亦武,經過重重關卡,首度訪台,親身說法,與台灣讀者分享一個知識份子、一個先鋒派詩人如何在親歷六四的屠殺審判後,仍持續以文字創作,抵抗國家機器的橫暴,精彩可期。
 


《多餘的人》新書發表會
日期:2月4日(六)3:00~3:45 pm
地點:世貿一館 迷你沙龍
主講:韓秀
【活動簡介】享譽華文文壇的作家韓秀最新力作,將埋藏多年的往事經歷,散做文字珠玉,以小說形式取代傳記書寫,與讀者分享一個創作者,一個時代見證者的身世國愁與身分追尋,難得的心靈饗宴。
 


《移動的桃花源》新書發表會
日期:2月5日( 日)2:00~3:00 pm
地點:世貿一館 允晨B301展位
主講:石守謙
【活動簡介】當代藝術史宗師石守謙教授首次在書展會場舉辦新書座談會與讀者分享多年探究藝術與文學關係,獨家心得在《移動的桃花源》中有最精彩深刻的陳述,絕無僅有的藝術人文講座。
 



向哈維爾致敬︰哈維爾作品朗讀

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日期:201222日(四)5:00~5:45pm

地點:世貿一館 105朗讀沙龍

朗讀者:曾建元‧廖亦武‧陳政三…



廖亦武詩 歌發表會

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日期:2012211日(六)7:00~9:00pm

地點:小藝埕3F(台北市迪化街1段32巷1號)

TEL:(02)2552-1338

主講:廖亦武
入場方式:免費入場,歡迎參加





日本農業150年(1850-2000年)

日本農業150年(1850-2000年)

日本農業150年(1850-2000年)

從 19世紀中葉(幕府末期‧明治維新時期)廢除封建制度、構建資本主義經濟結構開始,到“經濟大國化”的日本在市場原理和WTO體制下、以大型跨國企業為中 心進行經濟結構重組、進一步參與國際市場的2000年為止。在這期間,日本資本主義經濟是在怎樣的國際環境下,以怎樣的結構形成發展的?在這個背景下,農 業、糧食、農民、地主及村莊處于怎樣的狀態,實施了怎樣的農業、糧食政策,產生了怎樣的農業、農民、糧食、農村和環境問題?針對以上問題,暉峻眾三編著的 《日本農業150年(1850-2000年)》從歷史的角度、結合資本主義經濟結構特征和發展狀況進行了分析。

詳細資料

  • 規格:平裝 / 210頁 / 16 / 普級 / 單色 / 初版
  • 出版地:大陸

目錄

第1章 近代日本的起航——從幕藩體制的建立到明治維新
1 幕藩制社會的結構與變遷
2 幕藩制經濟的動搖與重建
3 明治維新與原始積累

第2章 日本資本主義的確立——從19世紀80年代末到第一次世界大戰
1 日本的產業革命
2 貿易結構與傳統產業
3 日本農業的生產結構——農業技術的變化
4 農村生活的變化
5 地主的土地所有與租佃關系
6 農業政策——資本與地主的矛盾的形成

第3章 走向壟斷——從第一次世界大戰到世界經濟危機
1 壟斷資本主義的確立
2 農業生產的變化
3 農戶經營和地主經營的動向
4 租佃糾紛與農民運動的展開
5 農業政策的展開及其特征

第4章 從世界性經濟危機到戰時體制——從世界性經濟危機開始直至戰敗
1 從世界性經濟危機到日本戰時資本主義
2 農業生產力的停滯與危機
3 危機下與戰時的農戶經營
4 從危機到戰時的租佃糾紛
5 農業管制政策的實施

第5章 被佔領期日本資本主義的重建與農地改革——從戰敗至20世紀50年代初
1 佔領與戰後改革
2 農地改革案的提出及實施
3 掠奪農民政策的展開

第6章 經濟高速增長期的農業——從20世紀50年代初至70年代初
1 “經濟自立”和向“戰後型”產業結構的轉型(第1階段)
2 經濟高速增長的起步與基本法農政(第Ⅱ階段)
3 經濟再度高速增長與“綜合農政”的出台(第Ⅲ階段)

第7章 向經濟大國下的農業小國過渡——從20世紀70年代初到2000年
1 向低成長的過渡與經濟結構調整(第1期)
2 GATT.UR、WTO與《新基本法》框架下的農業萎縮(第Ⅱ期)
參考文獻
譯者後記

2012年1月26日 星期四

Manuel Bayo 《寶島憶往》POEMAS EN CHINA

Manuel Bayo 白安茂《寶島憶往》POEMAS EN CHINA ,張淑英譯,台北:文橋1988

一本很有詩味的懷念人生、友情的對照作品。西班牙文輕巧而漢字厚重。pp. 4-31無題;「憶往昔」「自往昔歸來」;「懷念的人物」

再說下去似乎是徒然的。抄《離別的草稿》末段:

我們的生命──

從此岸到彼岸

不知道說再會,

為了用生命之愛,

延續人生歷程中

隱隱的思念

You Are the Apple of My Eye ( 那些年,我們一起追的女孩)

Taiwanese blockbuster "You Are the Apple of My Eye" has become the highest-grossing Chinese-language movie in Hong Kong's history after its box office receipts surpassed the previous record of HK$61 million (US$7.86 million) on Saturday. ...



You Are the Apple of My Eye

Film poster advertising this film in Hong Kong
Directed by Giddens Ko
Produced by Angie Chai, Adam Tsui
Written by Giddens Ko
Based on You Are the Apple of My Eye by
Giddens
Starring Ko Chen-tung
Michelle Chen
Music by Sony Music Taiwan
Cinematography Chou Yi-hsien
Studio Star Ritz Productions Co.
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) June 25, 2011 (Taipei Film Festival)
August 19, 2011 (Taiwan)
Running time 110 minutes
Country Taiwan
Language Standard Chinese
Budget NT$50 million[1]
(approx. US$1.67M as at January 2012)
Box office US$$24,548,953[2]

2012年1月24日 星期二

Classic manga 得意數位世界/Apple’s iBooks


雖然外界對於蘋果揮軍教育市場的成效,還在觀望,但現在傳出 iBooks 2 上線後三天,電子教科書 Textbook 的下載量就高達 35 萬冊,同場發表的 Mac OS X 創作應用程式 iBook Author 也有 9 萬次下載,著實引人注目。

蘋果在 19 日發表 iOS 應用程式 iBook 2、iTunes U,兩款可以讓 iPad 搖身一變成為全方位電子教科書載具的「新武器」,更在發表會上宣布了獲得來自九成以上的美國出版商支持,聲勢浩大。蘋果希望借新型態的 「Textbook」改善教科書昂貴、沈重、不夠生動的缺點,改以多媒影音且價格最多不超過 14.99 美元(折合新台幣約 450 元)的特性吸引客群,如今蘋果的第一步貌似已經達成。


根據 Global Equities Research 統計數據顯示,蘋果於 19 日發表會當天同步上線的 iBooks 2,至今以累計超過 35 萬部教科書被下載,iBook Author 也有 9 萬次下載量。


附帶一提,iBooks 2 上架後,教科書出版商之一 McGraw Hill 的 Terry McGraw 曾於接受 All Things D 訪問時指出,自去年 6 月期間,賈伯斯經常與他就電子教科書方面交換意見,當時賈伯斯就已經確立建構方向,以及與 iPad 結合的方針。


總之,蘋果開了亮眼的第一炮,Textbook 也確實能為出版商節省約 80% 的製銷成本,前景看好;但蘋果在著眼教育市場的同時,是否會給予更具彈性的 iPad 價格、銷售方案,以達到教育普及的可能,基於真正挑戰是長遠的銷售表現,後勢仍有待觀察。


★ 相關連結

350,000 Textbooks Downloaded From Apple’s iBooks in Three Days(All Things D, 英文)

Though nascent and unproven, Apple’s new textbook initiative appears to be gaining lots of momentum — and quickly, too. Within days of its debut, Apple’s iBooks textbook store had already racked up a significant number of downloads. Same thing with the company’s textbook authoring tool.

According to Global Equities Research, which monitors Apple’s iBook sales via a proprietary tracking system it doesn’t much care to discuss, more than 350,000 textbooks were downloaded from the company’s iBooks Store within the first three days of availability (caveat: a number of these may well have been free copies of E.O. Wilson’s Life on Earth downloaded for free by folks interested in seeing an iPad textbook in action)

And there were some 90,000 downloads of iBooks Author, Apple’s free textbook-creation tool, during the same time.

If those numbers are accurate, Apple’s textbook effort would seem to be off to a good start. Which is good news for everyone involved — particularly textbook publishers, who stand to make more money on books sold through iBooks than those sold at retail.

According to Global Equities Research, the supply chain markup on textbooks ranges between 33 percent and 35 percent. So there are savings to be had in cutting out that publisher-to-distributor-to-wholesaler-to-retailer process.

Add to this the lower cost of iBook production, which the research outfit estimates to be 80 percent less than print publication — and a system under which textbooks are sold directly to students, who use them for a year, rather than to schools which keep the texts for an average of five years — and the math here starts to looks pretty good.

Said Global Equities Research analyst Trip Chowdhry, “[This is] a recipe for Apple’s success in the textbook industry.”




Classic manga taking off in digital market


January 13, 2012

Multi-volume manga masterpieces published decades ago are seeing a resurgence in popularity on the e-book market.

New hardware platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers, are bringing new readers to older works of manga, which are easier to digitize because they are less likely to compete with paper editions.

eBook Initiative Japan Co., the Tokyo-based operator of eBookJapan, one of Japan's largest e-book shops, said manga accounts for 80 percent of its 52,000 available titles.

Last year's list of top sellers included long-running, middle-of-the-road manga that began to appear serially in magazines between the 1960s and the 1980s.

They included: "Oishinbo" (story by Tetsu Kariya, art by Akira Hanasaki), themed on gastronomy; "Shizukanaru Don" (The quiet Don) by Tatsuo Nitta, about a man who doubles as a company employee and the leader of a crime syndicate; and "Golgo 13" by Takao Saito, the story of a sniper.

Monthly sales of "Golgo 13" have quintupled over the last three years. Other multi-volume classics have also more than doubled their sales.

eBook Initiative Japan's corporate performance improved drastically after it began distributing e-books to Apple Inc.'s iPhones in 2008 and to Android-based devices and Apple's iPads in 2010.

The company topped the 5-million mark in accumulated number of copies sold in August 2008. That number doubled to 10 million by January 2011.

At eBookJapan, the combined number of e-books sold for smartphones and tablet computers in the second half of 2010 was 6.13 times the corresponding number in the first half of the year.

The main customers of eBookJapan are in their 30s and 40s.

"People of generations that are unfamiliar with onetime long-sellers and bestsellers are embracing those works as something totally new to them," said Akira Takashima, managing director at eBook Initiative Japan. "Works that have lost none of their sheen and allure over a decade or two, much like Shakespeare's and Beethoven's works, have started to take off."

The prices per volume are mostly set between 400 and 600 yen ($5.20 and $7.80), or 20 to 30 percent cheaper than paper editions. An increasing number of customers are making bulk purchases of multi-volume series, such as "Golgo 13."

The e-book editions are beneficial both to the customers and the publishers. For customers, the e-books take up no space and are available in bulk even after their paper counterparts have disappeared from storefronts. Some eBookJapan customers have told the online shop's operator that they are thrilled to be able to carry all volumes of a manga series with them on vacations.

For publishers, e-books allow them to secure a stable income from sales of established works without competing against their paper editions.

At Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha Ltd., a midmarket publishing house based in Tokyo, the long-running "Shizukanaru Don" series accounts for one-third of all proceeds from e-books. While the 100 existing volumes of the manga have sold 44 million copies in the paper edition, 3.3 million copies have been downloaded digitally, with women accounting for 60 percent of all readers.

The stream of female customers was small at the outset, but that readership expanded through the "recommendation" feature of the e-book store website, Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha officials said.

That illustrates how a publisher can tap into a new category of readers.

The takeoff of manga classics in the e-book market also reflects a change in readers' attitudes at a time when hardware platforms have evolved from cellphones to smartphones and to tablet computers.

The top seller at eBookJapan in 2011 was the "Grappler Baki" (Baki the Grappler) series by Keisuke Itagaki, themed on combative arts, which became available online in February 2011. Akita Publishing Co., the Tokyo-based publisher of the series, said 42,000 copies were downloaded by the end of the year.

"Baki," a sequel to the "Grappler Baki" series, sold more than 20,000 copies over a three-month period following its digital release in August. It was eighth in eBookJapan's annual sales ranking.

"The spread of smartphones came at a time when fans had long been waiting for digitized editions (of manga)," explained Hirokazu Takahashi, an executive producer at Akita Publishing. "The pictures drawn with a mighty touch are suited for digital editions because they look so real against the backlight."

While cellphones can only display one frame at a time, smartphones and tablet computers allow users to see entire pages, and at enhanced image resolutions.

According to the marketing firm Impress R&D, the e-book market in Japan was worth 65 billion yen in fiscal 2010, up a robust 13.2 percent year on year.

Growth of the e-book market has traditionally relied on manga for cellphones, and especially on pornographic material.

Adult manga have small numbers of frames per page and small numbers of pages, which have made them ideal for reading on cellphones.

In recent years, though, adult manga seldom make the list of top 30 annual sellers at the eBookJapan store. The increasing number of available classic titles is expected to accelerate the departure from dependence on adult manga.

NTT Solmare Corp., the Osaka-based operator of Comic C'Moa, Japan's largest online retailer of manga for cellphones, in June 2011 started distributing 35,000 titles for smartphones of KDDI Corp.'s au brand. Toward the end of last year, the company also began serving NTT DoCoMo Inc.'s smartphones.

NTT Solmare, which did not want to lose the clientele it won through the distribution of e-books to cellphones, designed the menu for smartphone screens in exactly the same way as the menu for cellphone screens.

The user does not need to do anything to continue using the website after upgrading his or her device from a cellphone to a smartphone.

"An e-book store will simply be ousted from the market if it fails to broaden the selection of available titles and image resolutions to cope with different types of user devices," said Hiroki Oohashi, the president and CEO of NTT Solmare.

(This article was written by Naoki Takehata and Shigeyori Miyamoto.)

  • 1
A page of "Golgo 13," a manga series by Takao Saito, is displayed on Apple Inc.'s iPad tablet computer. (Copyright Takao Saito)

A page of "Golgo 13," a manga series by Takao Saito, is displayed on Apple Inc.'s iPad tablet computer. (Copyright Takao Saito)

BABEL NO MORE: The Search for the World’s Most Extraordinary Language Learners

polyglot[pol・y・glot]
ツイートする Facebook にシェア

  • 発音記号[pɑ'liglɑ`t | pɔ'liglɔ`t]

((形式))[形]
1 多言語(3か国語以上)に通じた, 多言語を話す.
2 多くの言語で書かれた
a polyglot dictionary
数か国語対訳辞典.
━━[名]
1 多言語に通じた人.
2 数か国語で記された対訳書[聖書].
3 数言語の混交[混合];数言語が入り乱れて話される状態.
[中ラテン語←ギリシャ語polýglōttos (POLY-+-glot舌, 言葉)]

The Art of Mastering Many Tongues


Among the most surprising qualities of “Babel No More,” Michael Erard’s globe-trekking adventure in search of the world’s virtuosos of language learning, is that a book dealing with language acquisition and polyglot linguistics can be so gripping. But indeed it is — part travelogue, part science lesson, part intellectual investigation, it is an entertaining, informative survey of some of the most fascinating polyglots of our time.

Illustration by Ian Adelman

BABEL NO MORE

The Search for the World’s Most Extraordinary Language Learners

By Michael Erard

Illustrated. 306 pp. Free Press. $25.99.

How is it, Erard asks, that certain people are able to accumulate what for the average person is a daunting number of languages? What are the secrets of polyglots who can master 6, 26, 96 languages? What are their quirks and attitudes? Are their brains wired differently from ours?

Erard, a journalist who writes frequently on language and whose previous book was “Um . . . : Slips, Stumbles, and Verbal Blunders, and What They Mean,” begins by visiting Bologna, Italy, the hometown of one of history’s most distinguished polyglots, the 19th-century cardinal Giu­seppe Mezzofanti. The cardinal is said to have known 45, 50, 58 or even more languages, depending on whom you ask. Victorian travelers who met him at ecclesiastical banquets reported that he affably conversed in all directions with foreign visitors in languages ranging from French, German and Arabic to Algonquin and “Californian.” (Lord Byron, who challenged the cardinal to a multilingual contest of profanities, was not only summarily defeated but walked away from the contest having learned a number of new Cockney gibes.) No less a figure than Pope Gregory XVI, in an attempt to catch Mezzofanti out, orchestrated a prank in which he secretly gathered dozens of foreign seminarians and then unleashed them on the unsuspecting cleric, all of them addressing him loudly in a tangle of languages. With much aplomb, Mezzo­fanti took up the pontiff’s challenge, answered them, and prevailed.

Mezzofanti is a beguiling character. Erard has combed through the cardinal’s archives in Bologna for clues about his practices and proficiency, and “Babel No More” is, among other things, a quest to see what benefits Mezzofanti’s strategies might offer us.

Erard is a “monolingual with benefits,” as he calls himself, “more than a monoglot, much less than a polyglot.” English is his native tongue, and he has learned Spanish, Chinese and Italian at varying levels of proficiency. Here he talks to several world specialists in polyglottery, asking simple but effective questions in an effort to define “multilingual” beyond, say, the definition in the American Heritage Dictionary: “Using or having the ability to use several languages.” How many languages does one have to speak to be considered a polyglot? (At least six seems the consensus.) What does it really mean to speak a language? Knowing a few phrases? Giving a cabdriver directions? Debating politics? Claire Kramsch, a linguist Erard consults, provides wise insight: “Asking how many languages you know is only asking half the question. You should also ask, ‘In how many languages do you live?’ ”

Linguists warn Erard that some self-­proclaimed polyglots may say they speak any number of languages, when in fact most of them know only a few grammatical rules, and have only a smattering of ready words and phrases. True polyglots, we are told, find it difficult to say precisely how many languages they speak, since their many languages hover unavoidably at different levels of proficiency. And what does fluency mean? Does an American who has learned Polish as a second language need to be able to pass for a Pole in Warsaw to be considered fluent? As Erard notes, this is a feat very few can manage.

“Babel No More” introduces the generation of polyglots who came after Mezzofanti, and some of today’s foremost language gatherers. To Erard’s surprise, he initially had a hard time tracking them down. The remarkable Erik Gunnemark, who could translate from 47 languages — “though for 20 of them he needed dictionaries” — died just before Erard managed to meet him. Ziad Fazah, once listed in Guinness World Records as speaking 56 languages, was crossed off Erard’s list when, on a Chilean television show, he failed to understand even the simplest sentences that speakers of various languages said to him. (The Russian speaker asked, “What day is today?” This drew a blank.)

Eventually, traveling from Berkeley to Hyderabad, from Chihuahua to Düsseldorf, Erard does have success. One polyglot he meets, Alexander Arguelles, who lives in Berkeley “on unemployment checks and Korean translation work,” shows that anyone who hopes to achieve fluency in more than six languages must dedicate himself to the task rigorously — in fact almost exclusively. Arguelles keeps his languages in shape by subjecting himself to an unforgiving schedule, keeping spreadsheets that record the hours and minutes he spends on each one. Arguelles “tracks his linguistic progress through the hours as saints once cataloged their physical self-sacrifices,” Erard writes. Of 4,454 hours of language study Arguelles did over a period of 456 days, he spent 456 hours on his native language, English, and also 456 on Arabic, and then a descending number of hours on the remaining 50 languages on his spreadsheet. Though his learning techniques may seem strange, they also appear to be effective. In one, called “shadowing,” students listen to language recordings on a portable player while briskly walking in a public place, gesticulating energetically as they shout out the foreign words and phrases they are listening to. Though one is bound to make a spectacle of oneself, this technique seems to help the beginner shed some of the self-consciousness connected with speaking a foreign language.

Eventually, in a section called “Revelation: The Brain Whispers,” Erard ventures into the field of neurolinguistics to see how the language prodigy’s brain may be physiologically different from the average one. We are presented with a wide spectrum of neurological information that aims to pinpoint the cognitive abilities involved in learning languages, and the areas of the brain that jump into action when language comes into play. Erard doesn’t shy from controversial questions: Are there links between Asperger’s and hyperpolyglottery? Are most polyglots left-handed, musical men who can’t drive? He also sets out to find the brain of Emil Krebs (1867-1930), a German hyperpolyglot who was said to know some 65 languages. (He tracks it down at the University of Düsseldorf, and it reveals many secrets.)

To me, Erard’s experiences in India were particularly interesting. There he met polyglots from families and communities that are ethnically and linguistically mixed, and who therefore speak many languages out of necessity rather than an urge to accumulate. This leads him to distinguish between the multilingual and the hyperpolyglot, or the purely acquisitive language learner. “For multilinguals, learning languages is an act of joining society,” he writes. “There’s no motive, no separable ‘will to plasticity’ that’s distinct from what it means to be part of that society.” But “being a hyperpolyglot means exactly the opposite. The hyperpolyglot’s pursuit of many languages may be a bridge to the rest of the world, but it walls him off from his immediate language community.”

Peter Constantine has translated works from German, Russian, French, modern Greek, ancient Greek, Italian, Albanian, Dutch, Slovene and other languages. He is the author of “Japanese Street Slang.”




A History of English in the United States

How Americans Have Reshaped Language


There has always been disagreement on these American shores as to just what the “best” English is. The status of Parisian French or Tuscan Italian has long been unassailable. Yet in the early 1940s, fusty Chicagoans were writing to The Chicago Tribune declaring Midwestern speech America’s “purest,” while New York radio announcers were speaking in plummy Londonesque, complete with rolled r’s. Down in Charleston, S.C., the elite’s sense of the best English involved peculiar archaisms like “cam” for “calm” and “gyardin” for “garden.”

Illustration by Ian Adelman

SPEAKING AMERICAN

A History of English in the United States

By Richard W. Bailey

207 pp. Oxford University Press. $27.95.

Related

In “Speaking American,” a history of American English, Richard W. Bailey argues that geography is largely behind our fluid evaluations of what constitutes “proper” English. Early Americans were often moving westward, and the East Coast, unlike European cities, birthed no dominant urban standard. The story of American English is one of eternal rises and falls in reputation, and Bailey, the author of several books on English, traces our assorted ways of speaking across the country, concentrating on a different area for each 50-year period, starting in Chesapeake Bay and ending in Los Angeles.

We are struck by the oddness of speech in earlier America. A Bostonian visiting Philadelphia in 1818 noted that his burgherly hostess casually pronounced “dictionary” as “disconary” and “again” as “agin.” William Cullen Bryant of Massachusetts, visiting New York City around 1820, wrote not about the “New Yawkese” we would expect, but about locutions, now vanished, like “sich” for “such” and “guv” for “gave.” Even some aspects of older writing might throw us. Perusing The Chicago Tribune of the 1930s, we would surely marvel at spellings like “crum,” “heven” and “iland,” which the paper included in its house style in the ultimately futile hope of streamlining English’s spelling system.

A challenge for a book like Bailey’s, however, is the sparseness of evidence on earlier forms of American English. The human voice was unrecorded before the late 19th century, and until the late 20th recordings of casual speech, especially of ordinary people, were rare. Meanwhile, written evidence of local, as opposed to standard, language has tended to be cursory and of shaky accuracy.

For example, the story of New York speech, despite the rich documentation of the city over all, is frustratingly dim. On the one hand, an 1853 observer identified New York’s English as “purer” than that found in most other places. Yet at the same time chronicles of street life were describing a jolly vernacular that has given us words like “bus,” “tramp” and “whiff.” Perhaps that 1853 observer was referring only to the speech of the better-­off. But then just 16 years later, a novel describes a lad of prosperous upbringing as having a “strong New York accent,” while a book of 1856 warning against “grammatical embarrassment” identifies “voiolent” and “afeard” as pronunciations even upwardly mobile New Yorkers were given to. So what was that about “pure”?

Possibly as a way of compensating for the vagaries and skimpiness of the available evidence, Bailey devotes much of his story to the languages English has shared America with. It is indeed surprising how tolerant early Americans were of linguistic diversity. In 1903 one University of Chicago scholar wrote proudly that his city was host to 125,000 speakers of Polish, 100,000 of Swedish, 90,000 of Czech, 50,000 of Norwegian, 35,000 of Dutch, and 20,000 of Danish.

What earlier Americans considered more dangerous to the social fabric than diversity were perceived abuses within English itself. Prosecutable hate speech in 17th-century Massachusetts included calling people “dogs,” “rogues” and even “queens” (though the last referred to prostitution); magistrates took serious umbrage at being labeled “poopes” (“dolts”). Only later did xenophobic attitudes toward other languages come to prevail, sometimes with startling result. In the early years of the 20th century, California laws against fellatio and cunnilingus were vacated on the grounds that since the words were absent from dictionaries, they were not English and thus violations of the requirement that statutes be written in English.

Ultimately, however, issues like this take up too much space in a book supposedly about the development of English itself. Much of the chapter on Philadelphia is about the city’s use of German in the 18th century. It’s interesting to learn that Benjamin Franklin was as irritated about the prevalence of German as many today are about that of Spanish, but the chapter is concerned less with language than straight history — and the history of a language that, after all, isn’t English. In the Chicago chapter, Bailey mentions the dialect literature of Finley Peter Dunne and George Ade but gives us barely a look at what was in it, despite the fact that these were invaluable glimpses of otherwise rarely recorded speech.

Especially unsatisfying is how little we learn about the development of Southern English and its synergistic relationship with black English. Bailey gives a hint of the lay of the land in an impolite but indicative remark about Southern child rearing, made by a British traveler in 1746: “They suffer them too much to prowl amongst the young Negroes, which insensibly causes them to imbibe their Manners and broken Speech.” In fact, Southern English and the old plantation economy overlap almost perfectly: white and black Southerners taught one another how to talk. There is now a literature on the subject, barely described in the book.

On black English, Bailey is also too uncritical of a 1962 survey that documented black Chicagoans as talking like their white neighbors except for scattered vowel differences (as in “pin” for “pen”). People speak differently for interviewers than they do among themselves, and modern linguists have techniques for eliciting people’s casual language that did not exist in 1962. Surely the rich and distinct — and by no means “broken” — English of today’s black people in Chicago did not arise only in the 1970s.

Elsewhere, Bailey ventures peculiar conclusions that may be traceable to his having died last year, before he had the chance to polish his text. (The book’s editors say they have elected to leave untouched some cases of “potential ambiguity.”) If, as Bailey notes, only a handful of New Orleans’s expressions reach beyond Arkansas, then exactly how was it that New Orleans was nationally influential as the place “where the great cleansing of American English took place”?

And was 17th-century America really “unlike almost any other community in the world” because it was “a cluster of various ways of speaking”? This judgment would seem to neglect the dozens of colonized regions worldwide at the time, when legions of new languages and dialects had already developed and were continuing to evolve. Of the many ways America has been unique, the sheer existence of roiling linguistic diversity has not been one of them.

The history of American English has been presented in more detailed and precise fashion elsewhere — by J. L. Dillard, and even, for the 19th century, by Bailey himself, in his under­read ­“Nineteenth-Century English.” Still, his handy tour is useful in imprinting a lesson sadly obscure to too many: as Bailey puts it, “Those who seek stability in English seldom find it; those who wish for uniformity become laughingstocks.”

John McWhorter’s latest book is “What Language Is (and What It Isn’t and What It Could Be).”

The Mural Project: Photography by Ansel Adams;Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919)



Spotlight:
        
Which school in the US opened the first academic program in photography? In 1945-6, Ansel Adams established the first academic photography department at the California School of Fine Arts, now known as the San Francisco Art Institute. Adams also was responsible for organizing the first public exhibit of photographs at the Museum of Modern Art, and wrote several books on photography, always working to raise awareness of photography as an art form. When Adams was fourteen years old, he visited Yosemite National Park with his family. It was there that he began to take pictures with his first camera. He so loved Yosemite that he was to return there every year for the rest of his life. Adams, born on this date in 1902, went on to become one of the US's most celebrated nature photographers and environmentalists. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1980.
Quote:
"Sometimes I do get to places just when God's ready to have somebody click the shutter." — Ansel Adams






The Mural Project: Photography by Ansel Adams

John Armor (Author), Peter Wright (Author), Cynthia Anderson (Author), Ansel Adams (Author, Photographer)
Hardcover: 112 pages
Publisher: Day Dream Calendars; 1st edition (March 1989)
Language: English

*****

Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919). A Book-Lover’s Holidays in the Open. 1916.

FOREWORD


THE man should have youth and strength who seeks adventure in the wide, waste spaces of the earth, in the marshes, and among the vast mountain masses, in the northern forests, amid the steaming jungles of the tropics, or on the deserts of sand or of snow. He must long greatly for the lonely winds that blow across the wilderness, and for sunrise and sunset over the rim of the empty world. His heart must thrill for the saddle and not for the hearthstone. He must be helmsman and chief, the cragsman, the rifleman, the boat steerer. He must be the wielder of axe and of paddle, the rider of fiery horses, the master of the craft that leaps through white water. His eye must be true and quick, his hand steady and strong. His heart must never fail nor his head grow bewildered, whether he face brute and human foes, or the frowning strength of hostile nature, or the awful fear that grips those who are lost in trackless lands. Wearing toil and hardship shall be his; thirst and famine he shall face, and burning fever. Death shall come to greet him with poison-fang or poison-arrow, in shape of charging beast or of scaly things that lurk in lake and river; it shall lie in wait for him among untrodden forests, in the swirl of wild waters, and in the blast of snow blizzard or thunder-shattered hurricane.

1


Not many men can with wisdom make such a life their permanent and serious occupation. Those whose tasks lie along other lines can lead it for but a few years. For them it must normally come in the hardy vigor of their youth, before the beat of the blood has grown sluggish in their veins.

2


Nevertheless, older men also can find joy in such a life, although in their case it must be led only on the outskirts of adventure, and although the part they play therein must be that of the onlooker rather than that of the doer. The feats of prowess are for others. It is for other men to face the peril of unknown lands, to master unbroken horses, and to hold their own among their fellows with bodies of supple strength. But much, very much, remains for the man who has "warmed both hands before the fire of life," and who, although he loves the great cities, loves even more the fenceless grassland, and the forest-clad hills.

3


The grandest scenery of the world is his to look at if he chooses; and he can witness the strange ways of tribes who have survived into an alien age from an immemorial past, tribes whose priests dance in honor of the serpent and worship the spirits of the wolf and the bear. Far and wide, all the continents are open to him as they never were to any of his forefathers; the Nile and the Paraguay are easy of access, and the borderland between savagery and civilization; and the veil of the past has been lifted so that he can dimly see how, in time immeasurably remote, his ancestors--no less remote--led furtive lives among uncouth and terrible beasts, whose kind has perished utterly from the face of the earth. He will take books with him as he journeys; for the keenest enjoyment of the wilderness is reserved for him who enjoys also the garnered wisdom of the present and the past. He will take pleasure in the companionship of the men of the open; in South America, the daring and reckless horsemen who guard the herds of the grazing country, and the dark-skinned paddlers who guide their clumsy dugouts down the dangerous equatorial rivers; the white and red and half-breed hunters of the Rockies, and of the Canadian woodland; and in Africa the faithful black gunbearers who have stood steadily at his elbow when the lion came on with coughing grunts, or when the huge mass of the charging elephant burst asunder the vine-tangled branches.

4


The beauty and charm of the wilderness are his for the asking, for the edges of the wilderness lie close beside the beaten roads of present travel. He can see the red splendor of desert sunsets, and the unearthly glory of the afterglow on the battlements of desolate mountains. In sapphire gulfs of ocean he can visit islets, above which the wings of myriads of sea-fowl make a kind of shifting cuneiform script in the air. He can ride along the brink of the stupendous cliff-walled canyon, where eagles soar below him, and cougars make their lairs on the ledges and harry the big-horned sheep. He can journey through the northern forests, the home of the giant moose, the forests of fragrant and murmuring life in summer, the iron-bound and melancholy forests of winter.

5

The joy of living is his who has the heart to demand it.


THEODORE ROOSEVELT.

SAGAMORE HILL,January 1, 1916

2012年1月22日 星期日

原発崩壊/ 台灣廢核條件世界第一/ 我們經不起一次核災 :政府不回答,也不希望你知道的52件事

我們經不起一次核災:政府不回答,也不希望你知道的52件事


台灣廢核條件世界第一(劉黎兒)

14、15日在橫濱舉行的「廢核世界會議」有來自20幾國1萬多人參加,是史上規模最大的廢核會議,亞洲各國如日韓等紛紛表示東亞是最不適合核電地震地帶,現在也成了世界最危險的核電過度密集區域,沒一刻能安心, 廢核才是現實之路;這些國家中台灣面積最小,1次核災就會亡國,不能等釀災才正視,而若要廢核,台灣其實是擁有世界最佳條件如最低的核電依賴率,無須等待 綠能也能廢核,而且廢核能促進能源產業轉換,像德國綠能創出37萬個就業機會,台灣也能把廢核本身當資源運用,可比德國等更早達成而領先世界,對國際宣示 台灣的存在。


台灣的核電在311福島核災後再三被世界各國專家、研究機構警告是全球最危險的了,就像去年《自然》 (Nature)雜誌發表研究顯示全球最危險的3座核電廠,台灣佔2座,就是核一、核二,台灣也擁有世界最高密度而最恐怖的用過燃料池,內含23萬顆廣島 原子彈份的輻射物質,現在也還每天新燒出20顆廣島原子彈份劇毒輻射物質來,台灣跟日本是全球地震最為集中的地帶,台灣核電耐震係數遠不如日本,也不如福 島核一,所有數據都指出台灣不能再搞核電了,根本不能運轉的核四也不應繼續砸錢了,核電是不能再繼續借、而且隨時會賠上全島的高利貸。

台電長年發電過剩 更重要的是台灣擁有全球最佳的廢核條 件,只要台電不阻止,馬上就能做到的;首先是台灣對核電超低依賴,台灣核電發電能力只有11%,因台電強迫大家多用核電,才佔到發電總量17%,相對於 此,率先廢核的德國有17個原子爐,佔發電量23%,也將廢核的瑞士則是40%、比利時則達55%;台灣備用電力近年高達23-28%,即使扣掉核電還綽 綽有餘,現在廢核也完全沒問題,日本的電力公司都要求8-10%的備載率就太夠用,台電沒理由要求兩倍的16%,長年發電過剩,而要所有台灣人承擔全球最 高的核電風險。

其次,台灣雖不須等待綠能,而且花在核電的錢只要幾百分之一就能大幅改善火力發電污染,不讓中部居民繼續受苦受難,但中長期台灣應該發展綠能,參加「廢核 世界會議」許多代表都認為日本太陽能比德國強,台灣又遠強於日本,加上海上風力、地熱等條件非常好,德國能做的事,台灣都強了好幾倍,而且像省電本身,台 灣也更有餘地;德國代表們再三聲明,德國因廢核去買法國核電是惡意中傷的謠言,德國開始廢核前電力還出口,開始廢核後有買也還有賣,大致平衡,他們只是不 須因廢核就脫離歐洲共同供電體系而已。

發展綠能創造就業
廢核本身非常艱鉅,但那是原本就不能不還的不良債務,不是繼續使用就會消失的,德國堂堂把廢核當正面資源來運用,因為發展綠能創造新產業及僱用,2004年增加16萬個工作機會,至今增加37萬個,2050年則更達100萬個,每年增加僱用12%,澳洲也因生化能源增加15%,給年輕人希望,利益才不會只停留在跟核電相關的少數特定利權手裡,台灣更是如此。

台 灣核電全球最危險,卻也是全球最容易最快廢核的,經濟部或台電表示102年後因經濟成長用電會增加,但這只是預測,不能因此阻礙廢核;而且台灣人口減少, 即使經濟成長,用電量未必增加,21世紀生產及商品附加價值不是靠大量用電來土法煉鋼就行,而核電是所有發電方式最昂貴的,大排熱也排碳,台灣廢核理由也 是世界第一多的。


作者為旅日作家


我們經不起一次核災:政府不回答,也不希望你知道的52件事


台灣人對核電太無知了!

  沒人告訴過我們:
  台灣的核電廠就建在離首都30公里的範圍內;
  即使不發生核災,核電廠也不斷在放出輻射線;
  台灣的婦癌比率是亞洲之冠,不是偶然!
  關於核電的52件事,不僅僅是為了下一代,你,也必須要知道!

  核電廠的安全、耐震係數,真的合格嗎?
  日本政府救不了受災人民,台灣政府能嗎?
  為什麼?核電災變比地震、颱風更可怕,卻全無預警和防範措施?!
  怎麼辦?日本的教訓,就是台灣的警訊。你不關心,就會成真!

   台灣人捐了一百八十億日圓幫助日本三一一海嘯災後重建,但福島卻無緣消受,因為問題不是出在地震和海嘯,而是核災!目前整個福島縣處在嚴重輻射汙染的狀 態,已經有專家估測,十年後將有100萬人致癌,土地永遠無法復原。日本政府害怕承認,這是比廣島原子彈轟炸、車諾比核電廠事故更嚴重的輻射殺傷力,未來 日本人民將長期與輻射的後遺症抗戰!

  一旦發生核災,我們將無處可逃

  台灣與日本同屬地震頻仍的國家,而且台灣是全世界 唯一把核電廠建在首都圈內的國家!核一廠、核二廠方圓三十公里的範圍內,人口超過五百萬,其中包括首都台北市。美、日國際專家已經提出警告,台灣是下一個 最可能發生核災的地方!核災一旦發生,我們毫無防禦能力,我們完全經不起任何一座核電廠出事。

  劉黎兒在福島核災後,經歷了舉家撤離東京的恐慌,深感核電之可畏,現在她積極參與日本的反核活動,與知名反核人士會晤,取得第一手的資訊,追問大部分人所欠缺的核電常識、受唬弄的粗糙數據及事實。她期待能以日本福島核災為借鏡,提醒台灣人:「廢核電救家園」刻不容緩!

  核輻射到底有多可怕?
  不關心,就會任憑災難發生!

  Q台灣若發生核災,規定避難範圍是5公里,這樣夠嗎?
  Q關閉核電廠要花多少錢?最近原能會說無法保證核四安全,那當然應該停建,不過已經投下好幾千億,不會有點可惜嗎?
  Q據說有核電廠的地方比較容易罹患乳癌,這是真的嗎?
  Q輻射能據說對小孩影響最大,到底有多嚴重呢?
  Q福島輻射汙染什麼時候才會從日本消失呢?
  Q我們家都很喜歡日本,但現在真的可以安心帶孩子去日本旅遊嗎?
  Q擁核的人都說核電是最乾淨的能源,真的如此嗎?
  Q某名人說:「有人因車禍而死亡,但現代社會不會因此就不開車或禁止車輛通行,核電也不能因為會發生核災就不用!」這種推論法對嗎?

作者簡介

劉黎兒

  旅居日本的資深媒體人與知名作家。

   基隆人,畢業於台灣大學歷史系,後進入台大歷史研究所,1982年赴日,曾擔任《中國時報》駐日特派員、東京支局長,現為專職作家,為《蘋果日報》《自 由時報》《今周刊》《新新聞周報》《La Vie》《瑞麗伊人風尚》等刊物專欄作家,書寫對於日本都會情愛和生活文化的觀察與解析。

  親 身經歷日本311震災後,積極奔走、聯繫日本各地反核團體,促成《核電員工最後遺言:福島事故十五年前的災難預告》一書中文版的翻譯出版,並採訪各領域核 電廠工作人員,揭開核安的潘朵拉盒子,讓令人感到荒謬至極的核電廠運作實況,揭露在讀者面前。誠心希望她摯愛的兩個地方,台灣與日本,不會再發生可怕的核 災。

詳細資料

  • 叢書系列:社會觀察
  • 規格:平裝 / 208頁 / 25K / 普級 / 單色印刷 / 初版
  • 出版地:台灣

目錄

〈作者序〉別存僥倖繼續用核電
〈前言〉全世界只有台灣,把核電廠建在首都圈內

核災後,日本變了
印象中最注重整潔與健康的日本,遭受了福島核災事故的衝擊,
未來一百年,日本人民將為核災的後遺症付出慘痛的代價。

01 一個日本,兩個世界
02 輻射汙染將纏繞百年,揮之不去
03 日本人將必須與輻射線共存
04 輻射汙染時代來臨,每人一百億貝克的負擔
05 承受數十萬兆貝克輻射的海與魚
06 福島兒童的心聲:「我能活到幾歲?」

政府失能,人民無力自救
日本政府救災與疏散的行動遲緩,令國際社會震驚,
核電業者逃避賠償與善後的責任。
說到底,這根本不是一個國家承受得起的災難。

07 福島核災與兒童玩的氫氣球爆炸大不同
08 福島核災的善後工作要花多少錢?
09 日本政府怎會如此殘忍?
10 無力救災,只好違法,日本還是法治國家嗎?
11 福島核一廠的災變已經穩定下來了?
12 海嘯來之前,核電廠的設施就已經壞了
13 關閉一座核電廠要花多少錢?
14 社會弱勢者吃到輻射汙染食物
15 無法結婚生子,輻射災變導致社會歧視

破解核電的迷思和謊言
福島核災的殺傷力,相當於一六八.五顆廣島原子彈!
核能發電「乾淨、安全、有效率」的假象,至此完全破滅。

16 輻射的傷害到底有多大?
17 人工輻射比自然輻射可怕得多
18 輻射進入體內,危害更大
19 核電廠與乳癌的發生有密切關係
20 《原子小金剛》漫畫成為洗腦的工具
21 核電充斥著輻射物質與謊言
22 核電廠如同一座沒有廁所的公寓
23 核電是很原始、低科技的能源
24 核能發電的成本是最昂貴的
25 核能發電並不穩定
26 核電是人類無法駕馭的怪獸
27 別拿排碳當藉口,核電才是最不環保的

捍衛家人,捍衛家園
一旦遭受輻射汙染,土地在百年之內難以復原。
遭受輻射的兒童與成年人,
更將面臨基因突變、罹患癌症、歧視排擠的命運。

28 兒童更容易受到輻射的傷害
29 核電不會只傷害小孩
30 為了孩子,舉家遷徙
31 東京齋藤一家的生活
32 日本媽媽的奮鬥
33 高級日本牛成了輻射牛
34 輻射汙染大恐慌,日本人吃什麼?
35 日本進口的食品,哪些可以吃?
36 災區農作物成了輻射廢棄物
37 天皇家的餐桌
38 現在還能到日本觀光嗎?

核災一旦發生,台灣人無處可逃
台灣核一廠、核二廠方圓三十公里的範圍內,人口超過五百萬,
而且台灣是全世界唯一把核電廠建在首都圈內的。

39 核災避難的距離,連一百公里都嫌少
40 台灣有全世界最密集、最危險的燃料池
41 天下沒有安心安全的核電,台灣別冒險
42 核災一旦發生,台灣人無處可逃
43 假如台灣發生核災,你怎麼辦?

改變觀念,開始行動!
福島核災的慘痛教訓讓我們認清了核電的本質,
萬一發生核災,台灣人將無處可逃,
而我們原來不需要核電,也能好好生存下去!

44 沒有核電,也不會沒電可用的
45 省電,比想像中容易
46 反核都從女人開始,顧家男人更當仁不讓
47 核災比車禍、飛機失事嚴重千萬倍
48 台灣不需要依賴核電燃料
49 名人相繼出面大反核
50 被核電收買的名人
51 連小泉純一郎都幡然醒悟
52 區區小島何以能反核成功?

〈附錄〉
村上春樹反核大出櫃
宮崎駿憂慮的福島輻射汙染真相
核電小知識

作者序

別存僥倖繼續用核電

  三一一日本震災、海嘯發生,但更淒慘的是爆發了史上最大規模的福島核災,善後需要百年,至少數十萬人無法重返家園。

  我喜愛的福島,及周邊景色,乃至我自己在離福島核一廠八十公里的鄉下的家,雖然依然鳥語花香,但全遭輻射汙染,無法住人,甚至無法接近,連二百五十公里外的東京生活也為之變色。核災讓東日本乃至全日本都遭輻射汙染。

   輻射能的恐怖在於,它是透明、看不見的,輻射物質毒性數十萬年不滅,造成「福島喪失」,日本政府束手無策,只能挽救其中部分,而且為了繼續維持體制,國 家只好違法,讓國民忍受高濃度的輻射汙染基準,日本本身完全走樣,這是因為核災是人類所無法承擔的,核電是人類玩不動的怪獸。

  但至少福島人真的想逃也還有別處可逃,我自己也曾在東京有輻射塵來襲時,疏散到離東京五百公里的大阪去,因此想到關於核電至少有兩項「世界一」的家鄉台灣,如果台灣發生核災,台灣人無處可逃,讓神經超粗的我,不再自然醒過。

   台灣是全球唯一把核電建在三十公里圈內有五百萬人口的地方,亦即台灣核一、核二廠是在世界第一高人口密度圈裡的核電廠;台灣數十年來把毒性一億倍的用過 燃料棒全擠在簡陋的燃料池裡,亦即台灣有世界第一高密度的燃料池,隨時引發核災也不足為奇。三一一後,多位日本專家當面警告我「台灣是下一個最可能發生核 災的地方」,而後果不僅會是「台北喪失」,更是「台灣喪失」!

  從福島核災,我知道,天下沒有僥倖,不能心存僥倖繼續用核電!

  所有警告在事前都被說了,所有不幸的預言也都被說中了,但這種慘狀不是預言者所想看到的,日本許多反核專家都悔恨自己力量不足,沒在災前完成廢核,而眼睜睜地目睹這空前大災難發生了。

   福島核一廠在核災發生前就是被並列跟已停機的濱岡核電廠一樣危險,如果日本社會能發揮理性、感性與想像力的話,已運轉三十年以上的福島第一核電廠的全部 六個機組都早該停止運轉了。但是搞核電的人尤其欠缺想像力,令人扼腕;地震、海嘯也早就有人預測到了,但核電當局為了多擠出自己的利益而不予理會,災前災 後持續隱瞞。

  台灣人常說「天佑台灣」,卻花錢續建不定時炸彈的核四廠,或因為不了解被政府、業者隱蔽的核電真相,而接受用低電費制度強迫推銷的過剩電力,不斷提供藉口給核電利益者,讓隨時可能引發核災的三個老核電廠繼續綁在我們的脖子上,還能祈禱天佑台灣嗎?

  村上春樹在核災發生後出面反核,他認為沒有去阻止核電的每個人都是加害者,而在台灣呢?如果發生核災,不僅每個人都是加害者,而且每個人都會是受害者。

   台灣比日本或世界任何地方都更應該廢核,而且不是遙遠或沒時間表的非核之路而已,因為我們沒地方可逃,下一個核災不會像車諾比和福島,等我們二十五年 的,因為台灣三個老核電廠是集所有核災因素於一身的,而拼裝貨核四廠只要一灌燃料,不但有幾千億台幣的拆爐負擔等著,危險度更不輸其他核電廠。

   我們不要核災,所以我們不要核電,而且電力也是充分的,我們根本不需要核電。核電無法真正減碳,減碳也不能由地震國的台灣搞核電來承擔。不要核電,才不 會妨礙、扼殺綠能政策的推展,我們優秀的綠能產業,我們自己才享用得到,不是只為他國代工而已,而能源才不須仰賴進口。

  台灣或任何國家其實都沒資格搞核電,是因為根本無法解決劇毒的用過核燃料及其他中低階核廢料的處理,尤其台灣等亞洲國家都是新生地層,整個台灣找不到任何一處可以安放這些危險的輻射垃圾,不僅我們,我們的子孫得一直抱著這些劇毒廢料十萬年,能活得下去嗎?

   我至今寫男女兩性關係等文章,都是沒有結論的,因為我想提供各種不同價值,不分黑白,或許享受灰色曖昧,或較輕鬆地思考、體驗各種情境,而有屬於自己的 選擇,讓感情優質化。但核電是完全不同的,只要沒有利益關係而稍有理性的人都很容易判斷,核電是不能選,也不必選的,只有這件事是黑白分明,是有明確結論 的。我們不要核電,因為我們經不起一次核災!

內容連載

§內文1

全世界只有台灣,把核電廠建在首都圈內
日本著名作家廣瀨隆在二十五年前出版過經典名著《把核電廠建在東京》,意思是政府或電力公司既然說核電是如此安全便利的玩意,那乾脆建在東京,就 建在人最多的新宿西口好了。以供電效率而言,不是最好的嗎?為什麼要建在人口過稀的窮鄉僻壤,是那裡的人死了也沒關係嗎?這是黑色幽默,但廣瀨隆當時沒想 到,台灣真的就是把核電廠建在首都圈!

我在四月三十日於東京一處演講會跟廣瀨隆聊了一下,他現在正呼籲日本人及世人正視福島核災並未朝安定方向前進,也要求日本應該關閉各處建在斷層或 預測地震震源上的幾座危爐,而且從長年調查及內部資料,他發現沒有哪座爐是安全的。廣瀨隆對我說:「我不知道下一個會重演福島核災悲劇的是日本或台灣、中 國,因為都是地震大國!」

不僅廣瀨隆,多位呼籲應停止運轉位於東海地震震源上的濱岡核電廠的日本核電專家,都更為台灣的核電廠擔憂,因為台灣的核電廠集所有惡劣因素於一 身,如立地於斷層邊、老舊缺陷爐、多頭建造、現場管理困難鬆散等,更嚴重的是,核一廠、核二廠就位在首都圈內,這是全球絕無僅有的。

二○一一年六月號《自然》期刊的研究報告指出,若以福島核一廠半徑三十公里為核災的避難標準,全球共有九千萬人生活在此一範圍內,承受著爆發核災 的風險。全球二百一十一座現役核電廠中,有六座的三十公里圈內人口超過三百萬人,其中台灣就占了兩座:台電核一廠、核二廠的三十公里圈內,人口超過五百 萬。相對於此,福島核一廠的三十公里圈內有十七萬人,地廣人稀多了。台灣其實是世界唯一把核電廠建在五百萬人口的首都圈內的。

以色列原本去年打算在南部的內蓋夫沙漠中建核電廠,那就離耶路撒冷十公里,建在首都圈的程度跟台灣有拚,但在福島核災發生之後,以色列判斷這是天災加人禍,隨即宣布取消建核電廠的計畫,所以目前還是只有台灣的核電廠是建在超高密度人口的首都圈內。

台電核一廠、核二廠的三十公里避難圈,台北就涵蓋在內。福島核災發生時,美國設定的美僑避難圈是八十公里,事實上福島核災發生,連在四十公里計畫 避難圈外的福島縣民也飽受高濃度輻射被曝之苦,福島有七六%的學校被曝量超標,日本政府殘忍地將被曝基準提高,因此避難八十公里很有道理。若核災發生在台 灣的核一廠、核二廠,連新竹人也得避難,即使只看三十公里圈內的五百多萬人,避難時不可能全擠到南台灣。日本政府不敢擴大避難圈或疏散學童,也是因為避難 本身對災民或政府都很困難,災民等於放棄至今擁有的人生乃至平凡的夢想。

廣瀨在二十五年前就指出,核電廠外部電源喪失就什麼都完了,很容易發生爐心熔毀以及使用過核燃料臨界等問題,他也指出核電廠的冷卻水循環技術、調 整壓力技術,以及抑止輻射能的各種弱點,這些在福島都成了現在進行式,廣瀨的預言不幸成真。福島核一廠的許多問題,如冷卻機能喪失、一號機連五百蓋爾的搖 晃都耐不住等,現在查出是在海嘯來襲前就已經發生,類似問題存在於日本所有核電廠,至今也未改善,到台灣參觀過核電廠的日本專家如菊地洋一等,認為台灣不 會是例外,更為台灣擔憂。

因為福島核一廠是供應東京首都圈用電,核災發生後,福島人說:「把核電送還給東京!」但若是台灣核一廠、核二廠發生核災,根本連送還問題也不存在,因為台灣是世界上唯一把核電廠蓋在首都圈裡的!

一個日本,兩個世界
福島當地居民正飽受輻射汙染之苦,有八百多名兒童流鼻血,然而在東京卻依然歌舞昇平,令人懷疑一個日本卻存在著兩個世界。
的確,現在即使連離福島核一廠六十公里外的福島市或更遠的喜多方,當地的輻射劑量也都高得驚人,國際間調查過車諾比核電廠事故的人士都大喊「Crazy!」(瘋狂)。像福島市,等於整個城市都在輻射管制區域內,卻還有二十萬市民居住。

車諾比核電廠事故後,超過一小時○.五七微西弗的地方不准住人,但現在像福島市車站前超市都能測到十微西弗、渡利中學即使把操場汙染土剷掉後也還 測到四微西弗以上,跟現在離車諾比核電廠三公里處的地方一樣高。車諾比核電廠事故至今已經二十五年,目前三十公里圈還禁止進入,但渡利中學卻每天都有學生 去上課,令人不忍。

日本政府不想正視福島縣高輻射劑量的問題,等於是用透明輻射刀在殺害兒童。許多日本人都對國家在做如此不人道的事而驚訝、感嘆!日本原來根據國際 放射防護委員會(ICRP)規定,容許輻射劑量一年一毫西弗,但現在連小孩的容許劑量都提高至一年二○毫西弗,即一小時三.八微西弗。雖然最近政府表示要 努力降低學校校園內的輻射劑量,但這只是確保學童在八小時的學校生活中不會遭嚴重汙染,但整個大環境沒改變,其實沒有太大的意義,而且鏟掉的土還沒決定去 處,還堆放在校園一角,輻射值一旦降低後也還會回升。

車諾比核電廠當初噴出的輻射物質有一五%落在白俄羅斯,九百萬人口的白俄羅斯有二百萬人生活在輻射汙染地區,這些地區被說是「找不到健康的小 孩」,九八%的小孩都生病,無精打采,容易心悸或頭痛,白血球數增加,每節課不是四十五分鐘,而是二十五分鐘,有辦法的人都出國了,只剩下農家。即使二十 五年前未遭輻射的人,後來吃了汙染土壤長出的蔬菜等作物,體內被曝嚴重。

現在的福島也陷入了同樣的處境,除了政府強制避難的十幾萬人之外,其他有兒童的家庭,只有約十萬人自力搬遷,還有一百多萬人應避難而無力搬遷,只好繼續留在高輻射區吃汙染食材,不敢想像數年後有多少人會發病,若有畸形兒誕生也不足為奇,福島的悲慘世界無奈地存在日本之中。

福島兒童的心聲:「我能活到幾歲?」
在整個核災事故中,最令人心疼的就是福島兒童,他們無辜地承受著大人造成的災難。

說來真的令人非常不忍,因為兒童是最容易受核災影響的。福島縣內公立中小學的學童人數約十一萬七千人,核災發生後,到八月底時約一萬四千人轉學,九月後轉學的人數繼續增加,但還是有很多小孩因為家庭經濟能力及父母工作關係,無法離開福島。

福島兒童透過投書媒體、寫信給國會議員,或在各種集會表達意見,藏在孩子內心深處的聲音,令大人更羞慚,覺得大人怎麼能把災難讓無辜的孩子來承受?

孩子們的心聲如「我能活到幾歲?」「我是不是能長大成人?」「我很擔心我會死掉,聽說遭輻射會得癌症、早死,但我不想死!」「我跟我的朋友驗尿都 含銫,是不是都會死?」「我將來能不能生小孩?」「我又沒做什麼壞事,為什麼上天要降輻射能來殺害我們?」「為什麼大人蓋核電廠,卻要福島小孩遭輻射?」 「都發生這樣的事了,核電廠還要恢復運轉?」

核災後,福島許多小孩沒法去戶外玩。棒球隊只能在教室用紙球練習。室內體育館不夠用,只能在課桌上做柔軟體操,孩子們問:「輻射能什麼時候才能消 失?我想去外面玩!」「什麼時候可以不戴帽子?什麼時候可以拿掉口罩?」「在外縣市舉辦夏令營的小朋友要來福島看我們,我怕他們遭輻射,要他們現在最好不 要來!」

在外縣市避難的小孩說:「請趕快除卻輻射汙染,我們是在什麼心情下離開家鄉,你們知道嗎?在故鄉還有多少人是關緊門窗過日子的,你們知道嗎?政府 把輻射容忍基準提高數十倍,對我們中學生也說不過去的,怎能讓世人信服呢?」「我想給在福島的親人寄乾淨安全的食物!」或「我想回福島!我想回到我從小熟 悉的地方!」「我想回到我熟悉的福島學校,因為那裡有很多朋友!」「我轉學換了兩所學校,大家四處分散,這是無法忍受的悲痛!希望讓離開的人、留在原地的 人都能一起避難!」

兒童更容易受到輻射的傷害
成長中的兒童,最容易受到輻射能的影響。兒童因遭輻射而致癌死亡的風險比成年人高,常導致白髮人送黑髮人的悲劇。

日本人雖常說「小孩是寶」,但核災發生時,首先遭殃的就是小孩!福島核災至今最令人心疼的就是至少有八百多名福島兒童流鼻血,其他則有小孩驗尿含 銫,抑或受檢兒童有半數甲狀腺遭輻射碘汙染等。雖然日本政府在遭受各界批判之後,決定努力透過鏟土等措施來改善、降低學校的輻射量,但福島兒童並非只有在 學校八小時遭受輻射,其他時間也生活在高汙染環境中,而且,只能吃喝汙染食材或呼吸輻射空氣所造成的體內遭輻射更是可怕。

體內細胞分裂最頻繁的小孩,比成年人更容易受輻射線影響,一般認為是三至十倍,年紀越小越受影響。日本過去曾以「兒童新陳代謝活潑而輻射感受性 高」的理由,廢止了集體照胸部X光。從廣島和長崎原子彈被爆者的調查顯示,兒童因遭輻射而致癌死亡的風險是成年人的二至三倍,而最容易受影響的是胎兒,孕 婦若遭輻射,胎兒出生後可能罹患白血病等癌症。

兒童若吸到輻射碘,會集中於甲狀腺,因此車諾比核電廠事故後,該地區得甲狀腺癌的兒童增加。銫一三七集中在肌肉,比較不會致癌,但從含銫可以推斷 有鍶九○,或若測出鈽二三九等就很棘手,尤其鍶會讓人體誤認為是鈣而蓄積在骨骼內,破壞造血機能,導致小兒白血病,而如果有鈽附著則會得肺癌。

日本政府至今還在說,遭輻射未滿一百毫西弗的致癌風險未經確定,但是就連最寬鬆的國際輻射防護委員會都承認,一百毫西弗以下也有致癌的可能。因此應該讓最容易受影響的小孩減少遭輻射的機會。

曾診察過六千多名廣島被爆者的醫師肥田舜太郎認為,鼻血、下瀉等是遭輻射汙染的病狀,但是現在福島的醫院經政府指示,不承認這些病狀是輻射能造成 的,肥田從廣島被爆者在半年後出現倦怠病的經驗研判,福島人從秋天起也會開始傾訴有倦怠感,兒童更難倖免,數年後也會發生兒童致癌比率高升的情況!

日本進口的食品,哪些可以吃?
許多人很喜歡吃日本產的水果和糕點,但現在有輻射汙染的問題,到底哪些可以吃?哪些不能吃呢?

現在買日本食品要非常小心,雖然並非全都有問題,但許多產品因為日本政府一下把人體輻射汙染容許劑量提高到災前標準的二十倍,食品輻射劑量的上限 也跟著提高,許多產品即使未超標,但也高得嚇人,不買是正確的。雖然日本政府或業者表示那是「風評受害」,但明明汙染劑量相當高,消費者不買才不至於實質 受害而體內被曝,說是「風評受害」好像是別人冤枉了這些產品,其實一點也不冤枉。

日本外務省在輻射牛問題爆發之後,終於在八月上旬照會各省廳,表示日本今後不能對外國宣傳「日本流通的食品是安全的」,因為「沒有出示明確的根據而強調安全,會給國際間不誠實的印象」。外務省也承認,現在汙染問題除了牛肉之外,也擴展到米、乳產品等,各國當然會不安。

來自日本的東西,究竟哪些能吃?哪些不能吃呢?主要看產地,像出產蘋果的青森雖然同樣在東北,離福島核一廠有三百公里,加上地形、風向的關係,較未遭輻射汙染。蘋果本身也跟茶葉或葉菜類不同,較不會累積輻射,青森蘋果也是我家災後重要的水果。

至於其他各種蔬果、魚貝產品等,盡量買關西、九州、四國產,像我去京都旅行,抱了兩條京都產大苦瓜、數條小黃瓜,以及大量魚漿製品、山椒小魚、宇 治綠茶等回東京,在京都時也拚命吃岡山葡萄與和歌山水蜜桃,以及京都產抹茶類甜點。菇菌類最易吸收內藏大量輻射物質,我買乾香菇或鮮菇更是要確認是九州產 或新潟產、北海道產的才買,小魚乾、海帶苗則買德島等瀨戶內海產的。這些地區的食品基本上未遭汙染,收割後處理還是比中國等會濫用防腐劑安全可靠多了。

核災避難的距離,連一百公里都嫌少
在距離福島核一廠一百公里之遙,都還測到高濃度的輻射值。台灣政府規定核災的避難範圍是五公里,這怎麼夠呢?
避難範圍五公里當然不夠,而且差太遠太遠了,台灣「緊急應變計畫區」以五公里為核災逃命圈,原能會若不是無知無能,就是太輕忽台灣人的人命了。

雖然台灣原能會認為車諾比核電廠是石墨水冷反應爐,才需三十公里避難圈,而台灣是輕水式反應爐較安全,但日本福島核一廠也是輕水式反應爐,發生核 災時只是方式不同,也有類似核爆的核反應,散播的輻射物質量超過車諾比核電廠,比原子彈核爆嚴重多了,還不斷在飛出累積中,不僅日本政府強制的三、四十公 里圈必須避難,整個福島縣及周邊地區都比台灣醫院輻射管制區的輻射基準還高,許多專家呼籲原本被認為相對安全的地區,如會津等,也要避難才行。

最近在福島地方法院會津若松分院的排水溝汙泥,測到每公斤十八萬貝克的驚人數字,雖說排水溝原本就是輻射物質最易聚集之處,但會津離福島核一廠有一百公里遠,輻射汙染都這麼嚴重,歐洲輻射風險委員會祕書長巴滋比到會津大喊吃不消,呼籲不避難不行。

他表示,未來福島人致癌與核災關聯的訴訟,他一定會作證,但他拒絕到福島出庭,而用錄影帶,因為福島全域的輻射劑量太高了,而且百年難改善。

台灣擁核人士居然至今還敢說福島核一廠避難只有十公里的謊言,而政府也沒想修訂五公里避難規定,事實上修訂也沒用,因為政府也沒有針對五公里圈有 任何準備。避難圈的三項基本條件是碘片、大量巴士與避難所、精密的風向及輻射物飛散預測。台灣核電廠五公里圈內,里長只有碘藥水,連碘片都沒有,更遑論有 其他準備。沒有這三項,等於船上沒救生艇,甚至連救生圈都沒有,到時候台灣人只有自尋活路,必將引起重大社會混亂,這種核電廠還能讓它運轉下去嗎?

核電廠與乳癌的發生有密切關係
美國有兩位醫師研究發現,核電廠發出的低劑量輻射線是會致人於死的。居住在核電廠附近的女性比較容易罹患乳癌。

在美國或日本的研究顯示,附近有核電廠存在的居民,癌患乳癌的比例比沒核電廠的地區高出好幾倍,而且所謂的附近,是一百六十公里圈內,而不只是幾公里周邊而已。

美國從一九五○年至一九八九年的四十年間,白人女性罹患乳癌的比率增加了兩倍,古爾德(Jay M. Gould)與古德曼(Benjamin A. Goldman)兩位醫師比較美國所有距離原子爐一百六十公里地區跟沒有原子爐地區做比較,發現有原子爐地區的乳癌率非常高,是其他地區的五倍。從核電廠 發出的低劑量輻射線是會致人於死的,這兩位醫師因此寫了《致死的虛構—國家主導的低劑量輻射線的隱蔽》,震撼世界,最近因福島核災發生而再度受到矚目。

全世界的乳癌罹患率從一九九○年開始減少,但有核電廠的國家如日本、台灣反而上升。日本女性的乳癌死亡率從一九五○年至二○○四年之間,增加了五倍,也有日本醫師研究認為是日本列島蓋了五十五座原子爐所致,核電密度遠超過美國,普通市民平時就遭到比美國更濃的輻射汙染。

我曾專訪過前東芝核電工程師小倉志郎,他表示,以前世人以為要發生像車諾比核電廠事故般的核災,才會有輻射致癌的問題,現在了解核電廠平時放出的 微量輻射線也有問題。核電廠的煙囪、冷卻用海水裡,都含有輻射物質,員工作業服都用海水洗,以前很單純地認為讓海水來稀釋就好了,後來才知道即使微量的輻 射線也會影響健康,更覺得核電廠不能不全面停機。

台灣在亞洲先進國家中,乳癌罹患率及死亡率排名第二,死亡率也是台灣女性第一位,相較於歐美是停經後罹患居多,台灣患者年輕了二十歲,其他婦癌如 子宮癌等也名列前茅,台灣人平常被曝於核電廠放出低劑量輻射的濃度又高過日本許多,像台北在三十公里圈內就有四座原子爐,是否也應追究台灣女性或台北女性 罹患乳癌的原因?

台灣有全世界最密集、最危險的燃料池
台灣的核電廠問題重重,比起日本不遑多讓,這使得專家認為台灣是下一個最可能發生核災的國度。

台灣的核電廠除了沒核安可言,更根本的問題是沒辦法處理用過的核燃料,因此原本沒有使用核電的基本資格。累積一萬五千多束劇毒的用過核燃料,宛如綁了三千多噸的核彈在台灣人脖子上。但台電從不提這個世界最密集、最危險的燃料池問題,不顧台灣人死活。

東芝前核電工程師小倉志郎是專門設計燃料冷卻池的,他對我說:「按理,不需要反核,因為各處核電廠的燃料冷卻池現在都爆滿了,新的用過的燃料棒根本沒去處,無法更換,核電廠就無法運轉了!」

剛用過的核燃料因為含鈽,毒性是沒用過的一億倍,毒性要十萬年才會逐漸消失,最初要不斷放在燃料冷卻池降溫,日本雖然還有送到英、法去處理,但也 是爆滿。日本列島早已成為核廢棄物列島,用過燃料棒有五萬九千束,重達一萬三千五百三十噸,非常可怕,因此東電急於在下北半島建立中間儲存池。

但是台灣的情況更恐怖,用過核燃料找不到去處,也無法送到英、法處理,從一九七八年啟用核電廠以來,三處核電廠的用過燃料棒,都放在原子爐上方的 燃料冷卻池,而且超級爆滿,密度是世界第一,核一廠燃料池有五五一四束,核二廠七五四四束,核三廠有二四○一束,全部一五四五九束,核一、核二廠池內,束 與束都快碰在一起了。

台電聲稱這不會發生核反應,當然是騙人的,原本燃料池設計只能放二、三千束的份量,是為了定檢或更換燃料時暫放的簡陋設施,上面是輕薄的屋頂。因 為燃料池密度過高,不要說是從上方丟炸彈或飛機失事,只要稍有擠壓或有異物從池子上方掉下,即使是一顆保齡球或工具等掉入,壓到燃料棒,使燃料棒破損,就 可能造成核反應,池裡燃料棒的密度越高,發生事故的可能性越高。

再者,燃料池若缺水,雖不會直接有核反應,卻會釋放出致死的高度輻射能,整座核電廠的人員都須撤離,無法管理,會引發其他核反應等失控的大核災。

許多國際專家認為台灣的核電廠是全世界最危險的,台灣是下一個最可能發生核災的國度,但他們都還不知道,台灣核電廠的燃料冷卻池也是世界危險的。

核災一旦發生,台灣人無處可逃
日本前首相菅直人回顧福島核災最壞必須疏散三千萬人。如果換作是台灣,有多少人必須疏散,又能疏散到哪兒去?

三一一核災當時,日本政府內部曾擬定「最壞狀況方案」,福島核一廠二百五十公里圈內的三千萬人都必須疏散,而東京正好離福島核一廠二百五十公里,亦即連整個首都圈都必須疏散。菅直人因此體悟,核災可能導致整個政府、國家機能喪失,因此唯一的解決對策就是擺脫對核電的依賴。

不僅日本,連美國也在三月十四日三號爐爆炸,導致東京也有輻射塵來襲時,曾考慮要讓東日本的九十萬美國人撤離,但因為擔心影響美日信賴關係,暫時觀望了一下。

事實上,三月十五日起,東日本有非常多的日本人也都讓家小往西疏散。我自己也是全家疏散到離東京五百公里外的大阪,但那是因為日本腹地很廣大,還 有關西、北海道、九州、沖繩等地可以疏散。換作是台灣,人們將無處可逃,尤其若是核一廠、核二廠發生核災,在三十公里圈內的六百萬人要往哪裡逃?許多朋友 說:「只有往海裡跳!」這似乎不是黑色笑話,而是恐怖的現實。

因為腹地不大,本身就會帶來嚴重的社會混亂,陷入大恐慌狀態,地狹人稠的台灣,不要說在地震帶上原本就沒有逃命的餘地,怎能還把自己綁在核電這種巨大的不定時炸彈上?

疏散是從人多處往人少處遷徙,東京的三千萬人要疏散也不是做不到,只是東京的首都機能將因此敗壞,日本將面臨國家存亡危機。即使現在,東京的德國 大使館有半數館員逃離,不願在東京接受微量輻射以及吃汙染食物,寧可辭職,使大使館機能減半。至於台灣,不管到哪裡都人口過密,無處疏散。萬一核災發生在 核一廠、核二廠,則不僅台北喪失,台灣也會跟著喪失,房地產價值一夜變成零,各項經濟、金融機能都喪失,股票也都變成衛生紙,因此只要是珍惜自己資產以及 身家性命的人,都應該大聲主張廢核。




表紙画像 著者:樋口健二  出版社:合同出版 価格:¥ 2,940

(1)原発崩壊(樋口健二著、合同出版・2940円)
(2)原子力をめぐる科学者の社会的責任(坂田昌一著、樫本喜一編、岩波書店・2730円)
(3)災害論(加藤尚武著、世界思想社・1890円)
    ◇
 原発関連書から選んだ。
 (1)は、原発内部で働く下請け労働者を40年近く取材してきた報道写真家の作品集。科学技術の粋を集めたという原発の奥深くに、どんな人間の営みがあるか。白日の下にさらけ出した功績は大きい。
 (2)は、日本が原子力の「平和利用」に向けて浮足立っていた時期に、原子力への過大な期待を戒めた物理学者の論集。エネルギー問題の解決をただちに原発に求めるのは「原子力に対する神秘的な信仰にもとづく非科学的なもの」だと主張する。
 原発の是非をめぐる論争の根底に、安全性についての理解が共有されていないという事実がある。(3)は、今後の議論の出発点におきたい一冊。自動車事故で何人死んでも自動車をなくせと言わない、なぜ原発ばかり……といったマヤカシの論理から抜け出す時だ。
    ◇
 上丸洋一(本社編集委員)

This is London from dawn till night ( 1953photo books of the world)

此舊書找不到出版年代 原來是1953

This is London from dawn till night.
114 photos. by Cas Oorthuys. Text by Neville Braybrooke.

Published 1953 by B. Cassirer; distributed by Faber & Faber, London in Oxford .
Written in English.

Edition Notes

Series
Contact photo books of the world

勘誤表-審視後的生命 Errata/ No Passion Spent 言葉への情熱


No Passion Spent:Essays 1978-1995

封面
Yale University Press, 1998/3/30 - 448 頁
George Steiner is one of the preeminent essayists and literary thinkers of our era. In this remarkable book he concerns himself with language and the relation of language to literature and to religion. Written during a period when the art of reading and the status of a text have been threatened by literary movements that question their validity and by computer technology, Steiner's essays affirm the primacy of reading in the classical sense. Steiner covers a wide range of subjects, from the Hebrew Bible, Homer, and Shakespeare to Kafka, Kierkegaard, Simone Weil, Husserl, and Freud. The theme of Judaism's tragic destiny winds through his thinking, in particular as he muses about whether Jewish scripture and the Talmud are the Jew's true homeland, about the parallels between the "last supper" of Socrates and the Last Supper of Jesus, and about the necessity for Christians to hold themselves accountable for their invective and impotence during the Holocaust.
言葉への情熱の画像
コトバヘノジョウネツ ソウショウニベルシタス
叢書・ウニベルシタス
言葉への情熱
原書名:NO PASSION SPENT:Essays 1978‐1995(Steiner,George)

本物の教養のすごみ 知の巨人の最新評論

 ジョージ・スタイナーの評論を読むと、文章を書くのが恥ずかしくなる。本物の教養に裏打ちされた文章とはこういうものかと思い知らされるからだ。
  なにしろこの人、国籍はアメリカだが、もともとオーストリア系ユダヤ人の子としてパリに生まれ、家庭では英独仏語が飛び交っていたというし、幼児期から父 親にギリシャ語でホメロスを読み聞かされ、少年時代からシェイクスピアに読みふけったという天才児。一九四〇年にゲシュタポの手を逃れてアメリカに脱出 し、戦後もアメリカとヨーロッパを股(また)にかけて活躍してきた文字通り国際的な知識人であるが、七十歳を超えたいまも健筆をふるっている。
  この最新の評論集には二十一篇(ぺん)の講演・評論・書評が集められているが、その話の及ぶ範囲がすごい。実にコクのある読書論に翻訳論、辛口のアメリカ 文化批判、旧約聖書にホメロス、シェイクスピア、フッサール、カフカ、キルケゴール、ハイデガー、ウィトゲンシュタイン、ナボコフにマンデリシュターム、 極め付きの古典から現代までの文学・哲学・科学・芸術と、まさしく脱領域の知の饗宴(きょうえん)だ。
 どれをとっても、そこにこめられた豊かな学殖に酔わされ受け売りをしたくなるが、身近なところで「夢」を論じた講演を見てみよう。
  動物の見る夢の話にはじまって、人間の眠り方の歴史、夢の歴史に話は移っていく。そして、古代地中海世界では未来を予知する機能を認められていた夢が、い つの間にか過去の記憶を糧(かて)とするものとされるようになった、その逆転の起こった時点が確かめられる。その間に、『イリアス』に描かれたアガメムノ ンの夢、有名なデカルトの夢、そして世紀末ウィーンでフロイトの収集した夢が検討され、精神分析学は夢の意味を固定化し、貧しくしたのではないかという疑 問が出される。なんともしゃれた講演だ。
 「教養」不在の近ごろ、久しぶりに知の巨人のすごさを堪能したが、これだけの名著、もっと読みやすい翻訳を心がけるべきだろう。

 評者・木田元(哲学者)
 (伊藤誓訳、法政大学出版局・579ページ・6,700円)





ERRATA
An Examined Life.
By George Steiner.
206 pp. New Haven:
Yale University Press. $25.
英國版1997年出版

April 12, 1998
Idea Man

George Steiner, polymath, has written an intellectual autobiography.

Read the First Chapter

By ANTHONY GOTTLIEB
紐約時報書評一針見血指出作者許多科學用語多為濫用


G Steiner, Errata: An Examined Life (London, Faber, 1997)日文版幾乎同步

· ジョージ・スタイナー, "G. スタイナー自伝", 工藤政司 訳, みすず書房, 1998., ISBN4-622-03085-3 C1010 \3000E

書名:勘誤表-審視後的生命
作者:喬治‧史坦納
譯者:李根芳
台北:行人
出版 2007 / 08


這本書的譯注還是缺近百來個待補

有的多注言不及義 譬如說 G. Orwell 關於英文語文的著作 才是作者要談的

我還懷疑她對某詩人(策蘭.....)名字翻譯多名稱

出版社沒搞"索引" 就無法幫助讀者很快了解作者對自己著作--他的書日本翻譯得相當多--的摘述等



本書作者一重要字眼 presence ---它在第一章中是如何處理

{presence:臨在;鑒臨;親在:指兩存有物某種程度的互相滲透。造物主天主臨在於宇宙,尤其與我們人類同在,包括基督親臨信徒中,尤指基督親在聖體聖事中。presence at Mass:參與彌撒;與祭。presence of God:天主的鑒臨;天主的臨在:無所不在的天主,此時此刻就在我們面前,善人的靈魂是天主的聖殿。}

:At that hour, in the days following, the totalities of personal experience, of human contacts, of landscape around me became a mosaic, each fragment at once luminous and resistant in its "quiddity" (the Scholastic term for integral presence revived by Gerard Manley Hopkins). 翻譯為.......每個碎片的"本質" "quiddity" (....指完整呈現的詞語........).





我們需要索引來詳細審查一些術語 譬如說 本書翻譯成"重重深淵"的 :在第一章類似「紋中紋手法(mise en abyme)」(ミザナビーム(mise-en-abyme)とは、フランス語で「深淵に入る」と言う意味で、英語では"put in the abyss"と訳されます。 また、ミザナビームの別名として、入れ子構造の物語(Chinese box narrative)、 ...)

If the revelation of incommensurable "singleness" held me spellbound, it also generated fear. I would come back to the mise en abyme of one blazon within another, to that "setting in the abyss." I would consider a fathomless depth of differentiation, of non-identity, always incipient with the eventuality of chaos. How could the senses, how could the brain impose order and coherence on the kaleidoscope, on the perpetuum mobile of swarming existence?

根據 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. 它的定義為類似"千重鏡相或 盒中盒":

miseenabyme [meez on abeem], a term coined by the French writer André Gide, supposedly from the language of heraldry, to refer to an internal reduplication of a literary work or part of a work. Gide's own novel Les FauxMonnayeurs (The Counterfeiters, 1926) provides a prominent example: its central character, Édouard, is a novelist working on a novel called Les FauxMonnayeurs which strongly resembles the very novel in which he himself is a character. The ‘Chinese box’ effect of miseenabyme often suggests an infinite regress, i.e. an endless succession of internal duplications. It has become a favoured device in postmodernist fictions by Jorge Luis Borges, Italo Calvino, and others. See also metafiction.



譬如說 上圖為 『Le récit spéculaire: essai sur la mise en abyme』的英訳本。就是這方面的專書--讀者可看畫中有畫 (16世紀のクエンティン・マサイスという画家の作品に描かれた凸型の鏡について。)





(小說) 文革前奏曲 (蘇萬巨): 四清運動

文革前奏曲

封面
明報出版社有限公司, 2000 - 405 頁




维基百科,自由的百科全书
(重定向自社会主义教育运动
Danghui golden.svg

中國共產黨
政治運動

打AB團
整風運動
土地改革運動
三反五反運動
反右運動
大躍進
四清運動
文化大革命
上山下鄉運動
批林批孔運動
反擊右傾翻案風
真理標準大討論
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg
中華人民共和國歷史

四清運動,簡稱四清,是1962年底在中國農村逐步推開得一場政治運動。四清運動最初是「清工分,清賬目,清財物,清倉庫」,後來擴大為「大四清」,即「清政治,清經濟,清組織,清思想」。農村的四清運動與城市裡的五反運動合稱社會主義教育運動

1962年9月,在中共八屆十中全會上,毛澤東提出「千萬不要忘記階級鬥爭」的號召,並提出要進行社會主義教育運動。

1963年2月,中共中央在北京召開工作會議,重點討論展社會主義教育的問題。在這次會上,毛澤東指出:「現在有的人三斤豬肉,幾包紙煙,就被收買。只有開展社會主義教育,才可以防止修正主義」。會後全國範圍內逐漸開展社會主義教育運動,內容包括在城市開展的「反貪污、反浪費、反官僚主義」等等的增產節約運動和農村開展的「清帳目、清倉庫、清工分、清財物」的四清運動。

四清運動前期,劉少奇之妻王光美帶工作隊到河北省撫寧縣盧王莊公社桃園大隊搞試點。他們所總結出的經驗即稱「桃園經驗」,而「桃園經驗」正是文革中給劉少奇定罪的重要內容之一。

四清運動一開始主要依靠中共基層組織和基層幹部,鬥爭對象是城市和農村的腐敗分子,後來隨著一線工作的劉少奇向農村派工作隊,工作隊幹部代替基層組織,開始了由工作隊幹部領導大兵團運動,鬥爭對象轉向「」等黑五類人員,鬥爭中逐漸出現鬥爭、打人、搜查、重點集訓、扣帽子、立罰規等。四清運動由出宣示的教育性質轉向階級鬥爭

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