斯坦利·卡諾 | 1925-2013
Jacquelyn Martin/Associated Press2009年，歷史學家、駐外新聞記者和電視紀錄片製作人斯坦利·卡諾在馬里蘭州波托馬克的家中。
卡諾曾擔任駐東南亞記者30多年，曾供職《時代》雜誌、 《生活》雜誌、《星期六晚郵報》(The Saturday Evening Post)、《華盛頓郵報》、NBC新聞頻道(NBC News)、《新共和》(The New Republic)、國王圖片辛迪加(King Features Syndicate)以及美國公共廣播公司(Public Broadcasting Service)。但卡諾最著名的還是他的書和紀錄片。
利用這些調查的成果，他寫成了750頁的《越南：一段歷 史》(Vietnam: A History)一書，在1983年出版，並同時和PBS合作，製作了一部長達13小時的紀錄片：《越南：一段電視歷史》(Vietnam: A Television History)。和許多有關六七十年代越南的書籍、電影以及夜間新聞節目不同，卡諾並沒有將主要關注點放在美國在這段歷史中扮演的角色以及在國內外帶來 的後果。相反，他討論了衝突的各個方面，並追述了越南的文化和歷史。
六年後，卡諾完成了他全面研究另一個東南亞國家的第二部書 籍和紀錄片。那本題為《以我們的形象：美國王朝在菲律賓》(In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines, 1989)的書全面講述了西班牙和美國殖民統治時期的菲律賓，以及後來在有時十分腐敗的美國支持的領導者治下的菲律賓獨立時 期。1990年，這本書贏得了普利策歷史獎。
根據他在亞洲的經歷，卡諾還有其他或獨立完成、或合著、或 參與編寫的書籍，包括《轉型中的亞裔美國人》(Asian-Americans in Transition, 1992)、《通向越南之路》(Passage to Vietnam, 1994)、《湄公河》(Mekong, 1995)、《越南戰爭歷史地圖集》(Historical Atlas of the Vietnam War, 1995)等。
在其職業生涯早期，卡諾曾在巴黎住過10年，1997年， 他出版了一本題為《50年代的巴黎》(Paris in the Fifties)的回憶錄。這是一本記者的懷舊筆記，記錄了他和咖啡館哲學家、落魄的音樂家以及偽革命藝人相處的日子，還不時談及稅收、餐館、斷頭台、海 明威、戴高樂以及惡魔島(Devil's Island)流放地。
CBS前記者、卡諾自越南時期的朋友伯納德·柯爾布(Bernard Kalb)2009年接受美聯社(The Associate Press)採訪稱，這部回憶錄的廣博、知識和趣味，展現了一個經典的卡諾。“斯坦利說過一句名言，當記者就像是一生都在青春期，”他說。
斯坦利·卡諾1925年2月4日出生於布魯克林，父親是哈 里·卡諾(Harry Karnow)，母親是亨麗埃特·克佩爾·卡諾(Henriette Koeppel Karnow)。他成長的這所城市裡有十幾家日報，他很早就立志成為一名記者。二戰期間，他在美國陸軍航空隊服役(Army Air Forces)。1947年，獲得哈佛大學(Harvard University)的學士學位後，他乘船前往法國，準備去消夏。結果他在法國一住就是10年。
卡諾1948年與克勞德·薩羅特(Claude Sarraute)成婚，1955年離婚。1959年，他與安妮特·克蘭(Annette Kline)結婚，生有一子一女，邁克爾和凱瑟琳。此外，卡諾還有一個繼子柯蒂斯·卡諾(Curtis Karnow)和兩個孫輩。卡諾的後人都還健在。他的第二任妻子於2009年去世。
卡諾於1948至1949年期間在巴黎(University of Paris)學習政治學，並於1950至1957年期間擔任《時代》雜誌的駐巴黎記者，報道西歐和北非的事件。隨着阿爾及利亞獨立戰爭愈演愈烈，震動法國，卡諾於1958年調往了北非。
1959年，卡諾來到東南亞，常駐香港，並在充滿衝突的這 個地區廣泛遊歷。多數西方記者只是為一家媒體工作，他們往往被空降到戰區或政治熱點地區，寫上幾篇文章，然後就離開，但他不是這種典型的西方記者。他往往 受雇於不止一家媒體，包括一些新聞周刊和沒有每日截稿時限的出版物，而且他喜歡採用篇幅較長、分析性較強的寫作形式的深度報道。
卡諾1959至1962年為《時代》和《生活》雜誌、 1961至1965年為英國《觀察家報》(The London Observer)、1963至1965年為《星期六晚郵報》，以及1965年至1971年為《華盛頓郵報》擔任亞洲記者；1971至1972年為《華盛 頓郵報》擔任報道國際關係的海外記者；1973至1975年為NBC擔任特別記者，兼任《新共和》的副主編。
1962年，卡諾出版了第一部繪本著作《東南亞》 (Southeast Asia)，作為“《生活》世界圖書”(Life World Library)系列的一部。他在書中稱，南越威權政府的反共總統吳庭艷(Ngo Dinh Diem)面臨著被推翻的危險。1963年11月，吳庭艷果然在肯尼迪(Kennedy)政府暗地裡支持的軍事政變中遇害。
除了定期自越南進行報道外，卡諾還報道整個東南亞地區的新 聞事件，包括為《華盛頓郵報》報道理乍得·M·尼克松總統(Richard M. Nixon)1972年的歷史性訪華。儘管位列白宮挑選出的陪同尼克松訪華的87名新聞代表之一，但卡諾也出現在參議院“水門事件”調查委員會1973年 公布的白宮“敵人名單”里。
卡諾1958年成為哈佛大學的尼曼學者(Nieman Fellow)，還贏得了許多獎項，包括因亞洲報道獲得的肖倫斯特獎(Shorenstein Prize)。翻譯：谷菁璐、黃錚
Stanley Karnow, Historian and Journalist, Dies at 87
January 28, 2013
Stanley Karnow, a Pulitzer Prize-winning historian and journalist who produced acclaimed books and television documentaries about Vietnam and the Philippines in the throes of war and upheaval, died on Sunday at his home in Potomac, Md. He was 87.
The cause was congestive heart failure, said Mr. Karnow’s son, Michael.
Jacquelyn Martin/Associated Press
The historian, foreign correspondent and television documentarian Stanley Karnow at his home in Potomac, Md., in 2009.
For more than three decades Mr. Karnow was a correspondent in Southeast Asia, working for Time, Life, The Saturday Evening Post, The Washington Post, NBC News, The New Republic, King Features Syndicate and the Public Broadcasting Service. But he was best known for his books and documentaries.
As China emerged from decades of isolation, Mr. Karnow’s book “Mao and China: From Revolution to Revolution” (1972) examined the nation’s history from the Communist revolution through the Cultural Revolution, and also looked at Chairman Mao’s often conflicting roles in the period.
He was in Vietnam in 1959, when the first American advisers were killed, and lingered long after the guns fell silent, talking to fighters, villagers, refugees, North and South Vietnamese political and military leaders, the French and the Americans, researching a people and a war that had been little understood.
The result was the 750-page book “Vietnam: A History,” published in 1983, and its companion, a 13-hour PBS documentary, “Vietnam: A Television History.” Unlike many books and films on Vietnam in the 1960s and ’70s and the nightly newscasts that focused primarily on America’s role and its consequences at home and abroad, Mr. Karnow addressed all sides of the conflict and traced Vietnam’s culture and history.
“Vietnam: A History” was widely praised and a best seller. The documentary, with Mr. Karnow as chief correspondent, was at the time the most successful ever produced by public television, viewed by an average of nearly 10 million people a night through 13 episodes. It won six Emmy Awards, as well as Peabody, Polk and duPont-Columbia awards.
Six years later, Mr. Karnow delivered his second comprehensive book and television examination of a Southeast Asian nation. The book, “In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines” (1989), was a panorama of centuries of Filipino life under Spanish and American colonial rule, followed by independence under sometimes corrupt American-backed leaders. It won the 1990 Pulitzer Prize for history.
Narrated by Mr. Karnow, the three-part PBS documentary “The U.S. and the Philippines: In Our Image” traced America’s paternalistic colonial rule in the Philippines, the shared suffering of Filipinos and Americans under a cruel Japanese occupation in World War II, and Manila’s postwar independence under regimes nominally democratic but repressive, corrupt or indifferent to the miseries of its people.
Mr. Karnow also wrote and was a co-author of or contributor to books based on his years in Asia, including “Asian-Americans in Transition” (1992), “Passage to Vietnam” (1994), “Mekong” (1995) and “Historical Atlas of the Vietnam War” (1995).
Early in his career he lived in Paris for a decade, and in 1997 he published a memoir, “Paris in the Fifties.” A nostalgic reporter’s notebook of life among the cafe philosophers, berated musicians and pseudo-revolutionary artistes, it danced with digressions about taxes, restaurants, the guillotine, Hemingway, Charles de Gaulle and the Devil’s Island penal colony.
In its range, learning and appetite for fun, Bernard Kalb, the former CBS reporter and Mr. Karnow’s friend since Vietnam, told The Associated Press in 2009, the memoir was vintage Karnow. “Stanley has a great line about how being a journalist is like being an adolescent all your life,” he said.
Stanley Karnow was born in Brooklyn on Feb. 4, 1925, the son of Harry and Henriette Koeppel Karnow. He grew up in a city with more than a dozen daily newspapers and decided early that he wanted to become a reporter. He served in the Army Air Forces in World War II. After graduating from Harvard with a bachelor’s degree in 1947, he sailed for France, intending to spend the summer. He stayed for a decade.
Mr. Karnow married Claude Sarraute in 1948. They were divorced in 1955. In 1959, he married Annette Kline. They had two children, Michael and Catherine, who survive him, along with a stepson, Curtis Karnow, and two grandchildren. His second wife died in 2009.
He studied politics at the University of Paris in 1948-49, and from 1950 to 1957 was a Paris correspondent for Time magazine, covering Western Europe and North Africa. As Algeria’s war of independence shook France with increasing violence, Mr. Karnow was posted to North Africa in 1958.
In 1959 Mr. Karnow moved to Southeast Asia, established a base in Hong Kong and traveled widely in a region rife with conflicts. He was not typical of the Western correspondents, most of whom worked for one publication, dropped into war zones or political hot spots, wrote a few articles and moved on. He often had more than one employer, including weekly newsmagazines and other publications without daily deadlines, and he was drawn to reporting in greater depth and longer, more analytical writing forms.
Mr. Karnow was an Asian correspondent for Time-Life from 1959 to 1962, The London Observer from 1961 to 1965, The Saturday Evening Post from 1963 to 1965 and The Washington Post from 1965 to 1971. He was a diplomatic correspondent for The Washington Post in 1971 and 1972, and a special correspondent for NBC and an associate editor of The New Republic from 1973 to 1975.
In his first book, “Southeast Asia” (1962), an illustrated Life World Library volume, he noted that Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnam’s authoritarian anti-Communist president, was in danger of being overthrown. In November 1963, President Diem was slain in a military coup that the Kennedy administration had tacitly endorsed.
Besides reporting periodically from Vietnam, Mr. Karnow covered news events across the region, including President Richard M. Nixon’s historic trip to China in 1972, for The Washington Post. Although he was one of 87 news representatives chosen by the White House to accompany Nixon to China, Mr. Karnow was also on the White House “enemies list” made public by the Senate Watergate committee in 1973.
He was a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University in 1958 and was a recipient of many awards, including the Shorenstein Prize for reporting on Asia.
"Paris in the Fifties"... Preface During the 1950s, when I worked as a Time correspondent in Paris, it was standard operating procedure to swamp the editors back in the New York office with voluminous, detailed and often ..."
Text by Stanley Karnow
Illustrations by Annette Karnow
My latest book, Paris in the Fifties (Times Books, 1997), is a partly a memoir and mainly a collection of the pieces I wrote during that decade as a reporter for Time magazine. The material dates back a generation, yet it remains, as the Washington Post commented "current, rich and, strangely enough, appropriate for today."
Thousands of young Americans were flocking to Europe after World War II, and I joined the throng. Early in July 1947, fresh out of college, I sailed for Paris aboard a ramshackle freighter, planning to stay for the summer. I stayed for ten years.
Pourquoi Paris? Its name alone was magic. The city, the legendary Ville Lumiere, promised something for everyone -- beauty, sophistication, culture, cuisine, sex and that indefinable called ambience. "When good Americans die they go to Paris," ran Oscar Wilde's often-quoted quip. That was certainly not my purpose in going there but, then, what was it? Perhaps, simply, Paris.
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Initially I checked into a cheap hotel and wandered through the city, absorbing its dazzling sights -- Notre Dame, the Louvre, the Palais-Royal, the Arc de Triomphe. When the moment came for me to return home, I was reluctant to leave. I felt that I had only scratched the surface of France, and wanted to dig deeper. So I decided to remain, at least for the foreseeable future. As a veteran I was entitled to the GI Bill, which paid $75 a month on condition that I attend school. I enrolled at the Sorbonne, but instead of going to classes I hung out in Latin Quarter cafes with my newly-made French friends, and learned to speak the language. Meanwhile I met and married a French girl and, though we were later divorced, I got to know her family intimately -- an experience that taught me much about the complexities of French society.
Before long I was hired as a gofer in the Paris bureau of Time, and ultimately became a staff correspondent. While my older colleagues focused on serious subjects, like America's strategic policy or the defense of Western Europe, my principal task was to explain what made the French tick. I covered the upper crust and le tout Paris, the world of fashion, the tormented political scene and the intellectual community, whose vedettes included Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus and Andre Malraux. Among my other assignments, I reported on crime and justice, dined with gourmets and toured the vineyards with wine experts. Occasionally I interviewed such visiting celebrities as Audrey Hepburn, Orson Welles, Ernest Hemingway and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. My job also carried me to Morocco, Tunisia and particularly Algeria, where Moslem nationalist insurgents were fighting to end France's rule -- and the protracted guerrilla struggle prepared me for the challenges I would subsequently face as a journalist in Vietnam.Stanley Karnow
My book is about France as it was forty years ago, not as it is now. The country has evolved dramatically since then, yet to a large extent, as the old saying goes, "Plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose" -- which is, for me, one of the most charming traits. One anecdote illustrates that preoccupation with continuity.
In May 1968, after an absence of 10 years, I returned to Paris and, out of nostalgia, dropped into the bar of the Crillon Hotel, where in my time the American and British press had customarily gathered to drink before lunch every day. Some of my old pals were still there. So was Louis, the bartender, his patent-leather hair as slick as ever. Without batting an eye, he extended a limp hand and mumbled, " Bonjour, M'sieur Karnow, back from vacation?"
Stanley Karnow, author of Vietnam: A History, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1990 for In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines.