2013年6月30日 星期日

Bully for Brontosaurus (Stephen Jay Gould)


Books

Millions of Years On, Still Evolving

In his new book, “My Beloved Brontosaurus,” Brian Switek catches up on what has become of the dinosaurs you thought you knew from grade school.



這本書是近20年前對作者的全集的敬禮
買來還未讀  幸運的是  沒封進箱子
如今在台中發現Wikipedia 已有它的詞條
2013年春節上YouTube 去聽他幾個訪談

Bully for Brontosaurus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bully for Brontosaurus
Bullybronto.png
Author(s) Stephen Jay Gould
Genre(s) Non-fiction, Science
Publisher W. W. Norton & Co.
Publication date 1991
Pages 540
ISBN 978-0-393-02961-1
OCLC Number 45338941
Preceded by The Flamingo's Smile
Followed by Eight Little Piggies
Bully for Brontosaurus (1991) is the fifth volume of collected essays by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould. The essays were culled from his monthly column "The View of Life" in Natural History magazine, to which Gould contributed for 27 years. The book deals, in typically discursive fashion, with themes familiar to Gould's writing: evolution and its teaching, science biography, and probabilities.


Brontosaurus restoration by Charles R. Knight which was used for the cover
The title essay, "Bully for Brontosaurus", discusses the theory and history of taxonomy by examining the debate over whether Brontosaurus should be labelled Apatosaurus. In "Justice Scalia's Misunderstanding", Gould dissects and decisively rejects Antonin Scalia's dissent in the United States Supreme Court case Edwards v. Aguillard that overturned the last creationist statute in the country. Gould claimed his favourite essay to be "In a Jumbled Drawer" which discusses the debate between Nathaniel Shaler and William James over whether the improbability of our having evolved necessitates divine intervention (Gould, like James, argues no); the essay includes a letter from former President Jimmy Carter as a postscript, which discusses the issue.

The essay "Male Nipples and Clitoral Ripples" dealt with the issue of adaptive arguments. It derives from some work by Elisabeth Lloyd, whose subsequent 2005 book[1] was dedicated to Gould (and her parents), and uses the case of the female orgasm to expand on the subject of adaptiveness in both depth and breadth.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Table of Contents

  • Bibliography 513
  • Index 525

[edit] Notes and references

  1. ^ Lloyd, E.A. (2005). The Case of The Female Orgasm: Bias in the science of evolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press

[edit] External links

[edit] Reviews


史蒂芬·傑伊·古爾德Stephen Jay Gould,1941年9月10日-2002年5月20日)是一名美國古生物學家演化生物學家科學史學家。是一位科普作家,職業生涯中大多在哈佛大學擔任教職,以及在紐約美國自然史博物館工作。
古爾德出生於紐約市皇后區,父親倫納德為法庭速記員,母親埃利諾是個藝術家。古爾德五歲時,他父親帶他到美國自然史博物館的恐龍廳參觀,這是他最早接觸到暴龍的時刻。
古爾德早期研究的對象是百慕達地區的蝸牛。1972年,他和紐約美國自然史博物館的尼爾斯·埃爾德里奇(Niles Eldredge)共同提出「間斷平衡」進化理論,由此享譽全球。「間斷平衡」 理論認為,生物的進化並不像達爾文所認為的那樣,是一個緩慢的漸變積累的過程;而是長期的穩定甚至不變與短暫的劇變交替的過程,從而解釋了化石在地層中為 什麼會有許多空缺之處。 古爾德是一位忠實的達爾文主義者,他認為達爾文理論的核心是自然選擇,而不是生存競爭或生物漸變論。從他的作品中可以看出,他非常推崇自然選擇在生物進化 中的作用,尤其難能可貴的是,他也承認,自然選擇不是唯一答案,而是最重要的答案。 古爾德的另一傑出貢獻並不是提出什麼理論,而是他寫出了大量的科普作品,令世人對古生物學產生興趣。沒有人關注的科學是沒有生命力的科學,古爾德的科普文 章給予了古生物學持續的生命動力。古爾德文筆流暢、學識淵博,不僅向讀者解釋自然現象,而且講述自然現象所引出的思考及其對人類社會的影響,他對科學的反 思相當深刻,對社會曲解科學理論進行了尖銳的批判。他的主要科普作品有《千禧年》、《自達爾文以來》、《熊貓的拇指》、《壯麗的生命》等。

[编辑] 外部連結

2013年6月28日 星期五

Gérard Genette《辭格 三集》《轉喻: 從修辭格到虛構》




 不太容易全懂 保持資料當檔案

 G. Genette,《辭格III》(Figures III),廖素珊、楊祖恩,台北時報出版社,2003

Gerald Genette轉喻: 從修辭格到虛構》吳康茹桂林: 漓江2013
 另外有篇

熱拉爾•熱奈特 (Gerard Genette)創作的《轉喻:從修辭格到虛構 》由漓江出版社2013-03-01出版發行,其國際标準書號為9787540760793。
《轉喻:從修辭格到虛構》同時收入約翰•皮耶所著《轉叙》一文,是對熱奈特《轉喻》 一書及相關思想的最好解讀。 《轉喻:從修辭格到虛構》編輯推薦:熱拉爾•熱奈特是一位傑出的文藝理論家,他用親切活潑的文字解密“虛構”的遊戲,他那智慧的靈光,一掃理論著作艱澀沉 悶的氣息。在《轉喻:從修辭格到虛構》中,古希臘時期的一枚小小的修辭格,被熱拉爾•熱奈特從千年光陰的灰燼中撿拾出來,讓我們感受它跳動的餘溫。從古希 臘古羅馬文學到現當代文學,從詩歌、小說到繪畫、影視,“轉喻”由修辭格演變成為衆多藝術門類所共享的一種虛構手段。讓我們跟随着它,從荷馬走向伍迪•艾 倫,一起去探究這其中的奧秘……

 作者:(法國)熱拉爾•熱奈特 譯者:吳康茹
《轉喻:從修辭格到虛構》脫胎于熱奈特在2002年國際叙述學研讨會上的發言,它的出版代表着這位當代著名文藝理論家在“跨媒介叙述學”領域所作的最新探 索,引起廣泛關注。轉喻是西方古典修辭學意義上一個被忽視的概念,熱奈特從修辭學中借用了這一概念,使其從最初純粹的修辭格術語演變成叙述學意義上的“轉 叙”,并将之運用于叙事文本中換層叙述的研究。熱奈特從文學、戲劇、繪畫、電影等領域進行跨界分析,使荷馬、維吉爾、普魯斯特、卡爾維諾、皮蘭德婁、馬 奈、希區柯克、伍迪•艾倫等大批藝術家在他的旁征博引下此唱彼和、交織呼應,熱奈特在以探索性的姿态緻力于基本理論範疇研究的同時,又令人眼花缭亂地展示 着“轉叙”這一換層叙述手法所造就的幻覺奇觀。

熱拉爾•熱奈特(Gérard Genette,1930- )當代法國最有影響力的文學批評家之一。他既是20世紀60—80年代法國結構主義新批評的代表人物,也是歐洲經典叙述學的奠基人和重要代表。他長期緻力 于對文學形式與技巧的研究,以創立和闡釋理論術語而聞名,被譽為當今法國形式主義批評的典型代表。迄今為止,已經出版著作17部,主要代表作有《辭格三 集》(Figures III,1972  台北時報出版有譯本)、《新叙事話語》(Nouveaux Discours du récit ,1983)、《虛構與行文》(Fiction et Diction,1987)、《隐迹稿本——二度文學》(Palimpsestes.La littérature au second degré ,1992)、《轉喻》( Métalepse)等。

約翰•皮耶(John Pier)法國圖爾弗朗索瓦•拉伯雷大學英文教授,兼任法國高等人文社會科學學院藝術語言研究中心(CRAL)負責人,也是“歐洲叙述學網”(ENN)的 發起人及創辦者。他是歐洲叙述學研究領域的領軍人物,長期緻力于跨媒介叙述學方面的研究,主編叙述學理論著作多部,其中有:《轉叙——違反藝術表現契約》 (Métalepse.Entorses au pacte de la représentation ,2005)、《大衆文化中的轉叙》(Metalepsis in Popular Culture,2011)等。

吳康茹,文學博士,在中國社會科學院研究生院外文系獲得博士學位,現為首都師範大學文學院比較文學系副教授,碩士生導師。1998-1999年公派赴法國 巴黎高等師範學校詩歌研究中心訪學。長期從事法國文學翻譯及研究工作,出版論著及譯著多部,如《嚼着玫瑰花瓣的夜晚——瓦萊裡與紀德通信選》、《法蘭西院 士就職演說》、《肩後——薩岡最後的告白》等。

2013年6月27日 星期四

從萊文沃思到拉薩:經歷大變革年代/ From Leavenworth to Lhasa: living in a revolutionary era (Robert Anthony Scalapino)



張研田《追憶集‧ 卅年往事憶世驤 之二》記他與陳世驤如何爭取年青的Robert Scalapino對台灣政府的好感

Robert Anthony Scalapino先生仙逝了 所以將半年前這一網頁復蘇
書中有數頁對台灣的民主政壇鳥瞰 包括他的兩位學生宋楚瑜和劉教授 (學生的書提老師的多 老師的書提非學術傳人的學生的書較少)
書名從萊文沃思到拉薩 或許有寓意 即從一的平凡出生地到聖地


.......什麼是「康隆報告」(The Conlon Report)?這是五十多年(一九五九)前美國參院外交委員會主席傅爾伯萊特,委託三位柏克萊加大教授所做關於亞洲情勢的報告,施伯樂負責撰寫東北亞部 分,這個地區最敏感的問題是福爾摩莎,他認為美國承認福爾摩莎代表中國、並以這個小島對抗中國完全不切實際,因此建議美國迫使蔣政權放棄金馬外島,並准福 爾摩莎人有自決的權利,舉行公民投票成立台灣共和國或永久中立,由美國保障其安全。
 這些建議在那個年代從台灣的觀點看來,自是大逆不道,報告撰稿人施伯樂遂成了十惡不赦之徒,遭到台灣朝野的口誅筆伐,這情形一直持續到六 十年代才有所改變,連台灣極右派的王昇將軍都和史卡拉皮諾(Scalapino的音譯)打交道了,到了後來,台灣甚至奉史卡拉皮諾為大師,引其為好友,真是前後判若倆人。
 施伯樂和費正清,在美國一東一西,可說是美國亞洲及中國事務的兩大巨擘,各領風騷,施伯樂亦出身哈佛,只是年齡比費正清小了十二歲,應屬後輩,亦無費於二戰時在中國服務的直接經驗,但施是日本通,為費所不及,可以說他們各有所長,而且都是著作等身,尤其施伯樂享高齡(九十二歲),直到去年,還是著述不斷,所以一年前柏克萊加大特別舉行集會,向施致敬,東亞研究所主任葉文心博士(已故新聞界名人葉明勳之女)致詞,對施伯樂備極推崇。
 一九一九年生於美國堪薩斯州雷文沃斯城(Leavenworth,美國陸軍指揮參謀學院設於此地,郝柏村曾在此深造)的施伯樂,是柏克萊 加大東亞研究所的創辦人,此一研究所和哈佛大學的費正清中心相互輝映,歷年培養的亞洲事務人才不計其數,他也是「美中關係全國委員會」的創辦人和首任主 席,這個委員會在六○年代一直推動中共加入聯合國,七○年代對美中關係正常化發揮了作用,自此而言,施伯樂對美國改變對中共的政策,確實有其影響力。......【傅建中】

從萊文沃思到拉薩:經歷大變革年代

Scalapino, Robert A. (2008) From Leavenworth to Lhasa: living in a revolutionary era Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, California,

這是什麼世界
版權頁寫本書有許多刪節 改寫
不過作者還要說謝謝

這本回憶錄很平淡--作者必須採取持平而謹慎樂觀的方式觀看和立論(由於含蓋的國際關係範圍過廣等 )
雖然他教過宋楚瑜等 關於台灣也沒什麼"識見" (將蔣介石去世年份寫成1974)

Robert Anthony Scalapino (19 October 1919 – 1 November 2011) (Chinese name: 施伯樂) was an American political scientist particularly involved in East Asian studies. He was one of the founders and first chairman of the National Committee on United States – China Relations. Together with his co-author Chong-sik Lee, he won the 1974 Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award for the best book on government, politics, or international affairs as awarded by the American Political Science Association. Scalapino's daughters include the renowned artist Diane Sophia and the poet Leslie Scalapino (1944–2010).[1]
Scalapino was born to Anthony and Beulah Stephenson Scalapino in Leavenworth, Kansas, Kansas. In 1940, he completed his bachelor's degree at Santa Barbara College (now the University of California, Santa Barbara) where he was student body president his last year.[2] He married Ida Mae Jessen, the next year on 23 August 1941. Over time they had three children: Leslie, Diane, and Lynne.[1] Scalapino received his master's degree in 1943 and his doctorate in 1948, both from Harvard. During World War II he served in U.S. Naval Intelligence from 1943 to 1946, where he studied Japanese.[2][3] He reached the rank of lieutenant junior grade.
After graduating from Harvard, Scalapino remained there for a year teaching as an instructor, and then went to the University of California at Berkeley as an assistant professor in 1949. He achieved full professor status in 1956, and took emeritus status in 1990. He was chair of Department of Political Science from 1962 to 1965. He founded and was the first director of the Institute of East Asian Studies, from 1978 to 1990. He sat on the board of directors of the Council on Foreign Relations and was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was editor of the scholarly journal, Asian Survey, from 1962 to January 1996. Scalapino remained active into his late 80s, serving as a government consultant and testifying at Congressional hearings.
In 2010, The National Bureau of Asian Research and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, as part of the National Asia Research Program (NARP), created the Scalapino Prize in honor of Scalapino and his contributions to the field of Asian studies.[4] The prize would be awarded to an outstanding scholar in the field of Asian studies every two years. The inaugural Scalapino Prize was awarded to David M. Lampton in June 2010 at the 2010 Asia Policy Assembly.[5]
He died of complications from a respiratory infection on 1 November 2011, at the age of 92.[6]


從萊文沃思到拉薩:經歷大變革年代作者: (美)羅伯特·A.斯卡拉皮諾 字數: 170 千字頁數:256 定價:出版日期:2010-11-01 叢書名:未名社科·譯言堂內容簡介:該書為美國亞洲問題專家羅伯特·斯卡拉皮諾的個人回憶錄,涉及他早年為學的歷程,多年來從事亞洲研究的歷程,很生動,也很有研究價值。精彩片段:關於這本回憶錄及作者本人,北京大學國際關係學院院長、知名國際政治理論家王緝思教授為其所作《中文版序言》中有非常精彩的評論,這裡僅引述如下:斯卡拉皮諾倡導穩健、拒絕激進的個性和知名學者教授的身份,使他很適合同持不同政治觀點的人交往,在這種交往中既不失美國立場,又能傾聽對方。所以,斯卡拉皮諾得以在中美建交之前訪華,在朝核問題的重要關頭多次應邀訪問朝鮮,以他特殊的方式和身份從事公共外交。在日本、韓國等一些國家和台灣地區,分屬不同政治派別的人都試圖同他建立關係,以圖影響美國政策。作為政治學者,他在亞洲各國的政界和學術界中的人脈關係,大概至今無出其右者。無論是私下交談還是公開演講,也無論是對待學生、同事還是面向政治家甚至政治對立面,他都是不緊不慢、不卑不亢、不慍不火、不枝不蔓、把握分寸、淡定矜持、邏輯清晰、思維縝密, 一如他的文風。這也是斯卡拉皮諾在治學、育人、謀事、諮政、做人等方方面面都很成功的原因。章節目錄:中文版序(王緝思)中譯本序(斯卡拉皮諾)前言第一章年輕歲月第二章在太平洋上的八個月——之後,重返學術界第三章在伯克利的生活——動盪年代及之後第四章多年來與日本的交流第五章開始了解中國第六章我與崛起的中國第七章北朝南韓——一個分裂民族的傳奇故事第八章探索東北亞的邊緣地帶第九章印度支那——個人經驗、回顧過去和展望未來第十章深入東南亞腹地第十一章探索南亞的歲月第十二章對我們這個時代的思考作者簡介:美國伯克利加州大學榮譽退休教授、著名亞洲問題專家。書  評:該書為美國亞洲問題研究專家羅伯特•斯卡拉皮諾(Robert A. Scalapino)的回憶錄,記錄了他作為教授、學者、策士的傳奇般的人生經歷。斯卡拉皮諾在書中回顧了他數十年來從事亞洲研究的歷程,記述了他當年對於相關政治社會問題的見解以及現在的評論。全書簡練生動,可讀性強,可作為人物傳記來閱讀欣賞,對於國際問題研究者也很有參考價值。

从莱文沃思到拉萨:经历大变革年代
作者: (美)罗伯特·A.斯
卡拉皮诺 字数: 170 千字
页数:256 定价:
出版日期:2010-11-01 丛书名:未名社科·译言堂




内容简介:
该书为美国亚洲问题专家罗伯特·斯卡拉皮诺的个人回忆录,涉及他早年为学的历程,多年来从事亚洲研究的历程,很生动,也很有研究价值。
精彩片段:
关于这本回忆录及作者本人,北京大学国际关系学院院长、知名国际政治理论家王缉思教授为其所作《中文版序言》中有非常精彩的评论,这里仅引述如下:
斯 卡拉皮诺倡导稳健、拒绝激进的个性和知名学者教授的身份,使他很适合同持不同政治观点的人交往,在这种交往中既不失美国立场,又能倾听对方。所以,斯卡拉 皮诺得以在中美建交之前访华,在朝核问题的重要关头多次应邀访问朝鲜,以他特殊的方式和身份从事公共外交。在日本、韩国等一些国家和台湾地区,分属不同政 治派别的人都试图同他建立关系,以图影响美国政策。作为政治学者,他在亚洲各国的政界和学术界中的人脉关系,大概至今无出其右者。无论是私下交谈还是公开 演讲,也无论是对待学生、同事还是面向政治家甚至政治对立面,他都是不紧不慢、不卑不亢、不愠不火、不枝不蔓、把握分寸、淡定矜持、逻辑清晰、思维缜密, 一如他的文风。这也是斯卡拉皮诺在治学、育人、谋事、咨政、做人等方方面面都很成功的原因。
章节目录:
中文版序(王缉思)
中译本序(斯卡拉皮诺)
前言
第一章年轻岁月
第二章在太平洋上的八个月 ——之后,重返学术界
第三章在伯克利的生活 ——动荡年代及之后
第四章多年来与日本的交流
第五章开始了解中国
第六章我与崛起的中国
第七章北朝南韩 ——一个分裂民族的传奇故事
第八章探索东北亚的边缘地带
第九章印度支那 ——个人经验、回顾过去和展望未来
第十章深入东南亚腹地
第十一章探索南亚的岁月
第十二章对我们这个时代的思考
作者简介:
美国伯克利加州大学荣誉退休教授、著名亚洲问题专家。
书  评:
该书为美国亚洲问题研究专家罗伯特•斯卡拉皮诺(Robert A. Scalapino)的回忆录,记录了他作为教授、学者、策士的传奇般的人生经历。斯卡拉皮诺在书中回顾了他数十年来从事亚洲研究的历程,记述了他当年对于相关政治社会问题的见解以及现在的评论。
全书简练生动,可读性强,可作为人物传记来阅读欣赏,对于国际问题研究者也很有参考价值。


***
Robert Anthony Scalapino (born 19 October 1919) is an American political scientist particularly involved in East Asian studies. He was one of the founders and first chairman of the National Committee on United States – China Relations. Together with his co-author Chong-sik Lee, he won the 1974 Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award for the best book on government, politics, or international affairs as awarded by the American Political Science Association. Scalapino's daughter is the internationally renowned poet Leslie Scalapino (1944–2010).[1]
Scalapino was born to Anthony and Beulah Stephenson Scalapino in Leavenworth, Kansas, Kansas. In 1940, he completed his bachelor's degree at Santa Barbara College (now the University of California, Santa Barbara) where he was student body president his last year.[2] He married Ida Mae Jessen, the next year on 23 August 1941. Over time they had three children: Leslie, Diane, and Lynne.[1] Scalapino received his master's degree in 1943 and his doctorate in 1948, both from Harvard. During World War II he served in U.S. Naval Intelligence from 1943 to 1946, where he studied Japanese.[2][3] He reached the rank of lieutenant junior grade.
After graduating from Harvard, Scalapino remained there for a year teaching as an instructor, and then went to the University of California at Berkeley as an assistant professor in 1949. He achieved full professor status in 1956, and took emeritus status in 1990. He was chair of Department of Political Science from 1962 to 1965. He founded and was the first director of the Institute of East Asian Studies, from 1978 to 1990. He sat on the board of directors of the Council on Foreign Relations and was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was editor of the scholarly journal, Asian Survey, from 1962 to January 1996. Scalapino remained active into his late 80s, serving as a government consultant and testifying at Congressional hearings.
In 2010, The National Bureau of Asian Research and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, as part of the National Asia Research Program (NARP), created the Scalapino Prize in honor of Scalapino and his contributions to the field of Asian studies.[4] The prize would be awarded to an outstanding scholar in the field of Asian studies every two years. The inaugural Scalapino Prize was awarded to David M. Lampton in June 2010 at the 2010 Asia Policy Assembly.[5]

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Awards

[edit] Selected publications

Scalapino published 540 articles and 39 books or monographs on Asian politics and United States–Asian policy,[7] which include:
  • 1953 Democracy and the Party Movement in Pre-War Japan[8]
  • 1961 with George T. Yu The Chinese Anarchist Movement[9]
  • 1962 with Junnosuke Masumi Parties and Politics in Contemporary Japan[10]
  • 1967 The Japanese Communist Movement, 1920-1966[11]
  • 1972 with Chong-Sik Lee Communism in Korea[12]
  • 1972 Elites in the People's Republic of China[13]
  • 1975 Asia and the Road Ahead[14]
  • 1979 The United States and Korea: Looking Ahead[15]
  • 1983 The Early Japanese Labor Movement[16]
  • 1989 The Politics of Development: Perspectives on Twentieth Century Asia[17]
  • 1992 The Last Leninists: The Uncertain Future of Asia's Communist States[18]
  • 1997 North Korea at a Crossroads[19]
  • 2008 From Leavenworth to Lhasa: living in a revolutionary era[20]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b EPC Obituary notice: Leslie Scalapino 1944-2010
  2. ^ a b "The US Navy Japanese/Oriental Language School Archival Project: Robert Scalapino Honored" The Interpreter (University of Colorado) Number 141, 1 November 2009, pp. 3-4, page 4, accessed 17 February 2010
  3. ^ "Forgotten WWII Patriots, Instrumental in Pacific Victory, to be Honored by U.S. Navy" AScribe Newswire 22 October 2002, accessed 15 February 2010 via Lexis/Nexis subscription service
  4. ^ NBR and Wilson Center Partner to Honor Scalapino http://www.nbr.org/research/activity.aspx?id=24
  5. ^ Dr. David M. Lampton Awarded the Inaugural Scalapino Prize http://www.nbr.org/research/activity.aspx?id=91
  6. ^ American Political Science Association "Woodrow Wilson Foundation Awards"
  7. ^ "Symposium: Fiftith anniversary of the establishment of The Asia Foyndation", page 3, The Asia Foundation, 14 December 2004, accessed 17 February 2010.
  8. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1953) Democracy and the Party Movement in Pre-War Japan: the failure of the first attempt University of California Press, Berkeley, California, OCLC 152565297
  9. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. and Yu, George T. (1961) The Chinese Anarchist Movement Institute of International Studies, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, OCLC 3803036
  10. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. and Junnosuke Masumi, Junnosuke (1962) Parties and Politics in Contemporary Japan University of California, Berkeley, California, OCLC 502721
  11. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1967) The Japanese Communist Movement, 1920-1966 University of California Press, Berkeley, California, OCLC 369027
  12. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. and Lee, Chong-Sik (1972) Communism in Korea University of California Press, Berkeley, California, ISBN 0-520-02080-4
  13. ^ Scalapino, Robert A., ed. (1972) Elites in the People's Republic of China, University of Washington Press, Seattle & London, ISBN 0-295-95230-X
  14. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1975) Asia and the Road Ahead: issues for the major powers University of California Press, Berkeley, California, ISBN 0-520-03066-4
  15. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1979) The United States and Korea: Looking Ahead Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, by Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, California, ISBN 0-8039-1374-5
  16. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1983) The Early Japanese Labor Movement: labor and politics in a developing society Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, California, ISBN 0-912966-65-3
  17. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1989) The Politics of Development: Perspectives on Twentieth Century Asia Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, ISBN 0-674-68757-4
  18. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1992) The Last Leninists: The Uncertain Future of Asia's Communist States Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC, ISBN 0-89206-191-X
  19. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (1997) North Korea at a Crossroads Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, ISBN 0-8179-5782-0
  20. ^ Scalapino, Robert A. (2008) From Leavenworth to Lhasa: living in a revolutionary era Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, California, ISBN 1-55729-092-X

[edit] Further reading

  • Scalapino, Robert A. (2008) From Leavenworth to Lhasa: living in a revolutionary era Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, California, ISBN 1-55729-092-X

[edit] External links


ロバート・スカラピーノ

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』
移動: 案内, 検索
ロバート・スカラピーノ(Robert A. Scalapino, 1919年 - )は、アメリカ合衆国政治学者カリフォルニア大学バークレー校名誉教授。専門は、アジア政治、政治発展論。
カンザス州生まれ。ハーヴァード大学で博士号取得。

目次

[非表示]

経歴 [編集]

1941年太平洋戦争勃発直後軍の指示により、ドナルド・キーンらと共にコロラド大学にて日本語を学ぶ。

著書 [編集]

単著 [編集]

  • Democracy and the Party Movement in Prewar Japan: the Failure of the First Attempt, (University of California Press, 1953).
  • The Japanese Communist Movement, 1920-1966, (University of California Press, 1967).
  • American-Japanese Relations in a Changing Era, (Library Press, 1972).
  • Asia and the Road Ahead: Issues for the Major Powers, (University of California Press, 1975).
  • The Politics of Development: Perspectives on Twentieth-century Asia, (Harvard University Press, 1989).
初瀬龍平境井孝行訳『アジアの政治発展』(三嶺書房, 1997年)
  • Asian Communism: Refrections on the Present and Future, (Asia Society, 1990
  • From Leavenworth to Lhasa: Living in a Revolutionary Era, (Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, 2008):安野正士・田中アユ子訳『アジアの激動を見つめて』(岩波書店, 2010年)

共著 [編集]

  • The Chinese Anarchist Movement, with George T. Yu, (Greenwood Press, 1961).
丸山松幸訳『中国のアナキズム運動』(紀伊國屋書店, 1970年)
  • Parties and Politics in Contemporary Japan, with Junnosuke Masumi, (University of California Press, 1962).
『現代日本の政党と政治』(岩波書店岩波新書], 1962年)
  • Communism in Korea, with Chong-sik Lee, (University of California Press, 1972).
  • Modern China and its Revolutionary Process: Recurrent Challenges to the Traditional Order, 1850-1920, with George T. Yu, (University of California Press, 1985).

編著 [編集]

  • North Korea Today, (Praeger, 1963).
鹿島守之助訳『今日の北朝鮮』(鹿島研究所出版会, 1965年)
  • The Communist Revolution in Asia: Tactics, Goals, and Achievements, (Prentice-Hall, 1965).
鎌田光登訳『アジアの共産主義――現状と戦略』(鹿島研究所出版会, 1967年)
  • Elites in the People's Republic of China, (University of Washington Press, 1972).
  • The Foreign Policy of Modern Japan, (University of California Press, 1977).

共編著 [編集]

  • Peace, Politics & Economics in Asia: the Challenge to Cooperate, co-edited with Masataka Kosaka, (Pergamon-Brassey's International Defense Publishers, 1988).
平和・安全保障研究所訳『アジアで政治協力は可能か――経済摩擦と大国の競合の狭間で』(人間の科学社, 1986年)
Asia in the 1990s: American and Soviet Perspectives, co-edited wiht Gennady I. Chufrin, (Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California at Berkeley,

The Complete Murphy's Law 《莫非定律》墨菲


許達然《遠近三段》,其中第3篇"編籍" 可列入"官僚學(Bureaucratics 參考The Complete Murphy's Law )的文學"
莫非定律》台北:書林1997

誰是真正的
定律這個名詞出現之前,人類就已知道這種現象。1786,蘇格蘭詩人 Robert Burn寫道:「不管是老鼠或人,都注定易生差錯。」*.....《讀者文摘‧是天意還是巧合》19986月號,頁99





xx委員邊說「這真是『莫非定律』」,再邊忙亂準備電腦發表(又是一莫非)。不過,他發表的「獨創的 C-S(顧客滿意之行銷)」,可是相當精彩,可惜這必須為公司保密! 




完全莫非定律 The Complete Murphys Law (英漢對照)
作者: Arthur Bloch/

出版社:書林出版有限公司
出版日期:2005 10 26

  莫非定律是關於事情如何出錯的幽默規則,簡練地揭露了「人生總難事事順遂」這條顛撲不破的真理。一切從莫非原始定律發展出來:會出錯的事,一定出錯。(If something can go wrong, it will.
  莫非定律誕生於1949年,以Edward A. Murphy(生於1917年)命名,他是愛德華空軍基地的工程師,專門研究人類對加速度承受的能力。他發現同仁總會把加速計的固定器裝反,因而脫口而出他的觀察。有受試者在記者會上引述這句名言,於是很快在航太工程研究者之間散播開來,並陸續有人加上新的法則。
  1958年,「莫非定律」正式被列入韋氏字典(Webster’s Dictionary)。但是莫非本人從未發表過莫非定律,這點倒是蠻符合莫非定律的。
  莫非定律至今已經發展出各種類別,從莫非通則到電腦、家庭、工作、政府等等,各種領域都有人找出屬於他們自己的莫非定律。
  本書將這些雋永又令人發噱的定律,以中英對照的方式呈現,除了博君一笑,也能帶給您另一種學習英文的樂趣。
適用對象
  適合想讓英文更上層樓的朋友,從幽默短句中學習重要英文句型及表達。
  提供上班族、通勤族解悶自嘲的趣味法則,並兼具增強英文的實效。
  適合在演說、書信、聚會等各種場合引用,博取聽眾與讀者的共鳴及會心一笑
本書特色
  人生難免有又好氣又好笑的經驗,本書收集了各式各樣廣受歡迎、令人捧腹的幽默定律,令人驚嘆又無可反駁的觀察,包括人生百態、辦公室哲學、官僚學、階級學……等。可以在演說、書信、聚會等各種場合,隨手捻來妙趣橫生的短句,讓您在笑聲中重新體會人生的真意及語言的奧妙。
作者簡介
Arthur Bloch
  身兼作家、電視節目製作及網頁設計師等多重角色,他所出版的關於莫非定律的書籍及相關商品,在全球已經熱賣超過百萬。
MURPHOLOGY
莫非篇

● MURPHY’S LAW:
If anything can go wrong, it will.
莫非定律:
會出錯的事,一定出錯。

● Corollaries:
1. Whenever you set out to do something, something else must be done first.
2. Every solution breeds new problems.
3. It is impossible to make anything foolproof because fools are so ingenious.
同理可證:
1.
不管你想著手做什麼事,一定有別的得先做完。
2.
解決方案都會帶來新的問題。
3.
傻事防不勝防,誰教傻子總是想得出新傻法。

● THE MURPHY PHILOSOPHY:
Smile. Tomorrow will be worse.
莫非人生觀:
能笑就笑。明天會更糟。

● CHRIS’S COMMENT:
You always have to give up something you want for something you want more.
○ Chris
的看法:
想得到熊掌,總是有魚得放棄。

● HEYMANN’S LAW:
Mediocrity imitates.
○ Heymann
的定律:
庸人專事模仿。

● CHISHOLM’S FIRST LAW:
When things are going well, something will go wrong.
○ Chisholm
的第一定律:
每當一切順利就會出紕漏。

● Corollaries:
1. When things just can’t get any worse, they will.
2. Anytime things appear to be going better, you have overlooked something.
同理可證:
1.
情況要是糟得無以復加,還有更糟的事。
2.
要是一切看來順利,一定哪兒疏忽了。

● CHISHOLM’S SECOND LAW:
Proposals, as understood by the proposer, will be judged otherwise by others.
○ Chisholm
的第二定律:
任何建議總是提的人是什麼意思,聽的人就想成別的意思。

● Corollaries:
1. If you explain something so clearly that nobody can misunderstand, somebody will.
2. If you do something which you are sure will meet with everybody’s approval, somebody won’t like it.
3. Procedures devised to implement the purpose won’t quite work.
同理可證:
1.
就算你把事情說得一清二楚,就是有人會不清楚。
2.
就算你有把握把事情辦得皆大歡喜,一定有人會不喜歡。
3.
專為達成目的所安排的程序,就是會不如人意。

● LAW OF THE LIE:
No matter how often a lie is shown to be false, there will remain a percentage of people who believe it true.
謊話定律:
謊話不管給人揭穿多少次,總是會有些人信以為真。
● ISSAWI’S LAWS OF_PROGRESS:
The Course of Progress:
Most things get steadily worse.
The Path of Progress:
A shortcut is the longest distance between two points.
The Pace of Progress:
Society is a mule, not a car. If pressed too hard, it will kick and throw off its rider.
○ Issawi
的進步定律:
進步的歷程:
事情大半一天不如一天。
進步的路徑:
捷徑兩點間最遠的距離。
進步的速度:
社會是頭騾子,不是車子。把牠逼急了,牠會把騎士摔下騾背。

● ARISTOTLE’S DICTUM:
One should always prefer the probable impossible to the improbable possible.
亞里斯多德(希臘哲學家)的格言:
寧可選合理的難事,也不可選不合理的易事。

● RUDIN’S LAW:
In crises that force people to choose among alternative courses of action, most people will choose the worst one possible.
○ Rudin
的定律:
一般人面臨危機而只有幾條路可走的話,大半就會挑上那條最差的路走。

● GINSBERG’S THEOREM:
1. You can’t win.
2. You can’t break even.
3. You can’t even quit the game.
○ Ginsberg
的理論:
1.
你贏不了。
2.
你沒辦法扯平。
3.
你想撒手不玩都不行。

● FREEMAN’S COMMENTARY ON GINSBERG’S THEOREM:
Every major philosophy that attempts to make life seem meaningful is based on the negation of one part of Ginsberg’s Theorem. To wit:
1. Capitalism is based on the assumption that you can win.
2. Socialism is based on the assumption that you can break even.
3. Mysticism is based on the assumption that you can quit the game.
○ Freeman
補充Ginsberg的理論:
賦予人生意義的大哲學體系,都是以Ginsberg理論的反面做基礎。如下:
1.
資本主義的基本前題是你贏得了。
2.
社會主義的基本前題是你能扯平。
3.
神秘主義的基本前題是你可以撒手不玩。

● LUNSFORD’S RULE OF SCIENTIFIC ENDEAVOR:
The simple explanation always follows the complex solution.
○ Lunsford
的科學嘗試法則:
解釋簡單,解決一定複雜。

● STOCKMAYER’S THEOREM:
If it looks easy, it’s tough.
If it looks tough, it’s damn well impossible.
○ Stockmayer
的定理:
看起來簡單的其實難。
看起來難的,根本就是不可能。

● THE UNSPEAKABLE LAW:
As soon as you mention something
─ if it’s good, it goes away.
─ if it’s bad, it happens.
難以言喻的定律:
每當你提到某事
──
好的就告吹。
──
壞的就降臨。

*****



 

Barnes & Noble Pulls Back After Losses In Tablet Wars

 





Updated June 25, 2013, 7:05 p.m. ET
Barnes & Noble Pulls Back After Losses In Tablet Wars

By
JEFFREY A. TRACHTENBERG
CONNECT

Barnes & Noble is retreating from the intensely competitive tablet wars, after sustaining heavy losses. Jeffrey Trachtenberg joins digits. Photo: Getty Images.
After spending hundreds of millions of dollars in an effort to compete with Amazon.com Inc. AMZN +2.01% and Apple Inc. AAPL -1.13% in the market for tablets and e-readers, Barnes & Noble Inc. BKS +5.45% is beating a retreat.
The bookseller said Tuesday that losses at its Nook digital business more than doubled in the quarter ended April 27, easily wiping out profits generated at its bookstores. As a result, Barnes & Noble said it would stop producing its own color tablets, in favor of co-branded devices made by third-party manufacturers.
Barnes & Noble will continue to design and make its own black-and-white Nook e-readers, which account for the majority of its e-book sales. But with e-reader sales expected to decline over time, it is unclear how competitive Barnes & Noble can be long term without its own presence in the tablet market, which is forecast to keep growing.
[image]
Barnes & Noble shares sank 17% in Tuesday trading, to $15.61 at 4 p.m. on the New York Stock Exchange.
The decision to change course on tablets is a blow for Chief Executive William Lynch, a technology veteran whose career includes a previous stint at Palm Inc. He took the reins at Barnes & Noble three years ago and orchestrated the push in digital book-selling. He directed its Nook device efforts as well, often personally introducing new devices at press galas.
The results intensify uncertainty about the future of Barnes & Noble, which is grappling with a shrinking print book market and an intensely competitive e-book market where a recent government antitrust settlement has allowed Amazon and other retailers to discount many titles again after a hiatus of several years.
Bloomberg News
Weaker Nook sales also hurt results at Barnes & Noble's retail business. Pictured, a California store in 2012
Barnes & Noble still makes money from its retail stores, partly by diversifying into toys, games and other products, but it has said it expects to shrink its store count over the next decade by a third.
In February the company said its chairman and biggest shareholder, Leonard Riggio, planned to make an offer to buy the retail stores. That deal would have left Barnes & Noble's Nook Media, a unit that also includes its 686 college bookstores, as the company's surviving business.
The company has said nothing about the status of that offer since. It refused Tuesday to give any update. Mr. Riggio declined to comment.

Tablet Wars

See how some of the more popular tablets stack up, including the Nook HD+.
Signs of Barnes & Noble's struggle in the tablet war had been growing over the past year, but Mr. Lynch said the Nook's latest losses were "much higher" than previous expectations. Nook revenue fell 34% to $108 million, as sales of its new HD tablets fell short of forecasts.
The division's loss before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization widened to $177 million from $77 million a year earlier. The latest-period losses included $133 million of charges to write off unsold inventory.
Although the Nook often received good grades from critics, it didn't offer as many choices of apps, movies and music as rivals. Barnes & Noble tried to address this in early May when it added Google Inc.'s GOOG +0.86% Android app store and other Google services to the Nook.
Barnes & Noble's modest marketing efforts and smaller customer base made its efforts more challenging. Meanwhile, prices for tablets and e-readers have declined sharply, putting pressure on the retailer.
"Barnes & Noble was attempting a very ambitious pivot from being a book retailer to being a consumer electronics manufacturer and retailer," said Sarah Rotman Epps, an analyst at Forrester Research Inc. FORR +0.16% "They never had the customer base. Some followed them, but not enough. The hardware wasn't the problem."
Ms. Epps also said "Barnes & Noble doesn't have Apple's resources."

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As for the bookseller's bet on black-and-white e-readers, Ms. Epps sounded a discouraging note, saying that Forrester sees that as a declining market over the next five years. Forrester expects sales of dedicated e-reader devices sold in the U.S. will decline to 2.3 million units in 2017 from 5.8 million units in 2013. By contrast, U.S. tablet sales are expected to increase to 83 million in 2017 from 56 million tablets in 2013.
To buttress its resources, Barnes & Noble in 2012 created a new company, Nook Media LLC, to house its college bookstores and the Nook business and to bring in money from outside investors. Microsoft Corp. MSFT +2.02% pledged a total of $605 million, including an equity investment of $300 million, while Pearson PSON.LN +0.09% PLC put in $89.5 million, giving Nook Media a solid financial cushion. But it is unclear whether either company will make a more substantial Nook bet in coming months.
Pearson said, "Our investment in the B&N Nook media platform continues to align with our strategy to create a more seamless educational and e-commerce experience for students and faculty—expanding access to digital content."
Microsoft didn't have an immediate comment.
John Tinker, an analyst at Maxim Group, questioned the value in a Nook color tablet manufactured by a third party. "What this quarter showed is that people are still buying books, but that they aren't going to buy tablets that offer video from a book retailer."
A spokeswoman for Barnes & Noble declined to comment.
Until now Barnes & Noble has been able to comfortably offset losses at the Nook business with profits at its bookstores. But that mix changed in fiscal 2013. For the full year, the Nook had Ebitda losses of $475.4 million, offset by positive Ebitda of $485 million from the retail and college stores. In fiscal 2012 the Nook had Ebitda losses of $261.7 million while the stores generated Ebitda of $438 million.
Weaker Nook sales also hurt results at Barnes & Noble's retail store business, where sales fell 10% in the recent fiscal fourth quarter and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization dropped 24%. Overall, the company's net loss more than doubled to $118.6 million, or $2.11 per share, from $56.9 million, or $1.06 per share a year earlier. Revenue fell 7.4% to $1.28 billion.
Nook revenue for the full fiscal year declined 17% to $776 million.
Declining Nook device sales in the fourth quarter contributed to a 9% drop in digital content sales in the quarter, although those sales were up 16% for the year. The bookseller said it would continue to sell its current color Nook tablets at reduced prices through the holiday period.
Unlike in past quarters, Barnes & Noble didn't address its share of the U.S. e-book market. Last fall, during a presentation to investors, Mr. Lynch said Barnes & Noble controlled approximately 27% of the e-book market. By late February, Mr. Lynch pegged Barnes & Noble's e-book market share at an estimated 25% during a call with analysts.
—Shira Ovide contributed to this article.

Strategic Management
Barnes &Noble, the Last Big Bookseller Standing: But for How Long?

After a disappointing holiday season, Barnes & Noble leadership must decide how to retool its strategy to compete with online behemoth Amazon.com. The bookseller has tried to forge a strong digital arm through its Nook e-readers, but Wharton experts say the chain is caught between the need to bolster its in-store experience, and the drive to keep up in an ever-growing tablet market as readers increasingly turn away from printed books. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/3167.cfm

Barnes & Noble's Nook Unit Is Worth More Than Its Parent Company Microsoft's investment in Barnes & Noble's Nook division makes the unit worth $1.7 billion, or nearly double what Barnes & Noble's entire market capitalization was on Friday.

An E-Book That Glows in the Dark

By DAVID POGUE
Ever get frustrated trying to read an e-book in a darkened room? Behold, the self-illuminating Glow Light Nook from Barnes & Noble.

  Microsoft to Invest in Barnes & Noble's Nook

Microsoft is investing at least $605 million in Barnes & Noble's Nook digital-book business, as the software giant pushes deeper into the e-books business and props up a rival to the iPad and Amazon's Kindle.

Barnes & Noble's Nook gets Angry Birds

Angrybirds_nook
Barnes and Noble's Nook Color device made a clear play to move from e-reader to tablet Monday by adding apps, including the popular game Angry Birds.
Pandora Internet radio, the recipe app Epicurious, the news app Pulse and the game Uno are among 125 apps available in the new Nook Apps store. Our Technology blog explains:
The updates come as the Nook Color is being switched over to a newer version of Google's Android operating system, called Froyo. Unlike the Honeycomb software, which was designed specifically to run on tablets, Froyo was designed for phones but is on many tablets, such as the Samsung Galaxy Tab.
But while the Nook Color can now run Android Froyo, it won't be running all Android apps. Instead, Barnes & Noble is asking developers to optimize their apps for the Nook Color and submit them through the Nook Apps store, rather than simply allowing users to download apps from the Android Market.
In an important move for readers, a new social networking app called Nook Friends will allow Nook users to, our Technology blog writes, "see what their friends are reading, read reviews of books, loan books to each other, share quotes from a book, list their progress in a book and recommend a title to a buddy."
That's the kind of social reading that many publishers and developers have been talking about. The only problem is that it's not platform-agnostic -- in other words, someone using their Nook has these robust sharing capacities only with other Nook users, not all other e-book readers.
However, one ubiquitous social networking tool is part of the new Nook color package. Hitting "like" buttons next to specific titles in the Nook bookstore app will now show up on readers' Facebook pages.
-- Carolyn Kellogg
Image: Angry Birds running on a Nook Color tablet from Barnes & Noble. Credit: Barnes & Noble

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