2014年3月31日 星期一

天生英哲Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: Law and the Inner Self


今日世界出版社的天生英哲Yankee from Olympus, 1944, 香港1962年初版--採用讀者文摘的摘要版 , 1975年八版



這本書的結尾  引下述演講詞 HOLMES' 1884 MEMORIAL DAY SPEECH 黑體字部分

But, nevertheless, the generation that carried on the war has been set apart by its experience. Through our great good fortune, in our youth our hearts were touched with fire. It was given to us to learn at the outset that life is a profound and passionate thing. While we are permitted to scorn nothing but indifference, and do not pretend to undervalue the worldly rewards of ambition, we have seen wih our own eyes, beyond and above the gold fields, the snowy heights of honor, and it is for us to bear the report to those who come after us. But, above all, we have learned that whether a man accepts from Fortune her spade, and will look downward and dig, or from Aspiration her axe and cord, and will scale the ice, the one and only success which it is his to command is to bring to his work a mighty heart.
思果先生的翻譯是:
"不管一個人是從幸運女神那兒接受了他的鏟子低下頭去挖土 或是希女神那兒接受了他斧頭和繩往冰上爬 唯一屬於他的成功在於做事要有一顆剛毅的心。"


 我對翻譯的一些看法: 這牽涉到神話"希望女神"的翻譯可商榷。Aspiration是與"幸運"對比 或許是"努力女神"。"努力" (自力奮鬥)即 action of desiring and striving for something"....
我根據Shorter O.E.D  "aspiration"詞句 的一句 B. Bainbridge的 "His entire life, with its small triumphs and disasters, its boundless hopes and aspirations for the future."
 其中hopes 和 aspirations是 對比
 末句"唯一屬於他的" 或許可改成"唯一他能控制的,就是成功在於做事要有一顆剛毅的心。"..






Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes : Law & Inner Self...

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: Law and the Inner Self [Paperback]

G. Edward White
(Author)

From Publishers Weekly

In this thorough and insightful scholarly biography, White ( Earl Warren ) explores the linked life and work of legendary scholar and jurist Holmes (1841-1935). Son of a famed literary father and product of a privileged Boston Brahmin upbringing, Holmes entered the legal profession having lost his youthful romanticism in the Civil War when he was wounded three times. Drawing on prodigious research, White closely analyzes Holmes's legal scholarship, finding a tension between his subject's reliance on both experience and logic in his classic, The Common Law . The author also dissects Holmes's Supreme Court opinions, describing how his reputation grew and suggesting that Holmes's famous rhetoric on free speech ("every idea is an incitement") was memorable but obscured philosophical contradictions, perhaps because his changing ideas on free speech had less to do with the consistent evolution of legal doctrine than with the influence of certain Washington intellectuals. Holmes's wife Fanny supplied domesticity, but the couple never had children; and Holmes's one great extra-marital romance with the Anglo-Irish aristocrat Clare Castletown was epistolary only. His self-control and his ambition, White suggests, allowed Holmes to concentrate on his work. That work, along with Holmes's stature as a "figure of public romance," will long stimulate students of history. Photos not seen by PW.
Copyright 1993 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From Library Journal

In recent years the Holmes bookshelf has become increasingly crowded. This latest offering, provided by well-known and well-received judicial biographer White (law & history, Univ. of Virginia), belongs in a prominent spot in the library of any student of law in the United States. In the future, any treatment of this Brahmin from Boston will be judged against White's insightful account. Through his exhaustive research and lucid writing, Holmes the Justice becomes Holmes the man. It is White's thesis, made convincingly, that Holmes cannot be understood and evaluated accurately merely as a lawyer or justice; rather, his inner life and thoughts must be closely analyzed in order to assess his legacy. In particular, White provides extensive scrutiny of Holmes's coming to maturity in the 19th century; his analysis of Holmes's intellectual life, especially his contribution to American jurisprudence, is of special interest. This scholarly yet accessible biography is sure to become the standard work. Highly recommended.
- Stephen Shaw, Northwest Nazarene Coll., Nampa, Id.
Copyright 1993 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.


Product Details

  • Paperback: 648 pages
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA (November 16, 1995)



  • 定价:¥49.0
  • 字数:760千字
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这是关于霍姆斯传记的译著。书中全面介绍了霍姆斯的生平、生活经历、主要学术经历及学术思想,尤其是其在美国最高法院担任大法官期间的实践。本传记资 料翔实,写作严谨,不仅展现了霍姆斯丰富的生活经历,同时也深入探究了其法学理论的思想渊源,对于研究霍姆斯具有重要参考价值。原书作者为美国弗吉尼亚大 学著名法学和历史学教授,同时也为美国著名传记作家。On This Day
March 6, 1935
OBITUARY

Washington Holds Bright Memories of Justice Holmes's Long and Useful Life

By THE NEW YORK TIMES
As Justice Holmes grew old he became a figure for legend. Eager young students of history and the law, with no possibility of an introduction to him, made pilgrimages to Washington merely that they might remember at least the sight of him on the bench of the Supreme Court. Others so fortunate as to be invited to his home were apt to consider themselves thereafter as men set apart. Their elders, far from discouraging this attitude, strengthened it.
A group of leading jurists and liberals filled a volume of essays in praise of him, and on the occasion of its presentation Chief Justice Hughes said:
"The most beautiful and the rarest thing in the world is a complete human life, unmarred, unified by intelligent purpose and uninterrupted accomplishment, blessed by great talent employed in the worthiest activities, with a deserving fame never dimmed and always growing. Such a rarely beautiful life is that of Mr. Justice Holmes."
Born in Boston in 1841
He was born on March 8, 1841, in Boston. The cultural dominance of New England was at its height. The West was raw, great parts of it wilderness as yet only sketchily explored. A majority of the nation's citizens still considered the enslavement of Negroes as the operation of a law of God, and Darwin had not yet published his "Origin of Species."
The circumstances of his birth were fortunate. His father, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, was of New England's ruling caste and the atmosphere of his home was at once brahminical, scientific and literary. They boy was to start each day at that "autocratic" breakfast table where a bright saying won a child a second helping of marmalade.
The boy was prepared for Harvard by E. S. Dixwell of Cambridge. He was fortunate again in this. Well-tutored, he made an excellent record in college. His intimacy with Mr. Dixwell's household was very close. His tutor's daughter, Fanny Dixwell, and he fell in love with each other and later they were married.
Fort Sumter was fired on and President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers. Young Holmes, 20 years old and shortly to be graduated from Harvard with the class of '61, walked down Beacon Hill with an open Hobbe's "Leviathan" in his hand and learned that he was commissioned in the Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers.
The regiment, largely officered by young Harvard men and later to be known as the "Harvard Regiment," was ordered South and into action at Ball's Bluff. There were grave tactical errors and the Union troops were driven down the cliff on the Virginia shore and into the Potomac. Men trying to swim to safety were killed and wounded men were drowned.
Lieutenant Holmes, with a bullet through his breast, was placed in a boat with dying men and ferried through saving darkness to the Maryland shore.
His wound was serious, but the sufferer was young and storng. For convalescence he was returned to Boston. On his recovery he returned to the front.
At Antietam a bullet pierced his neck and again his condition was critical. Dr. Holmes, on learning the news, set out to search for his son. The search lasted many worried days and brought the father close to the lines at several points. He found his son already convalescent and brought him back to Boston, where he wrote his experiences under the title, "My Hunt for the Captain," an article that was enthusiastically received as bringing home to Boston a first-hand picture of the trials of war directly behind the lines.
Wounded a Third Time
Back at the front, the young officer was again wounded. A bullet cut through tendons and lodged in his heel. This wound was long in healing and Holmes was retired to Boston with the brevet ranks of Colonel and Major.
The emergency of war over, his life was his own again. There was the question, then, of what to do with it. Writing appealed to him. He had been class poet and prize essayist in college. But he finally turned to law, although it was long before he was sure that he had taken the best course.
"It cost me some years of doubt and unhappiness," he said later, "before I could say to myself: 'The law is part of the universe--if the universe can be thought about, one part must reveal it as much as another to one who can see that part. It is only a question if you have the eyes.'"
Philosophy and William James helped him find his legal eyes while he studied in Harvard Law School and James, a year younger, was studying medicine. Through long nights they discussed their "dilapidated old friend the Kosmos." James later was to write in affectionate reminiscence of "your whitely lit-up room, drinking in your profound wisdom, your golden jibes, your costly imagery, listening to your shuddering laughter."
But while James went on, continuing in Germany his search for the meanings of the universe, Holmes decided that "maybe the universe is too great a swell to have a meaning," that his task was to "make his own universe livable," and he drove deep into the study of the law.
He took his LL. B. in 1866 and went to Europe to climb some mountains. Early in 1867 he was admitted to the bar and James noted that "Wendell is working too hard." The hard work brought results. In 1870 he was made editor of the American Law Review.
Two years later, on June 17, 1872, he married Fanny Bowditch Dixwell and in March of the next year became a member of the law firm of Shattuck, Homes & Munroe, resigning his editorship but continuing to write articles for The Review. In that same year, 1873, his important edition of Kent's Commentaries appeared.
His papers, particularly one on English equity, which bristled with citations in Latin and German, showed that he was a master scholar where mastery meant labor and penetration. It was into these early papers that he put the fundamentals of an exposition of the law that he was later to deliver in Lowell Lectures at Harvard and to publish under the title, "The Common Law." In this book, to quote Benjamin N. Cardozo, he "packed a whole philosophy of legal method into a fragment of a paragraph."
The part to which Judge Cardozo referred reads:
"The life of the law has not been logic; it has been experience. The felt necessities of the time, the prevalent moral and political theories, intuitions of public policy avowed or unconscious, even with the prejudices which judges share with their follow-men, have had a great deal more to do than the syllogism in determining the rules by which men should be governed. The law embodies the story of a nation's development through many centuries, and it cannot be dealt with as if it contained only the axioms and corollaries of a book of mathematics."
Judge Cardozo, commenting on this, wrote:
"The student of juristic method, bewildered in a maze of precedents, feels the thrill of a new apocalypse in the flash of this revealing insight. Here is the text to be unfolded. All that is to come will be development and commentary. Flashes there are like this in his earlier manner as in his latest, yet the flashes grow more frequent, the thunder peals more resonant, with the movement of the years."
Makes His Debut as Judge
Holmes was only 39 years old when Harvard called him back to teach in her Law School and 41 when he became an Associate Justice on the Massachusetts Supreme Court bench.
So in that great period when Joseph H. Choate could call a Federal income tax "sheer communism," the young Massachusetts justice could, with no bias, write dozens of dissenting opinions in which he expressed views that since have been molded into law.
He was Chief Justice on the Commonwealth bench when, in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt noted that Holmes's "labor decisions" were criticized by "some of the big railroad men and other members of large corporations." Oddly enough the successor of William McKinley thought that was "a strong point in Judge Holmes's favor."
In reference to this the President wrote to Henry Cabot Lodge:
"The ablest lawyers and greatest judges are men whose past has naturally brought them into close relationship with the wealthiest and most powerful clients and I am glad when I can find a judge who has been able to preserve his aloofness of mind so as to keep his broad humanity of feeling and his sympathy for the class from which he has not drawn clients."
In further expression of this approval he in 1902 appointed Judge Holmes to the Supreme Court of the United States, an appointment that was confirmed by the Senate immediately and unanimously.
In a dissenting opinion written early in his career on the Supreme bench Justice Holmes bluntly told his associates that the case in hand had been decided by the majority on an economic theory which a large part of the country did not entertain, that general principles do not decide concrete cases, that the outcome depends on a judgment or institution more subtle than any articulate major premise.
A great struggle between the forces of Theodore Roosevelt and the elder J. P. Morgan began on March 10, 1902, when the government filed suit in the United States Circuit Court for the district of Minnesota charging that the Great Northern Securities Company was "a virtual consolidation of two competing transcontinental lines" whereby not only would "monopoly of the interstate and foreign commerce, formerly carried on by them as competitors, be created," but, through use of the same machinery, "the entire railway systems of the country may be absorbed, merged, and consolidated."
In April, 1903, the lower court decided for the government and 8,000 pages of records and briefs went to the United States Supreme Court for final review. On March 14, 1904, the high court found for the government, with Justice Holmes writing in dissent.
He held that the Sherman act did not prescribe the rule of "free competition among those engaged in interstate commerce," as the majority held. It merely forbade "restraint of trade or commerce." He asserted that the phrases "restraint of competition" and "restraint of trade" did not have the same meaning; that "restraint of trade," which had "a definite and well-established significance in the common law, means and had always been understand to mean, a combination made by men engaged in a certain business for the purpose of keeping other men out of that business * * *."
The objection to trusts was not the union of former competitors, but the sinister power exercised, or supposed to be exercised, by the combination in keeping rivals out of the business, he said. It was the ferocious extreme of competition with others, not the cessation of competition among the partners, which was the evil feared.
"Much trouble," he continued, "is made by substituting other phrases, assumed to be equivalent, which are then argued from as if they were in the act. The court below argued as if maintaining competition were the express purpose of the act. The act says nothing about competition."
It was at this time that John Morley visited America and returned to England with the affirmation that in Justice Homes America possessed the greatest judge of the English- speaking world. Time has reinforced the emphasis. In his years on the Supreme Court bench he had done more to mold the texture of the Constitution than any man since John Marshall revealed to the American people what their new Constitution might imply.
Matthew Arnold, in his essay on the study of poetry, says that the best way to separate the gold from the alloy in the coinage of the poets is by the test of a few lines carried in the thoughts.
Excerpts From Holmes's Writings
From the opinions and other writings of Justice Holmes the following lines are some that might be used for this test:
"When men have realized that time has upset many fighting faiths, they may come to believe even more than they believe the very foundations of their own conduct that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas--that the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes can be carried out. That, at any rate, is the theory of our Constitution. It is an experiment, as all life is an experiment."
"In the organic relations of modern society it may sometimes be hard to draw the line that is supposed to limit the authority of the Legislature to exercise or delegate the power of eminent domain. But to gather the streams from waste and to draw from them energy, labor without brains, and so to save mankind from toil that it can be spared, is to supply what, next to intellect, is the very foundation of all our achievements and all our welfare. If that purpose is not public, we should be at a loss to say what is."
"The Fourteenth Amendment does not enact Mr. Herbert Spencer's social statics."
"While the courts must exercise a judgment of their own, it by no means is true that every law is void which may seem to the judges who pass upon it, excessive, unsuited to its ostensible end, or based upon conceptions of morality with which they disagree. Considerable latitude must be allowed for difference of view as well as for possible peculiar conditions which this court can know but imperfectly, if at all. Otherwise a Constitution, instead of embodying only relatively fundamental rules of right, as generally understood by all English-speaking communities, would become the partisan of a particular set of ethical or economic opinions, which by no means are held semper ubique et ab omnibus."
His contribution to American life was not limited to the law. He lived as he advised others to live, in the "grand manner." He sought quality rather than quantity of experience and knowledge of his success in living helped others to find it, too.
On his ninetieth birthday he delivered a short radio speech in reply to tributes from Chief Justice Hughes and other leaders of the American bar.
From a Latin poet he quoted the words:
"Death plucks my ears and says, 'Live--I am coming.'"
And in one line he gave the core of a life philosophy:
"To live is to function; that is all there is to living."
Left Bench Jan. 12, 1932
Justice Holmes resigned on Jan. 12, 1932. "The time has now come and I bow to the inevitable," he wrote to the President. He left, amid national regret, almost thirty years after he had been appointed to the Supreme Court bench.
Soon after that, in a message to the Federal Bar Association, Justice Holmes wrote:
"I cannot say farewell to life and you in formal words. Life seems to me like a Japanese picture which our imagination does not allow to end with the margin. We aim at the infinite, and when our arrow falls to earth it is in flames.
"At times the ambitious ends of life have made it seem to me lonely, but it has not been. You have given me the companionship of dear friends who have helped to keep alive the fire in my heart. If I could think that I had sent a spark to those who come after, I should be ready to say good-bye."
Justice Holmes was an honorary member of the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn, London, to which also belonged such men as Oliver Cromwell, William Pitt, Benjamin Disraeli and William Ewart Gladstone.
Soon after retiring, his salary was cut in two by reason of the economy law. It was restored to $20,000 a year a few months later, however, by special action of the Senate.
In the Fall of 1931 appeared the "Representative Opinions of Mr. Justice Holmes."
Mrs. Holmes died on April 30, 1929.

2014年3月30日 星期日

楊絳 《楊絳作品精選‧小說‧戲劇》《走到人生邊上》 《洗澡》《聽楊絳談往事》(吳學昭)


這只是些筆記;《幹校六記》、《我們仨》等我讀過,不過沒找到。

坐在人生的边上-杨绛 =https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyFpVl_qcvA

此書有些照片可參考....
《楊絳作品精選‧小說‧戲劇》北京:人民文學2004
《楊絳作品精選(小說戲劇)》選收作者短篇小說五篇和喜劇兩部。短篇小說《璐璐,不用愁!》和《小陽春》分別創作於上世紀三四十年代,《“大笑話”》、 《“玉人”》等三篇,則寫於七十年代末,全部短篇小說均以青年學生和知識份子的日常生活為題材,讀來輕鬆自然、幽默風趣。

喜劇《稱心如意》和《弄假成真》 寫作和上演於抗戰時期淪陷後的上海,當時由名家執導並演出,曾引起熱烈反響,是楊絳的成名之作。

楊絳《洗澡》

博客來書籍館  洗澡


www.books.com.tw/exep/prod/booksfile.php?item=0010251707 - 頁庫存檔
2004年3月5日 – 洗澡楊絳/著. ... 《洗澡》是楊絳寫於一九八○年代的一部長篇,常被人與其夫婿錢鍾書的名作《圍城》相提並論。 以文字見長的作家施蟄存曾罕有地 ...

輸贏「洗澡」讀楊絳《洗澡》(施蟄存)

 2011.8.31

聽楊絳談往事 (三聯 2008 本書提到四月的事)
吳學昭的這本"授權"傳記當然很可以參考
可能的唯一錯字是頁252之 gain 誤為qain
brainwashing.這字眼在中國知識份子稱為"洗澡" 是"脫褲子 割尾巴"的美稱 楊先生的結論是"人生一世 無非是認識自己 洗煉自己 人需要改造自己 但必須自覺自願 (p. 264)

這回重讀一下留英的自學
朱自清幫楊絳的"散文課"作業 小說一篇投稿 稿費15元

中國瘋狂盜印此書 可以對比日本的"公文教育基金會" 採用楊絳文章 支付大筆版稅


聽楊絳談往事
吳學昭  (20081116 人間副刊)
 ▲錢鍾書與楊絳夫婦(時報文化提供)


 98歲的世紀文人楊絳,應允「世妹」吳學昭執筆的傳記「聽楊絳談往事」問世後,引起華文文化圈的高度矚目,風靡北京上海兩地的愛書人。在這部「獲得楊絳 首肯」的傳記裡頭,不僅可以了解到她從幼年到98歲的種種經歷,也可以感受到其淡泊氣韻。「聽楊絳談往事」正體中文版近由時報文化發行,我們特別刊出楊絳 親為該書撰寫的序文墨跡,以及擷取書中她敘述與錢鍾書的「戀愛經過」,讓讀者先睹為快。──編者
 我曾問楊先生:「您和錢鍾書先生從認識到相愛,時間那麼短,可算是一見傾心或一見鍾情吧。」楊先生答說:「人世間也許有一見傾心的事,但我無此經歷。
 「一九三二年三月在清華古月堂門口,我們第一次見面,覺得他眉宇間『蔚然而深秀』,瘦瘦的,書生模樣。孫令銜告訴我,他表兄已與葉恭綽的女兒葉崇范訂婚。」
 「葉小姐是啟明學生,是我的先後同學。我常聽到大姊壽康和後來又回啟明上學的三姊閏康談起她的淘氣。姊姊們說,這位葉小姐皮膚不白,相貌不錯,生性很大膽淘氣;食量大,半打奶油蛋糕她一頓吃完,半打花旗橙子,她也一頓吃光。所以綽號『飯桶』(『崇范』二字倒過來)。」
 「我第一次見到錢鍾書時,就想到了這位淘氣的『飯桶』,覺得和眼前這個穿一件青布大褂,一雙毛布底鞋,戴一副老式大眼鏡的書生是不合適的。當時只閃過這個念頭而已。」
 「您們初次見面後,怎麼互相聯繫的呢?」我問。
 「錢鍾書見我後,曾寫信給我,約在工字廳見面,想和我談談。他帶我進客廳坐在一張大桌子邊角上,斜對面。他要說清一個事實,孫令銜所說不實,他並未訂 婚。孫令銜和我一同走回燕京的路上,告訴我說:他告訴表兄,我是費孝通的女朋友。所以我說我也並非費孝通的女朋友。他說起身體不好,常失眠。我介紹他讀 Out witting Our Nerves,我沒有書,只介紹了作者和書名。後來他說他借到了,讀了。他介紹我讀Henri Bergson的Time and Free Will。」
 「您倆都是無錫人,用家鄉話交談?」我又問。
 「大約講國語,不講無錫話,沒那麼親密。我們只是互相介紹書,通信用英文。那時清華園內有郵筒,信投入郵筒,立刻送入宿舍,通信極便。他的信很勤,越寫 越勤,一天一封。錢鍾書曾和我說他『志氣不大,只想貢獻一生,做做學問』。我覺得這點和我的志趣還比較相投,我雖學了四年政治,並無救世濟民之大志。他也 常到古月堂約我出去散步。我不走荷塘小路,太窄,只宜親密的情侶。我們經常到氣象臺去。氣象臺寬寬的石階,可以坐著閒聊。後來有一學生放氣球測試氣象,因 電線桿上的電線壞了,氣球的線碰上電線破損處,不幸觸電身亡。死人躺在那兒,我們害怕,就不再去氣象臺;以後也走上荷塘的小道了,兩人也開始像情侶了。有 時我和恩鈿、袁震散步回屋,我就知道屋裡桌上準有封信在等我,我覺得自己好像是愛上他了。……
 「學期終了,鍾書要我留校補習一兩個月,考入清華研究院,兩人就可再同學一年。他放假就回家了。他走了,我很難受,難受了好多時。冷靜下來,覺得不好,這是fall in love了。認識才短短幾個月,豈不太造次呢?」
 好友恩鈿也回家了。袁震和阿季同屋,她天天給阿季吹冷風,都是關於錢鍾書的,說他長相不佳,狂妄自大等等。
 阿季(楊絳)小時候的好友孫燕華,是爸爸的好友孫奕英的女兒。老圃先生在北京任職時,孫奕英(葉姑太太的親兄弟)一家亦在北京。 阿季家門房臧明的妻子臧媽,就在孫家帶孩子。阿季和燕華同歲,在女師大附小同級不同班,天天在一起玩兒。不是阿季在孫家吃晚飯,就是燕華在楊家吃晚飯。阿 季回南後,常常想念燕華。阿季在東吳大學時,孫家舉家回無錫,燕華進了蘇女師。燕華是葉恭綽夫人最寵愛的內侄女,一九三一年由葉姑太太一手操辦婚事,把她 嫁給了一位哈佛畢業又能作舊體詩的外交官做續弦,比她年長十歲。外交官除了上海有房子,在北京也有一所帶花園的四合院。阿季在清華借讀時,周末常進城去看燕華。
 燕華熟知葉家說錢鍾書的種種壞話:狂妄、驕傲等等,都搬給阿季聽。因為錢鍾書小看了葉家小姐,葉家及其親友當然認為錢鍾書很不好;燕華也不知道阿季和錢 鍾書的交情。燕華與葉崇範是最親的表姊妹,葉小姊不願嫁贅婿,和一位律師之子私奔(當時是時髦事)及後來結婚的故事,都是燕華說給阿季聽的。燕華還給阿季 看葉小姐「七星伴月」的結婚照。她把一口不整齊的牙齒全拔掉,換上整齊的假牙,新娘和七個伴娘都很美。
 阿季(楊絳)聽足錢鍾書的 壞話,都是對她潑冷水。雖然她心上並不認為錢鍾書真像他們說的那麼糟,不過她沒有他那麼熱切,更沒有他的急切,她還不想結婚呢。所以,錢鍾書要求訂婚,阿 季寫信說:不能接受他的要求。暑假報考清華研究院她還不夠格,得加緊準備,留待下年。阿季說的也是實情,清華本科四年的文學課,一兩個月怎補得上?她得補 上了再投考。
 阿季回蘇州了。由於注射防疫針過敏,引發蕁麻疹,開始還不厲害,打完第三針,就發得很凶;從頭皮到腳趾,渾身都是大大小小的「風疹塊」,有時眼睛腫得張不開,有時嘴唇腫成豬八戒。
 過敏反應不算大病,但很頑強,很困擾人。錢鍾書一心想和阿季同學一年,不贊成她本年放棄投考清華大學研究院;阿季無暇申辯,就不理他。
 錢鍾書以為阿季從此不理他了,大傷心,做了許多傷心的詩。他曾用「辛酸一把淚千行」形容此時自己的傷心。「壬申年秋杪雜詩」中,多半是他的傷心詩。一九 九四年錢先生自定詩集時,「壬申年秋杪雜詩」沒被收入。現將「雜詩」的序及其中傷心詩若干首抄錄如下,或許有助於瞭解和體會年輕的錢鍾書此時的心情。
 序曰:遠道棲遲,深秋寥落;然據梧,悲哉為氣;撫序增喟,即事漫與;略不詮次,隨得隨書,聊致言歎不足之意;歐陽子曰:「此秋聲也!」
 著甚來由又黯然?燈昏茶冷緒相牽;
 春陽歌曲秋聲賦,光景無多復一年。
 海客談瀛路渺漫,罡風弱水到應難;
 巫山已似神山遠,青鳥辛勤枉探看。
 顏色依稀寤寐通,久傷溝水各西東;
 屋樑落月猶驚起,見縱分明夢總空。
 良宵苦被睡相謾,獵獵風聲惻惻寒;
 如此星辰如此月,與誰指點與誰看!
 困人節氣奈何天,泥煞衾函夢不圓;
 苦雨潑寒宵似水,百蟲聲裡怯孤眠。
 崢嶸萬象付雕搜,嘔出心肝方教休;
 春有春愁秋有病,等閒白了少年頭。
 「錢先生當時這樣傷心,您就一點無動於衷嗎?」我又問楊先生。
 「我雖然不寫信,還是很想念的。蔣恩鈿知錢鍾書傷心,勸他再給我寫信。他寫得很誠懇,我很感動,就又和他通信了。」
 鍾書的第一個集子「寫在人生邊上」,由上海開明書店一九四一年出版,當時鍾書「遠客內地,由楊絳女士在上海收拾、挑選、編定這幾篇散文,成為一集」。書稿付印前,他在贈書頁上鄭重寫下「贈予 季康」。
 短篇小說集「人·獸·鬼」,是鍾書於抗戰勝利後出版的第一個集子,由上海開明書店一九四六年四月初版。「假使這部稿子沒有遺失或燒燬」,那是因為「此書 稿本曾由楊絳女士在兵火倉皇中錄副,分藏兩處」,鍾書如此說明。他這次沒有在「人·獸·鬼」贈書頁上寫點什麼,不過該書出版後,在兩人「仝存」的樣書上, 鍾書寫有一句既浪漫又體己的話:
 To C.K.Y.
 An almost impossible combination of 3 incompathible things:wife, mistress, & friend.
 C.S.C.
 贈予楊季康
 絕無僅有的結合了各不相容的三者:妻子、情人、朋友。
 錢鍾書
 錢先生以妻子、情人、朋友似不相容的三者統一來形容和讚賞楊先生,真是無上完美,別開生面,妙不可言!
 楊先生擺擺手,說:「談不上什麼讚賞,可算是來自實際生活的一種切身體會吧。鍾書稱我妻子、情人、朋友,絕無僅有的三者統一體;我認為三者應該是統一 的。夫妻該是終身的朋友,夫妻間最重要的是朋友關係,即使不是知心的朋友,至少也該是能做伴侶的朋友或互相尊重的伴侶。情人而非朋友的關係是不能持久的。 夫妻而不夠朋友,只好分手。」
 楊先生又說:「鍾書和我都以為『五倫』──中國以前的人倫關係:君臣、父子、兄弟、夫婦、朋友,『五倫』中,朋友非常重要。其他四倫如能復為朋友,交心而知己,關係定會非常融洽、和諧。我們倆就是夫婦兼朋友。」
 楊先生又說:「我已不記得哪位英國傳記作家寫他的美滿婚姻,很實際,很低調。他寫道:
 一.我見到她之前,從未想到要結婚;二.我娶了她幾十年來,從未後悔娶她;
 三.也從未想要娶別的女人。
 我把這段話讀給鍾書聽,他說:『我和他一樣。』我說:『我也一樣。』」



楊絳 {走到人生邊上}北京:商務,2007
本書8月底出版,9月即可在台灣買到。 (楊絳的新書《走到人生邊上———自問自答》樣書剛一亮相,台灣時報出版公司就買走了版權。郭紅稱,由於商務印書館一直在編輯出版《錢鐘書手稿集》,因此與楊絳老人交往密切。“8月中旬,我們知道她有這本書以後,立即提出…..)
主題:追問人生價值/鍛鍊/品質和靈魂
內容
96歲高齡的楊絳先生首次坦陳自己對於命運、人生、生死、靈與肉、鬼與神等根本問題的看法,融會了文學、哲學、倫理學精神分析等學科的知識,形成了自己的思考。".......《走到人生邊上》與我們的思考邏輯大異其趣,一些隻存在於民間,口口相傳的故事被楊絳先 生從記憶的深源和生活的隱秘所在發掘了出來,諸如農民講述的“鬼打牆”,楊絳自己到過的凶宅……除此之外,楊絳還引用了孔子對“神鬼”的看法,以及古書記 載,據此推斷“誰也不能証實人世間沒有鬼”。不過,楊絳並不悲觀,她從萬物之靈的角度為人類和人類文明及其價值進行了肯定,並提出人需要鍛煉和修身,繼而 追問人生的價值。

楊絳

  本名楊季康,祖籍江蘇無錫,1911生於北京。1932年畢業 於蘇州東吳大學。1935~1938年留學英法,回國后曾在上海震旦女子文理學院、清華大學任教。1949年后,在中國社會科學院文學研究所、外國文學研 究所工作。主要作品有劇本《稱心如意》、《弄假成真》。“文革”后主要的散文創作成果是《干校六記》,記述作者1969年年底到1972年春在河南“五七 干校”中的生活經歷。另一個隨筆集《將飲茶》,部分也寫到了“文革”期間的遭遇,但更有價值的,是回憶親人往事的部分。另出版有《楊絳譯文集》以及近年出 版的《我們仨》。



文選
我認識一個二十多歲農村出生的女孩子。她曾 讀過我記的《遇仙記》(參看《楊絳文集》第二卷228—233頁。人民文學出版社2004年版),問我那是怎麼回事。我說:“不知道,但都是實事。全宿捨 得同學、老師都知道。我活到如今,從沒有像那夜睡得像死人一樣。”她說:“真的,有些事,說來很奇怪,我要不是親眼看見,我決不相信。我見過鬼附在人身 上。這鬼死了兩三年了,死的時候四十歲。他的女兒和我同歲,也是同學。那年,挨著我家院墻北面住的女人剛做完絕育手術,身子很弱。這個男鬼就附在這女人身 上,自己說:‘我是誰誰誰,我要見見我的家人,和他們說說話。’有人就去傳話了。他家的老婆、孩子都趕來了。這鬼流著眼淚和家裏人說話,聲音全不像女人, 很粗壯。我媽是村上的衛生員,當時還要為這女人打消炎針。我媽過來了,就掐那女人的上嘴唇——叫什麼‘人中’吧?可是沒用。我媽硬著膽子給她打了消炎針。 這鬼說:‘我沒讓你掐著,我溜了。嫂子,我今兒晚上要來嚇唬你!”我家晚上就聽得嘩啦啦的響,像大把沙子撒在墻上的響。響了兩次。我爹就罵了:‘深更半 夜,鬧得人不得安寧,你王八蛋!’那鬼就不鬧了。我那時十幾歲,記得那鬼鬧了好幾天,不時地附在那女人身上。大約她身子健朗了,鬼才給趕走。”
在“餓死人的年代”,北京居民只知道“三年 自然災害”。十年以後,我們下放幹校,才知道不是天災。村民還不大敢說。多年後才聽到村裏人說:“那時候餓死了不知多少人,村村都是死人多,活人少,陽氣 壓不住陰氣,快要餓死的人往往夜裏附上了鬼,又哭又說。其實他們只剩一口氣了,沒力氣說話了。可是附上了鬼,就又哭又說,都是新餓死的人,哭著訴苦。到天 亮,附上鬼的人也多半死了。”
鬼附人身的傳說,我聽得多了,總不大相信。但仔細想想,我們常說:“又做師娘(巫婆)又做鬼”,如果從來沒有鬼附人身的事,就不會有冒充驅鬼的巫婆。所以我也相信莎士比亞的話:這個世界上,莫名其妙的事多著呢。
《左傳》也記載過鬧鬼的事。春秋戰國時,鄭 國二貴胄爭權。一家姓良,一家姓駟。良家的伯有驕奢無道,駟家的子皙一樣驕奢,而且比伯有更強橫。子皙是老二,還有個弟弟名公孫段附和二哥。子皙和伯有各 不相下。子皙就叫他手下的將官駟帶把伯有殺了。當時鄭國賢相子產安葬了伯有。子皙擅殺伯有是犯了死罪,但鄭國的國君懦弱無能,子產沒能夠立即執行國法。子 皙隨後兩年裏又犯了兩樁死罪。子產本要按國法把他處死,但開恩讓他自殺了。
伯有死後化為厲鬼,六七年間經常出現。據 《左傳》,“鄭人相驚伯有”,只要聽說“伯有至矣”,鄭國人就嚇得亂逃,又沒處可逃。伯有死了六年後的二月間,有人夢見伯有身披盔甲,揚言:“三月三日, 我要殺駟帶。明年正月二十八日,我要殺公孫段。”那兩人如期而死。鄭國的人越加害怕了。子產忙為伯有平反,把他的兒子“立以為大夫,使有家廟”,伯有的鬼 就不再出現了。
鄭子產出使晉國。晉國的官員問子產:“伯有猶能為厲乎?”(因為他死了好多年了。)子產曰:“能”。他說:老百姓橫死,鬼魂還能鬧,何況伯有是貴胄的子孫,比老百姓強橫。他安撫了伯有,他的鬼就不鬧了。
我們稱鬧鬼的宅子為凶宅。錢鍾書家曾租居無錫留芳聲巷一個大宅子,據說是凶宅。他叔叔夜晚讀書,看見一個鬼,就去打鬼,結果大病了一場。我家一九一九年從北京回無錫,為了找房子,也曾去看過那所凶宅。我記得爸爸對媽媽說:“凶宅未必有鬼,大概是房子陰暗,住了容易得病。”
但是我到過一個並不陰暗的凶宅。我上大學 時,我和我的好友周芬有個同班女友是常熟人,家住常熟。一九三一年春假,她邀我們遊常熟,在她家住幾天。我們同班有個男同學是常熟大地主,他家剛在城裏蓋 了新房子。我和周芬等到了常熟,他特來邀請我們三人過兩天到他新居吃飯,因為他媽媽從未見過大學女生,一定要見見,酒席都定好了,請務必賞光。我們無法推 辭,只好同去赴宴。
新居是簇新的房子。陽光明亮,陳設富麗。他 媽媽盛裝迎接。同席還有他爸爸和孿生的叔叔,相貌很相像;還有個瘦弱的嫂子帶著個淘氣的胖侄兒,還有個已經出嫁的妹妹。據說,那天他家正式搬入新居。那天 想必是挑了“宜遷居”的黃道吉日,因為搬遷想必早已停當,不然的話,不會那麼整潔。
回校後,不記得過了多久,我又遇見這個男同 學。他和我們三人都不是同係。不常見面。他見了我第一事就告訴我他們家鬧鬼,鬧得很兇。嫂子死了,叔叔死了,父母病了,所以趕緊逃回鄉下去了。據說,那所 房子的地基是公共體育場,沒知道原先是處決死囚的校場。我問:“鬼怎麼鬧?”他說:“一到天黑,樓梯上腳步聲上上下下不斷,滿處咳吐吵罵聲,不知多少鬼 呢!”我說:“你不是在家住過幾晚嗎?你也聽到了?”他說他只住了兩夜。他像他媽媽,睡得濃,只覺得城裏不安靜,睡不穩。春假完了就回校了。鬧鬼是他嫂子 聽到的,先還不敢說。他叔叔也聽到了。嫂子病了兩天,也沒發燒,無緣無故地死了。才過兩天,叔叔也死了,他爹也聽到鬧,父母都病了。他家用男女兩個傭人, 男的管燒飯,是老家帶出來的,女的是城裏雇的。女的住樓上,男的住樓下,上下兩間是樓上樓下,都在房子西盡頭,樓梯在東頭,他們都沒事。家裏突然連著死了 兩人,棺材是老家賬房雇了船送回鄉的。還沒辦喪事,他父母都病了。體育場原是校場的消息是他妹妹的婆家傳來的。他妹妹打來電話,知道父母病了,特來看望。 開上晚飯,父母都不想吃。他妹妹不放心,陪了一夜。他的侄兒不肯睡挪入爺爺奶奶屋的小床,一定要睡爺爺的大床。他睡爺爺腳頭,夢裏老說話。他妹妹和爹媽那 晚都聽見家裏鬧鬼了。他們屋裏沒敢關電燈。妹妹睡她媽媽腳頭。到天亮,他家立即雇了船,收拾了細軟逃回鄉下。他們搬入新居,不過七八天吧,和我們同席吃飯 而住在新居的五個人,死了兩個,病了兩個,不知那個淘氣的胖侄兒病了沒有。這位同學是謹小慎微的好學生,連黨課《三民主義》都不敢逃學的,他不會撒謊胡 說。
我自己家是很開明的,連灶神都不供。我家蘇 州的新屋落成,灶上照例有“灶君菩薩”的神龕。年終糖瓜祭灶,把灶神送上天了。過幾天是“接灶”日。我爸爸說:“不接了。”爸爸認為灶神相當於“打小報 告”的小人,吃了人家的糖瓜,就說人家好話。這種神,送走了正好,還接他回來幹嗎?家裏男女傭人聽說灶神不接了,都駭然。可是“老爺”的話不敢不聽。我家 沒有灶神,幾十年都很平安。
可是我曾經聽到開明的爸爸和我媽媽講過一次 鬼。我聽大姐姐說,我的爺爺曾做過一任浙江不知什麼偏僻小縣的縣官。那時候我大姐年幼,還不大記事。只有使她特別激動的大事才記得。那時我爸爸還在日本留 學,爸爸的祖父母已經去世,大伯母一家、我媽媽和大姐姐都留在無錫,只有爺爺帶上奶奶一起離家上任。大姐姐記得他們坐了官船,扯著龍旗,敲鑼打鼓很熱鬧。 我聽到爸爸媽媽講,我爺爺奶奶有一天黃昏後同在一起,兩人同時看見了我的太公,兩人同時失聲說:“爹爹喂”,但轉眼就不見了。隨後兩人都大病,爺爺趕忙辭 了官,攜眷乘船回鄉。下船後,我爺爺未及到家就咽了氣。
這件事,想必是我奶奶講的。兩人同時得重病,我爺爺未及到家就咽了氣,是過去的事實。見鬼是得病還鄉的原因。我媽媽大概信了,我爸爸沒有表示。
以上所說,都屬“怪、力、亂、神”之類,我也並不愛談。我原是舊社會過來的“老先生”——這是客氣的稱呼。實際上我是老朽了。老物陳人,思想落後是難免的。我還是晚清末代的遺老呢!
可是為“老先生”改造思想的“年輕人”如今 也老了。他們的思想正確嗎?他們的“不信不迷”使我很困惑。他們不是幾個人。他們來自社會各界:科學界、史學界、文學界等,而他們的見解卻這麼一致、這麼 堅定,顯然是代表這一時代的社會風尚,都重物質而懷疑看不見、摸不著的“形而上”境界。他們下一代的年輕人,是更加偏離“形而上”境界,也更偏重金錢和物 質享受的。他們的見解是否正確,很值得仔細思考。
我試圖擺脫一切成見,按照合理的規律,合乎 邏輯的推理,依靠實際生活經驗,自己思考。我要從平時不在意的地方,發現問題,解答問題;能證實的予以肯定,不能證實的存疑。這樣一步一步自問自答,看能 探索多遠。好在我是一個平平常常的人,無黨無派,也不是教徒,沒什麼條條框框幹礙我思想的自由。而我所想的,只是淺顯的事,不是專門之學,普通人都明白。
我正站在人生的邊緣邊緣上,向後看看,也向 前看看。向後看,我已經活了一輩子,人生一世,為的是什麼呢?我要探索人生的價值。向前看呢,我再往前去,就什麼都沒有了嗎?當然,我的軀體火化了,沒有 了,我的靈魂呢?靈魂也沒有了嗎?有人說,靈魂來處來,去處去。哪兒來的?又回哪兒去呢?說這話的,是意味著靈魂是上帝給的,死了又回到上帝那兒去。可是 上帝存在嗎?靈魂不死嗎?
選自《走到人生邊上》商務印書館出版

2014年3月23日 星期日

Matthew Arnold: Selected Poems and Prose; Culture and Anarchy (1869) 《友誼的花環》 Friendship's Garland (1871)




Selected Poems & Prose
by Matthew Arnold


This selection of poems and prose is invaluable in showing the "unity in diversity" of Arnold's creative intelligence, which probed in powerful lyrics the maladies of the modern condition. These poems join here with provocative essays on education, society, and religion, including his major central work, "The Study of Poetry," to provide a unique introduction to one of the
the major critics of the eighteenth century.
Published by Heinemann Educational Books (first published 1939)


Everyman Library 1978/1993, papperback,




Selected Poems & Prose (Everyman's Library (Paper)) Paperback – November 15, 1993

by Matthew Arnold (Author)
Part of the "Everyman" series which has been re-set with wide margins for notes and easy-to-read type. Each title includes a themed introduction by leading authorities on the subject, life-and-times chronology of the author, text summaries, annotated reading lists and selected criticism and notes.


 


Matthew Arnold was also one of the most important literary critics of his age. From 1857 to 1867 he was Professor of Poetry at Oxford; during this time he wrote his first books of criticism, including On Translating Homer (1861), Essays in Criticism (1865; Ser. 2, 1888), and On the Study of Celtic Literature (1867). In Culture and Anarchy (1869) and Friendship's Garland (1871) he widened his field to include social criticism.


Culture and Anarchy (1869) and Friendship's Garland (1871) 兩書都有翻譯本


-----  Don Delillo 大都會( Cosmopolis) 梁永安譯, 台北:寶瓶文化出版社,2012 63
梁永安譯的 唐.德里羅的小說不錯,不過這類的小說也需要大量的歐美文化不(含系統/統計和財經等等)背景。馬克.羅斯科(Mark Rothko) 和教堂的故事: Rothko wanted only that his canvases make people cry  《羅斯科傳》Mark Rothko, A Biography
譯者可能將Arnold's Culture and Anarchy一書的 Sweetness and light - Wikipedia,
翻錯: “我喜愛數據 那是我們的光和甜心” (53)

Sweetness and light - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweetness_and_light - Cached
Jump to Popularization of Sweetness and Light in cultural criticism‎: ... criticism, Culture and Anarchy. ... to confer "sweetness and light, and he ...

Chapter 1. Sweetness and Light

www.victorianweb.org/authors/arnold/writings/1.html - Cached
... readers of the Victorian Web this chapter from Arnold's Culture and Anarchy ..... The euphyÕs is the man who tends towards sweetness and light; the aphyÕs ...

友誼的花環 北京: 中國文學出版社 2000

《友誼的花環》書前介紹是一本隨筆作品集,后面卻又說成一部書信体小說,書中又將essay 翻譯成論文....由於本書翻譯幾乎未附原文 書中太多街名人名等等 使人迷糊....

"著者為英國人馬修·阿諾德。此書中作者虛构了一位主人公阿米紐斯·特容赫男爵,作者借阿米紐斯之口表達了自己對民主、革命、戰爭等諸多社會問題的看法。"

Arnold, Matthew, 1822-1888


One can by no means pass over Arnold's humor in a discussion of his
style, yet humor is certainly a secondary matter with him, in spite of
the frequency of its appearance. It is not much found in his more
intimate and personal writing, his poetry and his familiar letters. In
such a book as _Friendship's Garland_, where it is most in evidence, it
is plainly a literary weapon deliberately assumed. In fact, Arnold is
almost too conscious of the value of humor in the gentle warfare in
which he had enlisted. Its most frequent form is that of playful satire;
it is the product of keen wit and sane mind, and it is always directed
toward some serious purpose, rarely, if ever, existing as an end in
itself.


“Delenda est Carthago.”
     カルタゴは滅ぼさねばならぬ。
                 ―――大プリニウス 『博物誌』
満テル手モテ百合花ヲ与エヨ
Manibus date lilia plenis.

Asgaard - Manibus Date Lilia Plenis lyrics



But it's not the end of existence
In the mirror of a night
The shadow of our rapture
Give me your hand
We will collect the jewels of a night, together...

The tops of devilish conceptions
Ran with scarlet of evil
In the arms of sadness, tear comes to the world
She bore the path of dreams
In ravishing dance
We waste our lives
But...
Is it worth to be devoid of passions?

Love...
Only love lets us touch the essence of existence
Rapture is its beginning
The end...?
I believe it can last forever
Like flower proudly blossom in the
Embraces of everlasting desires

2014年3月22日 星期六

In Search of Oxford, The Oxford Book of Oxford / The Oxford Tutorial: "Thanks, You Taught Me How to Think,

In Search of Oxford
Darting between past and present, the bookish and the bucolic, the author peels back layers of this quintessential English college town.


The Oxford Book of Oxford (Oxford Books) [Paperback] oUP 1978

Jan Morris
 In this entertaining and lively anthology, Jan Morris traces the history of Oxford University from its foundation in the Middle Ages through to the twentieth century, combining extracts from contemporary observers with her own informative commentary.

The reader is invited to view the development of the college system, the creation of the Bodleian, Magdalen's defiance of James II, Newman, and the Oxford Movement. The life and times of Oxford are exalted or derided by writers ranging from the antiquarian Anthony Wood to Evelyn Waugh, Dr. Johnson and Mr. Gladstone, Hilaire Belloc and Thomas Hardy. Unworldly scholars and eccentric dons walk the pages, accompanied by the great characters of Oxford such as Benjamin Jowett, Sir Maurice Bowra, and William Spooner.

List of books about Oxford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_books_about_Oxford - Cached
Below is a list of books about Oxford or written in Oxford, England. The city of Oxford has generated and inspired much literature. Many authors have lived in ...


牛津導師制:“謝謝導師教會我如何去思考”

高等教育何以为“高” :牛津导师制教学反思
【作 者】:(英)大卫·帕尔菲曼(David Palpreyman)主编 ; 冯青来译
【出版社】:北京大学出版社
【出版日期】:2011.01

對我而言 此中文書只是資訊 方便

牛津大學此一"高教政策研究中心"很值得過去研究 下載其資源
http://oxcheps.new.ox.ac.uk/


Palfreyman, David, ed. The Oxford Tutorial: "Thanks, You Taught Me How to Think,
" 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford Centre for Higher Education Policy Studies, 2008.
免費下載
[PDF]

THE OXFORD TUTORIAL: 'Thanks, you taught me how to think'

- [ 翻譯此頁 ]
檔案類型: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - 快速檢視
由 R Mash 著作 - 相關文章
of our initial meeting and the boy who said 'thank you, you taught me how to think.' I couldn't agree more. The Oxford tutorial system… was without question ...
oxcheps.new.ox.ac.uk/Publications/.../OxCHEPS_OP1_08.pdf - 類似內容
[DOC]

OxCHEPS_OP1.doc - THE OXFORD TUTORIAL:

- [ 翻譯此頁 ]
檔案類型: Microsoft Word - 快速檢視
由 R Mash 著作 - 相關文章
Education. Policy. Studies, at New College, Oxford, OX1 3BN, UK (www.new ...
oxcheps.new.ox.ac.uk/Publications/Resources/OxCHEPS_OP1.doc - 類似內容

2014年3月21日 星期五

施特勞斯韋伯與科學的政治研究/ Leo Strauss as Teacher


  Leo Strauss 是當年芝加哥大學政治系之名師。
Herbert Simon 是該系另外一學派----行為學派。
最近20年 Leo Strauss 的學生成為美國新保守主義大本營,所以 Leo Strauss 的學說再成為顯學......

The Leo Strauss Center: Promoting the Study of Leo Strauss's Thought

https://leostrausscenter.uchicago.edu/
The Leo Strauss Center seeks to promote the serious study of Leo Strauss's thought primarily through the preservation and publication of the unpublished ...

Courses: Audio & Transcripts

Listed below is the collection of audio files and transcripts of ...

Hegel, The Philosophy of History

Hegel, The Philosophy of History, winter quarter 1965. "Seminar ...

Lecture Audio

Listed below is the collection of audio files of Strauss's ...

About the Leo Strauss Center

The Leo Strauss Center seeks to promote the serious study of ...

Kant, spring quarter 1967.

Kant, spring quarter 1967. "Seminar in Kant" has 17 ...

Life & Thought

Leo Strauss was born in 1899 in the town of Kirchhain in Hesse ...


 *****

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k2Vt4tmpRBw

Leo Strauss as Teacher - reflections by former students (1 of 2)

The University of Chicago The University of Chicago
Published on Mar 20, 2014
The Leo Strauss Center held a conference on "Leo Strauss as Teacher" on April 22-23 in Social Science 122 (a lecture hall where Strauss himself occasionally taught) on the campus of the University of Chicago.

The conference marked the publication on the Center's website of digitally remastered audiofiles made from the surviving audiotapes of Leo Strauss's courses. It provided an opportunity to remember, think about, and discuss the example Strauss provided of a great teacher and to talk about the issues involved in preparing the transcripts of his courses for publication.

For more about the Leo Strauss Center visit:
http://leostrausscenter.uchicago.edu/

The individuals on this panel all studied with Strauss in his early days at the University of Chicago.
Chair: Nathan Tarcov - University of Chicago
Ralph Lerner - University of Chicago (starts at 21:30)
Victor Gourevitch - Wesleyan University (starts at 35:45)
Hilail Gildin - Queens College, City University of New York (starts at 59:08)
Robert Faulkner - Boston College ( starts at 1:09:30)
Group discussion (starts at 1:22:30)
  • Category

  • License

    Standard YouTube License


Leo Strauss Max Weber and the Scientific Study ...


Nasser Behnegar - 2003 - 235 頁
books.google.com

Leo Strauss, Max Weber, and the Scientific Study of Politics

作者:Nasser Behnegar

施特勞斯韋伯與科學的政治研究(施特勞斯集)

  • 作者:(美)貝納加|主編:劉小楓|譯者:陸月宏
  • 出版社:華東師大

內容大鋼
施特勞斯的現代歷史解釋瞄準了一個根本性的問題,即激勵現代歷史和世界歷史的東西——哲學與神啟之爭。在他看來,韋伯主張的價值中立的社會科學最終會導致虛無主義。
施特勞斯毫不妥協地批判了新政治科學,在批判的每一個步驟中,他都首先展示亞里士多德的觀點,接著展示新政治科學對這種觀點的拒絕。他認為兩者的根本差異在於:前者指向高於人類的存在,後者卻按照低於人類之物來理解人。
施特勞斯認為,我們的處境仍然是政治處境,所以舊政治科學並沒有過時。相反,新政治科學卻遮蔽了這種政治處境。以科學、自由、進步、寬容和可確證性的名義擁抱現代性是荒謬的,我們迫切需要回歸古典政治哲學。

作者介紹
(美)貝納加|主編:劉小楓|譯者:陸月宏

目錄 中譯本前言
鳴謝
縮寫表
導言
第一部分
第一章 相對主義時代的政治科學
第二章 相對主義時代的政治哲學
第二部分
第三章 事實—價值的分野與虛無主義
第四章 事實—價值的分野與作為理論追求的社會科學
第五章 社會科學的問題
第三部分
第六章 施特勞斯反對新政治科學的論戰
第七章 新政治科學
第八章 反抗舊政治科學
第九章 新政治科學與自由民主政體
最後的評論
引用書目
索引 有比沒有好不過此索引很差

2014年3月20日 星期四

海峽兩岸服務貿易協議(本協議尚待完成相關程序後生效)

http://www.coolloud.org.tw/node/74709

海峽兩岸服務貿易協議(本協議尚待完成相關程序後生效)
為加強海峽兩岸經貿關係,促進服務貿易自由化,依據「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」及世界貿易組織「服務貿易總協定」,財團法人海峽交流基金會與海峽兩岸關係協會經平等協商,達成協議如下:
第一章 總則
第一條 目標
本協議致力於:
一、逐步減少或消除雙方之間涵蓋眾多部門的服務貿易限制性措施,促進雙方服務貿易進一步自由化及便利化;
二、繼續擴展服務貿易的廣度和深度;
三、增進雙方在服務貿易領域的合作。
第二條 定義
就本協議而言:
一、「服務貿易」指:
(一)自一方內向另一方內提供服務;
(二)在一方內向另一方的服務消費者提供服務;
(三)一方服務提供者透過在另一方內的商業據點呈現提供服務;
(四)一方服務提供者透過在另一方內的自然人呈現提供服務。
二、「服務部門」指:
(一)對於一特定承諾,指一方承諾表中列明的該項服務的一個、多個或所有次部門;
(二)在其他情況下,指該服務部門的全部,包括其所有的次部門。
三、「人」指自然人或法人。
四、「法人」指根據兩岸任一方相關規定在該方設立的實體。
五、「服務提供者」指兩岸任一方提供服務的任何人。如該服務不是由法人直接提供,而是透過分支機構或辦事處等其他形式的商業據點呈現提供,則該服務 提供者(即該法人)仍應透過該商業據點呈現享有本協議所給予的待遇。此類待遇應擴大至提供該服務的呈現方式,但不需擴大至該服務提供者位於提供服務的一方 之外的任何其他部分。
六、「服務消費者」指接受或使用服務的任何人。
七、「措施」指兩岸任一方的規定、規則、程序、決定或任何其他形式的措施。
八、「一方影響服務貿易的措施」包括關於下列事項的措施:
(一)服務的購買、支付或使用;
(二)與服務提供有關,且該方要求向公眾普遍提供的服務的獲得和使用;
(三)另一方的人為在該方內提供服務的呈現,包括商業據點呈現。
九、「商業據點呈現」指任何類型的商業或專業據點,包括以下列方式在一方內提供服務:
(一)設立、收購或維持一法人,或
(二)設立或維持一分支機構或辦事處。
第三條 範圍
一、本協議適用於雙方影響服務貿易的措施。
二、本協議不適用於:
(一)公共採購;
(二)在一方內為行使公共部門職權時提供的服務;
(三)一方提供的補貼或補助,或者附加於接受或持續接受這類補貼的任何條件。但如果前述補貼顯著影響一方在本協議下所做特定承諾,另一方可請求磋商,以友好解決該問題。應另一方請求,一方應儘可能提供與本協議下所作特定承諾有關的補貼訊息;
(四)兩岸間航空運輸安排,即「海峽兩岸空運協議」與「海峽兩岸空運補充協議」及其後續修正文件所涵蓋的措施及內容;
(五)與兩岸間航空運輸安排的行使直接有關的服務,但不包括「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」及其後續協議項下的服務貿易市場開放承諾表所列措施;
(六)雙方有關海運協議的相關措施,但不包括「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」及其後續協議項下的服務貿易市場開放承諾表所列措施;
(七)雙方同意的其他服務或措施。
三、世界貿易組織「服務貿易總協定」關於自然人移動的附件準用於本協議。
四、雙方各級業務主管部門及其授權的機構應履行本協議項下的義務和承諾。
第二章 義務與規範
第四條 公平待遇
一、一方對於列入其在世界貿易組織中所作服務貿易特定承諾表、「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」附件四「服務貿易早期收穫部門及開放措施」及本協議附件 一「服務貿易特定承諾表」的服務部門,在遵守前述承諾表或開放措施所列任何條件和資格的前提下,就影響服務提供的所有措施而言,對另一方的服務和服務提供 者所給予的待遇,不得低於其給予該一方同類服務和服務提供者的待遇。
二、本條第一款不適用於一方現有的不符措施及其修改,但該一方應逐步減少或消除該等不符措施,且對該等不符措施的任何修改或變更,不得增加對另一方服務和服務提供者的限制。
三、根據本條第一款所作的特定承諾不得解釋為要求任一方對於因相關的服務或服務提供者的非當地特性而產生的任何固有的競爭劣勢作出補償。
四、一方可對另一方的服務和服務提供者給予與該一方同類服務和服務提供者形式上相同或不同的待遇,以滿足本條第一款要求。如此類形式上相同或不同的待遇改變競爭條件,且與另一方的同類服務或服務提供者相比有利於該一方的服務或服務提供者,則應被視為較為不利的待遇。
五、關於一方影響服務貿易的措施,除符合世界貿易組織「服務貿易總協定」第二條第二款規定的豁免外,該一方對另一方的服務和服務提供者所給予的待遇,不得低於該一方給予的普遍適用於其他任何世界貿易組織會員的同類服務和服務提供者的待遇。
六、本條第五款不適用於一方現有的不符措施及其修改,但該一方應逐步減少直至消除該等不符措施,且對該等不符措施的任何修改或變更,不得增加對另一方服務和服務提供者的限制。
第五條 訊息公開與提供
一、一方應依其規定,及時公布或用其他方式使公眾知悉普遍適用的或針對另一方與服務貿易有關的措施。
二、應另一方請求,一方應依其規定,及時就已公布並影響另一方服務提供者的措施的變化提供訊息。
三、一方不得要求另一方提供一經披露即妨礙執行相關規定或有違公共利益,或損害特定企業正當商業利益的機密訊息。
第六條 管理規範
一、一方對已作出特定承諾的部門,應確保所有影響服務貿易的普遍適用措施以合理、客觀且公正的方式實施。
二、雙方應依其規定賦予受影響的服務提供者對業務主管部門作出的決定申請行政救濟的權利,並確保該行政救濟程序提供客觀和公正的審查。
三、對已作出特定承諾的服務,如提供此種服務需要取得許可,則一方業務主管部門應依其規定在申請人提出完整的申請資料後的一定期間內,將申請的審核結果通知申請人。應申請人請求,該一方業務主管部門應提供有關申請的訊息,不得有不當遲延。
四、為確保有關資格要求、資格程序、技術標準和許可要求的各項措施不構成不必要的服務貿易障礙,對於一方已作出特定承諾的部門,該方應致力於確保上述措施:
(一)依據客觀及透明的標準,例如提供服務的能力;
(二)不得比為確保服務品質所必需的限度更難以負擔;
(三)如屬許可程序,則該程序本身不成?對服務提供的限制。
五、一方可依其規定或其他經雙方同意的方式,認許另一方服務提供者在該另一方已獲得的實績、經歷、許可、證明或已滿足的資格要求。
六、在已就專業服務作出特定承諾的部門,一方應提供適當程序,以驗證另一方專業人員的能力。
第七條 商業行為
一、一方應確保該方內的任何獨占性服務提供者在相關市場提供獨占性服務時,並未採取違反其在本協議附件一及「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」附件四中所作承諾的行為。
二、一方的獨占性服務提供者直接或經關係企業,參與其獨占權範圍外且屬該方特定承諾表中服務的競爭時,該方應確保該服務提供者不濫用其獨占地位在該方內採取違反此類承諾的行為。
三、一方有理由認為另一方的獨占性服務提供者的行為違反本條第一款或第二款規定時,在該方請求下,經雙方協商,可由另一方提供有關經營的訊息。
四、一方在形式上或事實上授權或設立且實質性阻止少數幾個服務提供者在該方內相互競爭時,本條第一款及第二款規定應適用於此類服務提供者。
五、除本條第一款至第四款所指的商業行為外,服務提供者的相關商業行為可能會抑制競爭,從而限制服務貿易。在此情形下,一方應就另一方請求進行磋 商,以期消除此類商業行為。被請求方對此類請求應給予充分和積極的考慮,並儘可能提供與所涉事項有關且可公開獲得的非機密訊息。被請求方依其規定,在與請 求方就保障機密性達成一致的前提下,應向請求方提供其他可獲得的訊息。
第八條 緊急情況的磋商
若因實施本協議對一方的服務部門造成實質性負面影響,受影響的一方可要求與另一方磋商,積極尋求解決方案。
第九條 支付和移轉
除本協議第十條規定的情況外,一方不得對與其特定承諾有關的經常項目交易的對外資金移轉和支付實施限制。
第十條 確保對外收支平衡的限制
一方對外收支出現或可能出現嚴重失衡時,可依規定或慣例暫時限制與服務貿易相關的資金移轉和支付,但實施該等限制應遵循公平、非歧視和善意的原則。
第十一條 例外
本協議的任何規定不得解釋為妨礙一方採取或維持與世界貿易組織「服務貿易總協定」規則相一致的例外措施。
第十二條 合作
雙方應本著互惠互利的原則,加強各個服務部門的合作,以進一步提升雙方服務部門的能力、效率與競爭力。
第三章 特定承諾
第十三條 市場開放
對於本協議第二條第一款所指的服務提供模式的市場開放,一方對另一方的服務和符合本協議附件二及本協議其他所列條件的服務提供者給予的待遇,不得低 於該方在本協議附件一及「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」附件四中列明的內容和條件。對以本協議第二條第一款第一目、第三目所指模式提供的服務,如一方就其作 出市場開放承諾,則該方應允許相關的資本移動。
第十四條 其他承諾
雙方可就影響服務貿易,但不屬於依本協議第十三條列入特定承諾表的措施,包括資格、標準、許可事項或其他措施,展開磋商,並將磋商結果列入特定承諾表。
第十五條 特定承諾表
一、雙方經過磋商達成的特定承諾表,作為本協議附件一。
二、特定承諾表應列明:
(一)作出承諾的部門或次部門;
(二)市場開放承諾;
(三)本協議第十四條所述其他承諾;
(四)雙方同意列入的其他內容。
三、本協議附件一所列金融服務部門的開放承諾方式不受本條第二款規定的限制。
四、本協議附件一及「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」附件四所列服務部門及市場開放承諾適用本協議附件二關於服務提供者的具體規定。
第十六條 逐步減少服務貿易限制
一、為逐步減少或消除雙方之間涵蓋眾多部門的服務貿易限制性措施,促進服務貿易自由化,經雙方同意,可在互惠互利的基礎上,就服務貿易的進一步市場開放展開磋商。
二、依據本條第一款展開磋商形成的結果,構成本協議的一部分。
三、任一方均可在本協議規定的開放承諾的基礎上自主加速開放或消除限制性措施。
第十七條 承諾表的修改
一、在承諾表中任何承諾實施之日起三年期滿後的任何時間,一方可依照本條規定修改或撤銷該承諾。如該承諾不超出其在世界貿易組織承諾水準,則對該承諾的修改不得比修改前更具限制性。
二、修改一方應將本條第一款所述修改或撤銷承諾的意向,在不遲於實施修改或撤銷的預定日期前三個月通知另一方。
三、應受影響一方的請求,修改一方應與其進行磋商,以期就必要的補償性調整達成一致,調整後結果不得低於磋商前特定承諾的總體開放水準。
四、如雙方無法就補償性調整達成一致,可根據本協議第二十條規定解決。修改一方根據爭端解決結果完成補償性調整前,不得修改或撤銷其承諾。
第四章 其他條款
第十八條 聯繫機制
一、雙方同意由兩岸經濟合作委員會服務貿易工作小組負責處理本協議及與服務貿易相關事宜,由雙方業務主管部門各自指定的聯絡人負責聯繫,必要時,經雙方同意,可指定其他單位負責聯絡。
二、服務貿易工作小組可視需要設立工作機制,處理本協議及與服務貿易相關的特定事項。
第十九條 檢視
自本協議生效之日起十二個月後,雙方可每年召開會議檢視本協議,以及雙方同意的其他與服務貿易相關的議題。
第二十條 爭端解決
雙方關於本協議解釋、實施和適用的爭端,應依「海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議」第十條規定處理。
第二十一條 文書格式
基於本協議所進行的業務聯繫,應使用雙方商定的文書格式。
第二十二條 附件
本協議的附件構成本協議的一部分。
第二十三條 修正
本協議修正,應經雙方協商同意,並以書面形式確認。
第二十四條 生效
一、本協議簽署後,雙方應各自完成相關程序並以書面通知另一方。本協議自雙方均收到對方通知後次日起生效。
二、本協議附件一所列內容應於本協議生效後儘速實施。
本協議於六月二十一日簽署,一式四份,雙方各執兩份。四份文本中對應表述的不同用語所含意義相同,四份文本具有同等效力。
附件一 服務貿易特定承諾表
附件二 關於服務提供者的具體規定
財團法人海峽交流基金會 海峽兩岸關係協會
董事長 林中森 會長 陳德銘

附件缺,請參考
 http://www.coolloud.org.tw/node/74709

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