2015年3月10日 星期二

Eric J. Hobsbawm 《極端的年代:1914~1991》age of extremes


艾瑞克·霍布斯鮑姆 (1917-2012) 95歲。小讀者翻譯過他的兩本書:   《極端的年代》、《盜匪》。前者的出書速度跟日本版一樣,1996年 (台北:麥田),當時,這是紀錄。簡體字版:江蘇人民出版社,1999;中信出版社,2014



作者簡介  · · · · · ·


艾瑞克•霍布斯鮑姆(Eric Hobsbawm)
英國著名歷史學家、英國皇家科學院院士,享譽國際、備受推崇的近現代史大師。權威媒體評價他是“我們這個時代最重要的歷史學家,更是啟迪大眾心智的思想巨匠”。英國前首相託尼•布萊爾盛讚他是“進步主義政治史界的巨人,影響了整整一代政治和學術領袖”。
霍布斯鮑姆的研究時期以19世紀為主並延伸及17、18和20世紀;研究的地區則從英國、歐洲大陸,擴至拉丁美洲。除史學領域外,他也經常撰寫當代政治、社會評論、社會學理論文章,以及藝術、文化批評等。他在勞工運動、農民叛變和世界史範疇中的研究成果堪居當代史家的頂尖之流,在學術界有很大影響。
他也是敘事體史學的大家,其宏觀通暢的寫作風格將敘述史學的魅力擴及大眾,正如《新左派評論》著名編輯佩里•安德森所言:霍布斯鮑姆是不可多得地兼具了理性的現實感和感性的同情心。一方面是個腳踏實地的唯物主義者、提倡實力政治;另一方面又能將波希米亞、土匪強盜和無政府主義者的生活寫成優美哀怨的動人故事。
霍布斯鮑姆一生著作甚豐,真正使他榮登世界“近現代史大師”寶座的,是他的“年代四部曲”:《革命的年代:1789~1848》、《資本的年代:1848 ~1875》、《帝國的年代:1875~1914》和《極端的年代:1914~1991》。它們結構恢弘,敘事曉暢,成為當代極為流行的歷史著作,讓全球數以百萬計的普通人獲得了觸摸歷史的機會。
基於其卓越的文化貢獻,霍布斯鮑姆曾於1998年被英國皇室授予英國榮譽勳爵(Companion of Honour)稱號,也曾獲得過歐洲最受關注且獎金額最高的人文和自然科學獎項巴爾扎恩獎(Balzan Prize)。
進入21世紀後,霍布斯鮑姆依舊筆耕不輟,《趣味橫生的時光——我的20世紀人生》《霍布斯鮑姆看21世紀》等書相繼出版,在離世前幾月,他依然在整理自己的最後一部作品《斷裂的年代:20世紀的文化與社會》。
2012年10月1日,以95歲高齡在倫敦逝世。

目錄  · · · · · ·

讚譽推薦
作者簡介
前言與謝語
鳥瞰本世紀
第一部大災難的年代
第一章全面戰爭的年代
第二章世界大革命
第三章經濟大恐慌
第四章自由主義的衰落
第五章共禦強敵
第六章1914-1945年的藝術
第七章帝國告終
第二部黃金時代
第八章冷戰年代
第九章黃金年代
第十章1945-1990年社會革命
第十一章文化革命
第十二章第三世界
第十三章“現實中的社會主義”
第三部天崩地裂
第十四章危機二十年
第十五章第三世界與革命
第十六章社會主義的失勢
第十七章前衛已死-1950年後的藝術
第十八章魔法師與徒弟:自然科學流派
第十九章邁向新的千年


鳥瞰20世紀
12位文藝和學術界人士對20世紀的看法:
 哲學家伯林(Isaiah Berlin):“我的一生——我一定得這麼說一句——歷經20世紀,卻不曾遭逢個人苦難。然而在我的記憶之中,它卻是西方史上最可怕的一個世紀。”

西班牙人類學家巴諾哈(Julio Caro Baroja):“在一個人的個人經歷——安安靜靜地生、幼、老、死,走過一生,沒有任何重大冒險患難——與20世紀的真實事蹟……人類經歷的種種恐怖事件之間,有著極為強烈顯著的矛盾對比。”

意大利作家李威(Primo Levi):“我們僥倖能活過集中營的這些人,其實並不是真正的見證人。這種感想,固然令人不甚自在,卻是在我讀了許多受難餘生者,包括我自己在內所寫的各種記載之後,才慢慢領悟。多年以後,我曾重讀自己的手記,發現我們這一批殘存的生還者,不但人數極為稀少,而且根本屬於常態之外。也許是運氣,也許是技巧,靠著躲藏逃避,我們其實並未陷落地獄底層。那些真正掉入底層的人,那些親見蛇蠍惡魔之人,不是沒能生還,就是從此啞然無言。”

法國農藝學家暨生態學家杜蒙(René Dumont):“我看20世紀,只把它看作一個屠殺、戰亂不停的時代。” 諾貝爾獎得主、意大利科學家蒙塔爾奇尼(Rita Levi Montalcini):“儘管發生了種種事情,這個世紀畢竟發生了幾項革命,是往好的方向走去……如第四階級的興起,以及女人在數百年橫遭壓制之後得以嶄露頭角。”

諾貝爾獎得主、英國作家戈爾丁(William Golding):“我只是止不住地想,這真是人類史上最血腥動蕩的一個世紀。”

英國藝術史學者岡布里奇(Ernest Gombrich):“20世紀的最大特徵,就是世界人口繁殖增長的可怕速度。這是個大災難,是場大禍。我們根本不知道對此如何是好。”

美國音樂家梅紐因(Yehudi Menuhin):“如果一定要我用一句話為20世紀做個總結,我會說,它為人類興起了所能想像的最大希望,但是同時卻也摧毀了所有的幻想與理想。”

諾貝爾獎得主、西班牙科學家奧喬亞(Severo Ochoa):“最根本的事項,便是科學的進步,成就實在不凡……是我們這個世紀的最大特色。”

美國人類學家弗思(Raymond Firth):“就科技而言,我認為電子學是20世紀最重大的一項發展。至於思想觀念,可能則由一個原本相當富於理性與科學精神的觀點,轉變成一個非理性,也比較不科學的心態。”

意大利史學家瓦利安尼(Leo Valiani):“我們這個世紀,證實了所謂正義、公理、平等等種種理想的勝利,不過是短暫的曇花一現。但在同時,只要我們有辦法將'自由'繼續存留,還是可以從頭再來……不必灰心,甚至在最絕望的情況下也不要喪志。”

意大利史學家文圖裡(Franco Venturi):“歷史學家不能回答這個問題。對我來說,20世紀沒有別的,只需要我們不斷地重新去了解它。”






Eric J. Hobsbawm, Marxist Historian, Dies at 95
By WILLIAM GRIMES October 15, 2012
艾瑞克·霍布斯鮑姆 | 1917-2012
英國著名馬克思主義歷史學家逝世
WILLIAM GRIMES 20121015
Eric J. Hobsbawm, whose three-volume economic history of the rise of industrial capitalism established him as Britain’s pre-eminent Marxist historian, died on Monday in London. He was 95.

艾瑞克·霍布斯鮑姆(Eric J. Hobsbawm) 101日在倫敦去世,享年95歲。他曾撰寫篇幅長達三卷的經濟史,追溯工業資本主義的崛起,這使他成為英國首屈一指的馬克思主義歷史學家。

The cause was pneumonia, said his daughter, Julia Hobsbawm.

霍布斯鮑姆之女茱莉亞·霍布斯鮑姆(Julia Hobsbawm)表示,他死於肺炎。

Mr. Hobsbawm, the leading light in a group of historians within the British Communist Party that included Christopher Hill, E. P. Thompson and Raymond Williams, helped recast the traditional understanding of history as a series of great events orchestrated by great men. Instead, he focused on labor movements in the 19th century and what he called the “pre-political” resistance of bandits, millenarians and urban rioters in early capitalist societies.

英國共產黨黨內,在包括克里斯多夫·希爾(Christopher Hill)E·P·湯普森(E. P. Thompson)以及雷蒙德·威廉姆斯(Raymond Williams)等人的歷史學家圈子中,霍布斯鮑姆是一個領軍人物。他幫助重塑了人們對歷史的傳統解讀(即歷史是由大人物策劃的一系列重大事件)。相反,他關注的是19世紀的工人運動,以及早期資本主義社會被他稱為“政治前的”土匪、千禧年信徒以及城市暴徒的反抗。

His masterwork remains his incisive and often eloquent survey of the period he referred to as “the long 19th century,” which he analyzed in three volumes: “The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848,” “The Age of Capital: 1848-1875” and “The Age of Empire: 1874-1914.” To this trilogy he appended a coda in 1994, “The Age of Extremes,” published in the United States with the subtitle “A History of the World, 1914-1991.”

他的代表作依然是對他所稱的“漫長的19世紀”的全面回顧。他的論述非常深刻,很多地方語句精彩。他將自己的分析分成三卷:《革命的年代:1789-1848(The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848)、《資本的年代: 1848-1875(The Age of Capital: 1848-1875)和《帝國的年代: 1874-1914 (The Age of Empire: 1874-1914)1994年,《極端的年代》(The Age of Extremes)(其美國版的副標題是“世界歷史:1914-1991”)為上述三部曲加上了一個尾聲。

Eric J. Hobsbawm was a brilliant historian in the great English tradition of narrative history,” Tony Judt, a professor of history at New York University, wrote in an e-mail in 2008, two years before he died. “On everything he touched he wrote much better, had usually read much more, and had a broader and subtler understanding than his more fashionable emulators. If he had not been a lifelong Communist he would be remembered simply as one of the great historians of the 20th century.”

“在用英語敍述歷史的偉大傳統中,艾瑞克·霍布斯鮑姆是一名傑出的歷史學家,”紐約大學(New York University)歷史學教授托尼·朱特(Tony Judt)2008年的一封電子郵件中寫道。朱特在兩年後去世。“與那些更傾向於趕時髦的模仿者相比,他無論寫什麼話題都寫得好得多,而且通常閱讀的資料更多,理解更廣泛、更細膩。如果不是終生的共產主義者,他將作為20世紀最偉大的歷史學家之一被人銘記。”

Unlike many of his comrades, Mr. Hobsbawm, who lived in London, stuck with the Communist Party after the Soviet Union crushed the Hungarian uprising in 1956 and the Czech reform movement in 1968. He eventually let his party membership lapse about the time the Berlin Wall fell and the Eastern bloc disintegrated in 1989.

與他的許多志同道合者不同,在蘇聯鎮壓了1956年的匈牙利起義和1968年的捷克改革運動後,生活在倫敦的霍布斯鮑姆依然沒有脫離共產黨。最終,大約是在1989年柏林牆被推倒、東方集團解體時,他才讓自己的黨員身份失效。

I didn’t want to break with the tradition that was my life and with what I thought when I first got into it,” he told The New York Times in 2003. “I still think it was a great cause, the emancipation of humanity. Maybe we got into it the wrong way, maybe we backed the wrong horse, but you have to be in that race, or else human life isn’t worth living.”

“我不想拋棄曾經是我的人生的傳統,不想拋棄當初自己入黨時的信念,”他在2003年對《紐約時報》表示。“我依然認為那是一項偉大的事業,是對人性的解放。可能我們採取了錯誤的方式,可能我們看錯了人,但你必須投入這場奮鬥,否則人活著就沒有意義。”

Eric John Hobsbawm was born in 1917 in Alexandria, Egypt, where a confused clerk at the British consulate misspelled the last name of his father, Leopold Percy Hobsbaum, an unsuccessful merchant from the East End of London. His mother, Nelly Grün, was Austrian, and after World War I ended, the family, which was Jewish, settled in Vienna. The Hobsbawms were struggling to make ends meet when, in 1929, Eric’s father dropped dead on his own doorstep, probably of a heart attack. Two years later Nelly died of lung disease, and her son was shipped off to live with relatives in Berlin.

1917年,艾瑞克·約翰·霍布斯鮑姆出生在埃及的亞歷山大。在當地的英國領事館,犯糊塗的工作人員拼錯了他父親的姓。他的父親名叫利奧波德·珀西·霍布斯鮑姆(Leopold Percy Hobsbaum),是個落魄的生意人,來自倫敦東區。他的母親內莉·格林(Nelly Grün)是奧地利人。一戰結束後,這個猶太家庭在維也納安頓下來。1929年,就在一家人艱辛度日的時候,艾瑞克的父親猝死在自家門口,很可能是心臟病發作。兩年後,內莉因肺部疾病去世。隨後,霍布斯鮑姆被送到柏林,和親戚一起生活。

In the waning months of the Weimar Republic, Mr. Hobsbawm, a gifted student, became a passionate Communist and a true believer in the Bolshevik Revolution. “The dream of the October Revolution is still there somewhere inside me, as deleted texts are still waiting to be recovered by experts, somewhere on the hard disks of computers,” he wrote in “Interesting Times,” a memoir published in 2003.

在魏瑪共和國苟延殘喘的最後幾個月裏,霍布斯鮑姆這個高材生成了一名充滿激情的共產主義者和布爾什維克革命(Bolshevik Revolution)的忠實信徒。“十月革命的夢想依然在我身體的某個地方,就像電腦硬碟上被刪掉的文章一樣,它們依然在等著被專家恢復,”他在《趣味橫生的時光》(Interesting Times)一書中寫道。該書是他的回憶錄,於2003年出版。

Mr. Hobsbawm, a cool introvert, found exhilaration and fellowship in the radical politics of the street in Germany. As a member of a Communist student organization, he slipped party fliers under apartment doors in the weeks after Hitler’s appointment as chancellor and at one point concealed an illegal duplicating machine under his bed. Within weeks, however, he was sent to Britain to live with yet another set of relatives.

冷靜、內向的霍布斯鮑姆,在德國街頭的激進政治活動中找到興奮,找到志同道合的人。作為共產黨領導的一個學生組織的成員,在希特勒被任命為總理後的幾周裏,他將共產黨的傳單塞進公寓的門縫裏,還一度將一台非法的影印機藏在自己的床底下。不過幾周後,他就被送到英國,和另外一些親戚一起生活。

Forbidden by his uncle to join either the Communist Party or the Labour Party (which Mr. Hobsbawm hoped to subvert from within), he concentrated on his studies at St. Marylebone Grammar School in London and won a scholarship to Cambridge. There he joined the Communist Party in 1936, edited the weekly journal Granta and accepted an invitation to join the elite, informal society of intellectuals known as the Apostles.

他的叔叔不允許他加入共產黨或工黨(Labor Party)(霍布斯鮑姆想從內部顛覆工黨),於是他專注於在倫敦聖瑪麗利本語法學校(St. Marylebone Grammar School)的學業,最終獲得劍橋大學(University of Cambridge)的獎學金。1936年,他在劍橋大學加入共產黨,擔任《格蘭塔》(Granta) 週刊的編輯,還應邀加入由知識份子組成的非正式精英社團“劍橋使徒”(Cambridge Apostles)

It was an invitation that hardly any Cambridge undergraduate was likely to refuse, since even revolutionaries like to be in a suitable tradition,” he wrote in “Interesting Times.” He described himself as a “Tory communist,” unsympathetic to the politics of personal liberation that marked the 1960s.

“對任何一個劍橋大學的本科生來說,要拒絕這個邀請是不大可能的,因為就連革命者也想躋身於一個合適的傳統。”他在《趣味橫生的時光》中寫道。他形容自己是一個“保守的共產黨人”,對20世紀60年代標誌性的個性解放運動的政治不抱同情。

Mr. Hobsbawm graduated from King’s College with highest honors in 1939 and went on to earn a master’s degree in 1942 and a doctorate in 1951, writing his dissertation on the Fabian Society. In 1943 he married Muriel Seaman, a civil servant and fellow Communist. That marriage ended in divorce in 1950. In 1962 he married Marlene Schwarz, who survives him. In addition to his daughter, he is survived by his son Andrew; another son, Joss Bennathan; seven grandchildren; and one great-grandchild.

1939年,霍布斯鮑姆以最高榮譽從國王學院(King’s College)本科畢業,接著在1942年取得碩士學位,並於1951年獲得博士學位,他的博士論文以費邊社(Fabian Society,英國一個社會主義派別——譯者注)為研究物件。1943年,霍布斯鮑姆與公務員繆麗爾·西曼(Muriel Seaman)結婚,她也是一名共產黨員。那段婚姻在1950年以離婚告終。1962年,霍布斯鮑姆娶了馬琳·施瓦茨(Marlene Schwarz),她仍健在。除了他的女兒,他死後留下兒子安德魯(Andrew)和喬斯·班納森(Joss Bennathan),還有七個孫子和一個重孫子。

Mr. Hobsbawm and his colleagues in the Historians’ Study Group of the Communist Party established labor history as an important field of study and in 1952 created an influential journal, Past and Present, as a home base.

霍布斯鮑姆和他在英國共產黨歷史學家小組(Historians' Study Group of the Communist Party)的同事一道,開創了勞動史的研究,並將其確立為一個重要研究領域。他們在1952年創辦了一份有影響力的期刊《過去與現在》(Past and Present),作為他們的主要陣地。

The rich dividends from this new approach to writing history were apparent in works like “Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries,” “Laboring Men: Studies in the History of Labor” and “Industry and Empire,” the companion volume to Christopher Hill’s “Reformation to Industrial Revolution.”

這種新的撰寫歷史的方法帶來了豐碩成果,相關著作包括:《原始的叛亂:十九至二十世紀社會運動的古樸形式》(Primitive Rebels: Studies inArchaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries)、《勞動者:勞動歷史的研究》(Laboring Men: Studies in the History of Labor),以及克里斯多夫·希爾《工業革命的改革》的姊妹篇《工業和帝國》(Industry and Empire)

During this period, Mr. Hobsbawm also wrote jazz criticism for The New Statesman and Nation under the pseudonym Francis Newton, a sly reference to the jazz trumpeter Frankie Newton, an avowed Communist. His jazz writing led to a book, “The Jazz Scene,” published in 1959.

在這個時期,霍布斯鮑姆還以法蘭西斯·牛頓(Francis Newton)為筆名——這個名字來自爵士樂小號手、公開的共產主義者弗蘭基·牛頓(Frankie Newton),為《新政治家與民族》(The New Statesman and Nation)雜誌撰寫爵士音樂評論文章。他甚至寫了一本關於爵士樂的專著,書名為《爵士風情》(The Jazz Scene),於1959年出版。

If his political allegiances stymied his professional advancement, as he argued in his memoir, honors and recognition eventually came his way. At the University of London, he was finally promoted to a readership in 1959 and was named professor of economic and social history in 1970. After retiring in 1982 he taught at Stanford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cornell University and the New School for Social Research in Manhattan.

如果說政治傾向阻礙了他的職業進展——就像他在自己的回憶錄中所辯稱的,那麼他最終還是得到了榮譽和認可。1959年,他終於在倫敦大學(University of London)升任高級講師,並且于1970年取得經濟和社會史教授頭銜。1982年退休後,他曾在斯坦福大學(Stanford University)、麻省理工學院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)、康奈爾大學(Cornell University)和曼哈頓的社會研究新學院(New School for Social Research)執教。

The accolades for works like his “Age of” trilogy led to membership in learned societies and honorary degrees, but to the end of his life the Communist militant coexisted uneasily with the professional historian.

霍布斯鮑姆的《年代》三部曲所獲得的讚譽,讓他成為諸多學術協會的成員,並獲得各種榮譽學位。然而直到生命盡頭,他作為激進共產主義者的身份,仍不能與專業歷史學家的身份和諧共存。

Not until his 80s, in “The Age of Extremes,” did Mr. Hobsbawm dare turn to the century whose horrific events had shaped his politics. The book was an anguished reckoning with a period he had avoided as a historian because, as he wrote in his memoir, “given the strong official Party and Soviet views about the 20th century, one could not write about anything later than 1917 without the strong likelihood of being denounced as a political heretic.”

直到80多歲時,霍布斯鮑姆才敢在《極端的年代》一書中回顧20世紀,這個世紀發生的一次次駭人聽聞的大事件,塑造了他的政治理念。這本書是對其作為歷史學家此前一直回避的時代的一次痛苦的清算,正如他在回憶錄中所寫的,“鑒於党和蘇聯對於20世紀的強烈正式觀點,要是寫1917年以後的任何東西,就有很大可能被譴責為一個政治異端。”

 Mr. Hobsbawm continued to write well into his 90s, appearing frequently in The New York Review of Books and other periodicals. His “How to Change the World: Tales of Marx and Marxism” was published last year, and “Fractured Times,” a collection of essays on 20th-century culture and society, is scheduled to be published by Little, Brown in Britain in March 2013.

霍布斯鮑姆直到90多歲還繼續寫作,經常為《紐約書評》和其他期刊撰文。他所著的《如何改朝換代:馬克思及馬克思主義的故事》(How to Change the World: Tales of Marx and Marxism)一書去年剛剛出版,而另外一本描寫20世紀文化和社會的文集——《斷裂的時代》(Fractured Times)——也計畫於20133月由英國利特爾布朗出版社出版發行。

Although increasingly on the defensive, and quite willing to say that the great Communist experiment had not only failed but had been doomed from the start, Mr. Hobsbawm refused to recant or, many critics complained, to face up to the human misery it had created. “Historical understanding is what I’m after, not agreement, approval, or sympathy,” he wrote in his memoir.

雖然日趨處於守勢,而且相當願意承認宏大的共產主義實驗不僅失敗了,而且從一開始就註定會失敗,但是霍布斯鮑姆還是拒絕承認,或者像許多批評人士所抱怨的那樣,拒絕面對這場共產主義實驗帶給人類的苦難。“我所追求的是對歷史的理解,不是對歷史的認可、贊同,或同情,”他在回憶錄中這樣寫道。

In 1994, he shocked viewers when, in an interview with Michael Ignatieff on the BBC, he said that the deaths of millions of Soviet citizens under Stalin would have been worth it if a genuine Communist society had been the result.

1994年,他在BBC上接受歷史學家邁克爾·伊格納季耶夫(Michael Ignatieff)採訪時語出驚人。他說,如果一個真正的共產主義社會能夠誕生,那麼史達林所殺害的數百萬蘇聯公民的死還是值得的。

The greatest price he will pay is to be remembered not as Eric J. Hobsbawm the historian but as Eric J. Hobsbawm the unrepentant Communist historian,” Mr. Judt said. “It’s unfair and it’s a pity, but that is the cross he will bear.”

“他將付出的最大的代價是,他將作為頑固不化的共產主義歷史學家,而不是歷史學家,被人銘記,”朱特說,“這不公平,也很不幸,但這是他必須背負的十字架。”

Copyright © 2013 The New York Times Company. All rights reserved.
本文最初發表於2012101日。

翻譯:陳亦亭、葉凡非

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