2016年7月9日 星期六

愛德華‧威爾森文集及Naturalist By "E. O." Wilson 回憶錄《大自然的獵人:博物學家威爾森》


National Book Award Finalist. How did humanity originate and why does a species like ours exist on this planet? Do we have a special place, even a destiny in the universe? Where are we going, and perhaps, the most difficult question of all, "Why?"
In The Meaning of Human Existence, his most philosophical work to date, Pulitzer Prize–winning biologist Edward O. Wilson grapples with these and other existential questions, examining what makes human beings supremely different from all other species. Searching for meaning in what Nietzsche once called "the rainbow colors" around the outer edges of knowledge and imagination, Wilson takes his readers on a journey, in the process bridging science and philosophy to create a twenty-first-century treatise on human existence—from our earliest inception to a provocative look at what the future of mankind portends.
Continuing his groundbreaking examination of our "Anthropocene Epoch," which he began with The Social Conquest of Earth, described by the New York Times as "a sweeping account of the human rise to domination of the biosphere," here Wilson posits that we, as a species, now know enough about the universe and ourselves that we can begin to approach questions about our place in the cosmos and the meaning of intelligent life in a systematic, indeed, in a testable way.
Once criticized for a purely mechanistic view of human life and an overreliance on genetic predetermination, Wilson presents in The Meaning of Human Existence his most expansive and advanced theories on the sovereignty of human life, recognizing that, even though the human and the spider evolved similarly, the poet's sonnet is wholly different from the spider's web. Whether attempting to explicate "The Riddle of the Human Species," "Free Will," or "Religion"; warning of "The Collapse of Biodiversity"; or even creating a plausible "Portrait of E.T.," Wilson does indeed believe that humanity holds a special position in the known universe.
The human epoch that began in biological evolution and passed into pre-, then recorded, history is now more than ever before in our hands. Yet alarmed that we are about to abandon natural selection by redesigning biology and human nature as we wish them, Wilson soberly concludes that advances in science and technology bring us our greatest moral dilemma since God stayed the hand of Abraham.


PBS NewsHour
Through the years, E.O. Wilson has moved from small insects to big ideas. Now he's sharing a very big idea, one made more urgent by the problems of climate change.

Biologist and Pulitzer winner E.O. Wilson has spent his life studying…
PBS.ORG

HARI SREENIVASAN: Next: Scientist and two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning author Edward O. Wilson first gained fame for his study of ants. Through the years, he’s moved from small insects to big ideas, and now a very big one, one made more urgent by the problems of climate change.
Jeffrey Brown has our profile in his second report from Southern Alabama.
E.O. WILSON, Author, “Half Earth”: I was just a 12-, 13-year-old boy, and it was just a wonderland to me.
JEFFREY BROWN: Edward O. Wilson spent his formative years in Mobile, Alabama, looking for snakes and insects in the surrounding delta.
E.O. WILSON: If I could, I would just do the same thing today that I did then, but it would look funny.
(LAUGHTER)
JEFFREY BROWN: The experience would shape him, as biologist, evolutionary theorist, naturalist, and at age 86 perhaps most important to him now conservationist.
E.O. WILSON: What is man? Storyteller, mythmaker, and destroyer of the living world.
JEFFREY BROWN: His new book, “Half Earth: Our Planet’s Fight For Life,” takes on nothing less than the survival of plant and animal life on earth.
E.O. WILSON: Yearning to be more master than steward of the declining planet.
JEFFREY BROWN: Wilson’s solution is in the title, setting aside half the Earth as natural habitat.
We spoke beneath the old live oak trees at Fort Blakeley Historic Park, where Wilson’s great-grandfather fought in one of the last battles of the Civil War.
Half Earth. Are you serious?
E.O. WILSON: I’m serious. I know it sounds radical, but we must have it if we’re going to save most of the species remaining on Earth. And it’s easier to do than most people might think.
JEFFREY BROWN: It sounds impossible. It sounds for some people crazy.
E.O. WILSON: I was just going to use the word insane.
JEFFREY BROWN: Yes.
E.O. WILSON: Yes, it sounds that way, because they envision cutting the Earth into two hemispheres, one for us and one for the other 10 million species. But, no, we mean giving 50 percent or setting it aside, patches, some large wilderness areas, others far, far smaller, in order to make that amount of reserve area.
JEFFREY BROWN: Your ideas on this and what should happen have gotten bigger and bolder.
E.O. WILSON: Well, they have.
My alarm went from yellow to red when I read the papers authored by large numbers of scientists and team efforts that showed just how far off the goal the conservation organizations were, how — all our efforts around the world in slowing down extinction rates.
JEFFREY BROWN: One key to Wilson’s argument is how little we know of life on Earth, only two million species identified out of a total probably closer to 10 million, even as species go extinct at 1,000 times the normal rate, thanks chiefly to human population growth and corresponding habitat loss.
Conservation efforts worldwide have thus far set aside a little more than 15 percent of the Earth for habitat. Wilson would triple that.
E.O. WILSON: We would be taking a first step towards securing enough space and natural habitat to preserve, by my estimate, more than 80 percent of the species left. If we don’t do this, we’re going to go down to 50 percent or more in a fairly short period of time in this century.
JEFFREY BROWN: Wilson is attempting such a thing right here, to give national protection, either a park or wildlife refuge status, to parts of the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta, one of the most biologically diverse areas in North America.
There’s opposition in this conservative state. But Wilson is not deterred.
E.O. WILSON: I think it’s a moral thing to do. I believe morality is going to enter very strongly into what I hope will be a shift of perception and precepts and reasoning about this, that we really should take extra measures to save the rest of life on Earth.
And who are we, one species, to wipe out a majority of the species remaining that live with us on this planet just for — without even thinking about it, for our particular selfish needs?
JEFFREY BROWN: Wilson acknowledges that the world’s population will continue to grow from its current 7.3 billion to around 11 billion, before leveling out. But he thinks advancements in technology will help shrink our ecological footprint.
So what are the stakes?
E.O. WILSON: The stakes are the future of life, the future of the living part of the environment.
Mind you, we are beginning to make meaningful progress toward controlling the forces of climate change and of pollution. And the other parts of the nonliving environment that have been causing a large part of the destruction.
If we allow the living part of the environment to disappear, for me, it would be by future generations regarded as one of the most catastrophic, even evil periods in human history, for our descendants to look back and say, they wiped out half or more of all of the rest of life on Earth, the variety of life on Earth.
JEFFREY BROWN: A thoroughly depressing prospect. But to spend a day with Edward Wilson is anything but depressing.
E.O. WILSON: Science needs to have a goal and actually achieve that goal. We really want to see on the front page of the newspaper scientists announce cure for cancer, or cure for lung cancer, shall we say?
What galvanizes public support and puts spirit into it is to say, this is the goal that we must reach. Let’s set that goal, and let’s get there.
JEFFREY BROWN: From Fort Blakeley Historic Park outside Mobile, Alabama, I’m Jeffrey Brown for the “PBS NewsHour.”



Edward Osborne "E. O.Wilson FMLS[1] (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist, researcher (sociobiologybiodiversityisland biogeography), theorist (consiliencebiophilia), naturalist (conservationist) and author. His biological specialty ismyrmecology, the study of ants, on which he is considered to be the world's leading expert.[2][3]
Wilson is known for his scientific career, his role as "the father of sociobiology" and "the father of biodiversity",[4] his environmental advocacy, and his secular-humanist anddeist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters.[5] Among his greatest contributions to ecological theory is the theory of island biogeography, which he developed in collaboration with the mathematical ecologist Robert MacArthur, and which is seen as the foundation of the development of conservation area design, as well as the unified neutral theory of biodiversity of Stephen Hubbell.
Wilson is (2014) the Pellegrino University Research Professor, Emeritus in Entomology for the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, a lecturer at Duke University,[6] and a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. He is a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism.[7][8] He is a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction and a New York Times bestseller for The Social Conquest of Earth,[9] Letters to a Young Scientist,[9] and The Meaning of Human Existence.


主な著書[編集]




Anthill: A Novel, April 2010, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc 《蟻丘之歌》邱思華 譯,台中 :晨星出版社

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Naturalist By "E. O." Wilson 回憶錄 (66歲,2015年86歲)《大自然的獵人:博物學家威爾森》----1997年,天下文化出版社的極盛年,初刷7000本,482頁,定價才380元。喜歡擅改原書名,也是其作風。金恆鑣先生的導讀《獨具慧眼的田野生物學家 》很可一讀。

有哪位諾貝爾桂冠級的科學家,拿過報導文學的最高榮譽「普立茲」獎,而且還拿了兩次?誰擁有「社會生物學之父」、「生物多樣性之父」的雙料尊稱?誰能號稱全球研究螞蟻的泰斗?有誰能坐著邊聽老師講課、邊捉蒼蠅,平均每分鐘活捉一隻?
答案的是E.O.Wilson
「演化生物學」是他命名的;「生物地理學」在他手中發揚光大;把人類視為社會性動物的「社會生物學」則由他開門立派,招來眾人踢館;威爾森還竭力推動攸關生態保育的「生物多樣性」理念,後來則成為地球高峰會的主旨;而「親生命性」概念的提出,更是威爾森急欲為保育倫理打下的恆久基石。
本書是威爾森的「六十六自述」,充滿濃郁的散文韻味、自然野趣、機敏和深刻思想。「獵人」這回出手,依然不同凡響,《紐約時報書評》1994好書的榮銜,當之無愧!

目錄

  • 導讀 獨具慧眼的田野生物學家 金恆鑣
  • 作者序 大自然,她不斷變化著
  • 第一部 南方之晨
    • 第一章 天堂海灘
    • 第二章 把小男孩托給我們
    • 第三章 角落裡的亮光
    • 第四章 神奇的小天地
    • 第五章 盡我職責
    • 第六章 阿拉巴馬之夢
    • 第七章 獵人
    • 第八章 南方再見
    • 第九章 前進熱帶
  • 第二部 說故事的人
    • 第十章 南太平洋巡禮
    • 第十一章 未知事物的形態
    • 第十二章 分子大戰
    • 第十三章 麥克亞瑟與地理生態學
    • 第十四章 佛羅里達珊瑚群島實驗
    • 第十五章 螞蟻
    • 第十六章 投效社會生物學
    • 第十七章 社會生物學大論戰
    • 第十八章 親切繽紛的生命
  • 附錄 延伸閱讀


"The world's most evolved biologist."
28分鐘

E O Wilson has been described as the "world's most evolved biologist" and even as "the heir to Darwin". He's a passionate naturalist and an absolute world authority on ants. Over his long career he's described 450 new species of ants.

Known to many as the founding father of socio-biology, E O Wilson is a big hitter in the world of evolutionary theory. But, recently he's criticised what's popularly known as The Selfish Gene theory of evolution that he once worked so hard to promote (and that now underpins the mainstream view on evolution).

A twice Pulitzer prize winning author of more than 20 books, he's also an extremely active campaigner for the preservation of the planet's bio-diversity: he says, "destroying rainforest for economic gain is like burning a Renaissance painting to cook a meal".

Ants, altruism and evolution
BBC.IN

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