2015年10月23日 星期五

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

柯立芝 (Coleridge )在倫敦講英國文學時,提到Samuel Johnson 博士有天晚上回家,碰到有一女子昏倒路旁,他就將她背回自己的家,讓她醒過來,餵養之,讓她住到復原為止。柯立芝的時髦聽眾譁然,男的樂了,女的震驚。
柯立芝只說"請諸君記起好撒馬利亞人的比喻。"I  remind you of the Parable of the Good Samaritan.中文眾人就靜下來。大家都有共同的文化背景,能了解這比喻的意思。
-- Of What Use the Classics Today By Jacques Barzun

(...Bible, meaning going out of one's way to help, but this does not necessarily mean he is 優しい, which means that he is gentle of disposition and sweet-tempered. ...

The parable of the Good Samaritan is a parable told by Jesus and is mentioned in only one of the gospels of the New Testament. According to the Gospel of Luke (10:29–37a traveller (who may or may not have been a Jew[1]) is stripped of clothing, beaten, and left half dead along the road. First a priest and then a Levite come by, but both avoid the man. Finally, a Samaritan comes by. Samaritans and Jews generally despised each other, but the Samaritan helps the injured man. Jesus is described as telling the parable in response to a question regarding the identity of the "neighbour", whom Leviticus 19:18 says should be loved.



好撒馬利亞人的比喻英語Parable of the Good Samaritan)是基督教文化中一個很著名的成語口頭語,意為:好心人、見義勇為者
它來源於《路加福音第10章第25-37節中耶穌講的寓言:一個猶太人被強盜打劫,受了重傷。躺在路邊。有祭司利未人路過但不聞不問。惟有一個撒馬利亞人路過,不顧隔閡,動了慈心照應他。在需要離開時自己出錢把猶太人送進旅店的故事。
以猶太人為主體的聽眾,撒馬利亞人一般說來含有貶義。因為撒馬利亞人(北國以色列)受到宗教的約束比較少。他們崇拜偶像,與異族通婚,為南國猶大王國的人所不認同。他們雖然是兄弟,但因為數百年的分裂、競爭、甚至戰爭,早已變成了仇敵。在民間,撒馬利亞人與猶太人互相不交往長達數百年。
耶穌用這個寓言說明,鑑別人的標準是人心而不是人的身份。猶太人自己的祭司和利未人雖然是神職人員但見死不救。仇敵卻成了救命恩人,見義勇為者。

該寓言對西方法律制度的影響是,許多國家制定了「好撒馬利亞人法」,用立法手段保護做好事的人。例如在美國加拿大,急救人士在搶救傷者過程中或其後對方死亡,可以運用此法案撤銷死者家屬對治療者的法律起訴,從而鼓勵旁觀者對傷、病人士施以幫助。)

Samuel Taylor Coleridge was born in Ottery St Mary, Devon, England on this day in 1772.
"Frost At Midnight" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
The Frost performs its secret ministry,
Unhelped by any wind. The owlet's cry
Came loud--and hark, again ! loud as before.
The inmates of my cottage, all at rest,
Have left me to that solitude, which suits
Abstruser musings : save that at my side
My cradled infant slumbers peacefully.
'Tis calm indeed ! so calm, that it disturbs
And vexes meditation with its strange
And extreme silentness. Sea, hill, and wood,
This populous village ! Sea, and hill, and wood,
With all the numberless goings-on of life,
Inaudible as dreams ! the thin blue flame
Lies on my low-burnt fire, and quivers not ;
Only that film, which fluttered on the grate,
Still flutters there, the sole unquiet thing.
Methinks, its motion in this hush of nature
Gives it dim sympathies with me who live,
Making it a companionable form,
Whose puny flaps and freaks the idling Spirit
By its own moods interprets, every where
Echo or mirror seeking of itself,
And makes a toy of Thought.
[Image] [Image] [Image] [Image]But O ! how oft,
How oft, at school, with most believing mind,
Presageful, have I gazed upon the bars,
To watch that fluttering stranger ! and as oft
With unclosed lids, already had I dreamt
Of my sweet birth-place, and the old church-tower,
Whose bells, the poor man's only music, rang
From morn to evening, all the hot Fair-day,
So sweetly, that they stirred and haunted me
With a wild pleasure, falling on mine ear
Most like articulate sounds of things to come !
So gazed I, till the soothing things, I dreamt,
Lulled me to sleep, and sleep prolonged my dreams !
And so I brooded all the following morn,
Awed by the stern preceptor's face, mine eye
Fixed with mock study on my swimming book :
Save if the door half opened, and I snatched
A hasty glance, and still my heart leaped up,
For still I hoped to see the stranger's face,
Townsman, or aunt, or sister more beloved,
My play-mate when we both were clothed alike !
Dear Babe, that sleepest cradled by my side,
Whose gentle breathings, heard in this deep calm,
Fill up the intersperséd vacancies
And momentary pauses of the thought !
My babe so beautiful ! it thrills my heart
With tender gladness, thus to look at thee,
And think that thou shalt learn far other lore,
And in far other scenes ! For I was reared
In the great city, pent 'mid cloisters dim,
And saw nought lovely but the sky and stars.
But thou, my babe ! shalt wander like a breeze
By lakes and sandy shores, beneath the crags
Of ancient mountain, and beneath the clouds,
Which image in their bulk both lakes and shores
And mountain crags : so shalt thou see and hear
The lovely shapes and sounds intelligible
Of that eternal language, which thy God
Utters, who from eternity doth teach
Himself in all, and all things in himself.
Great universal Teacher ! he shall mould
Thy spirit, and by giving make it ask.
Therefore all seasons shall be sweet to thee,
Whether the summer clothe the general earth
With greenness, or the redbreast sit and sing
Betwixt the tufts of snow on the bare branch
Of mossy apple-tree, while the nigh thatch
Smokes in the sun-thaw ; whether the eave-drops fall
Heard only in the trances of the blast,
Or if the secret ministry of frost
Shall hang them up in silent icicles,
Quietly shining to the quiet Moon.
*
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) was the master impresario of English Romanticism -- an enormously erudite and tireless critic, lecturer, and polemicist who almost single-handedly created the intellectual climate in which the Romantic movement was received and understood. He was also, in poems such as 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,' 'Christabel,' and 'Kubla Khan.' the most uncanny, surreal, and startling of the great English poets.

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