2016年7月10日 星期日

哈德良回憶錄/ 哈德里安回憶錄Memoirs of Hadrian / Marguerite Yourcenar : Inventing a Life


M. Yourcenar法文本 英文本都自己寫.....
 哈德里安回憶錄尤瑟娜(Marguerite Yourcenar)原作 ; 洪藤月譯  台北市 : 光復, 1988[民77]附錄 : 「哈德里安回憶錄」札記等2種



The Roman emperor Hadrian died ‪#‎onthisday‬ in AD 138. Hadrian was a champion of Egyptian and Greek culture and visited Egypt in AD 130. During this visit, his Greek lover Antinous drowned in the Nile. Hadrian later founded a new city, Antinoopolis, at the site of his death. Antinous was venerated as the god Osiris-Antinous and this new saviour god became popular across the empire http://ow.ly/2dhA3023RbO
Learn more about the deep connections between the great ancient civilisations of Egypt and Greece in our ‪#‎SunkenCities‬ exhibitionhttp://ow.ly/bbtv3023SvL



A tour of Hadrian's Villa with Dr. Bernard Frischer

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nu_6X04EGHk



Marguerite Yourcenar : Inventing a Life
作者/Josyane Savigneau
译者/Joan E. Howard
出版社/University of Chicago Press 文/etile

玛格丽特 尤瑟娜(Marguerite Yourcenar, 1903-1987)是二十世纪法国与美国文坛上的重要作家,「才气纵横」四个字也许还不足以说明她的早慧与知识性写作风格。没有受过正式教育的尤瑟娜,却以史料丰富、哲学内蕴深刻的历史小说闻名,并在1980年3月6日成为法兰西学院建立以来第一位获选的女性成员。

尤瑟娜生长在法国与比利时混血的家庭,也算是法国贵族的后代。比利时籍的母亲才生下她没几天就过世,此后在家接受教育、博览众书,十几岁就开始随父亲周游欧洲各国,并且创作诗文。父亲死后留下可观的财富,让尤瑟娜得以专心在历史与哲学、艺术与形象等等的领域专研,1938年的《Oriental Tales》(《东方故事集》)便显出了她对东方哲学的理解。是个人生命际遇,也是世界局势使然,尤瑟娜在二次世界大战前都过着这种游牧式的生活:1930年代她旅居意大利,写了本关于刺杀墨索里尼的小说《DENIER DU REVE》,揭示了严酷政权下意大利人民生活的面向与心理;1947大战结束后,她归化成为美国公民。

尤瑟娜继承父亲对古希腊罗马文艺的兴趣,不但懂希腊文,还拥有相当多的东西方古典知识;她最广为人知的巨作《Memoirs of Hadrian》(《哈德里安回忆录》,1951年)就是以公元二世纪的罗马皇帝Hadrian为主角,用书信的方式交错想象与真实。Hadrian是罗马帝国衰亡前最后一个伟大君王,故事从他将死的那一晚开始,罗马帝国的政治哲学和知识分子的心理思想都展现其中。1968年的著作《The Abyss》(《深渊》)则是关于一位十六世纪的学者兼炼金术士Zeno的想象自传,他是包括达文西在内多位文艺复兴时期大师的综合体,在游历中一路寻求真理。尤瑟娜的历史小说,绝大部分挑选的是古之又古的时代,普通人只能透过教科书得到粗浅又无趣的认识,她却可以消化繁复的古典文献、活生生的重现这些时代,让这些人物的内心活动细致而各具特色,彷佛与我们的关系一点也不远。尤瑟娜说过,许多现代面临的重大问题,历史上早已发生;所以用历史来表现现实,可以更深刻的转化处理人类的道德、命运、权力等诸多永恒议题。

在历史小说的成就和东方艺术哲学的兴趣之外,她本人的性倾向也备受关注,许多读者认为她也是法国当代重要的同志小说家。在她笔下,Hadrian和Zeno都具有男同性恋者的形象;现实生活里,尤瑟娜一生未婚,却和一些女性和男同性恋者有过密切的交谊。不过,尤瑟娜并非露骨或焦点式的处理同性恋,而毋宁是一种哲学化的追寻探究,有些评论者便认为,她笔下的主人公往往在世俗的要求与自己内心的专志所求间徘徊,而历史上的关键时刻适时凸显了这样的冲突。中国大陆小说家陈染特别喜欢尤瑟娜,称她是位「有力度、有厚重感」的女作家,「逻辑缜密而场面恢弘」,1993出版的传记则说她是位「天生的发明家」(多么有趣,「发明」、再创了历史);

****

大門前的庭院樹前,奠有一紀念尤瑟娜(Marguerite Yourcenar)的刻石。這裡的人懷念已世的她,並將園前小路以她命名。她曾為哈德良皇帝寫了一本回憶錄,如同把一些豐潤、純淨的聲音從遙遠的歷史陰影中召喚回來。



Marguerite Yourcenar 的哈德良回憶錄 兩岸都有譯本

 尤瑟娜曾為哈德良發問︰在我人生遙遠的地平線上,因某人的犧牲奉獻,而形成一個微弱的亮光冷冷閃爍著,此微光卻不會使世界更美麗,也不會使我的人生更完美。於此,我不知如何為這種善意的自我犧牲命名?  無法命名,亦不必命名,僅僅發問便夠了。我必須向文學家致上最深的致意,容或我才是最自私的人,哈德良皇帝在我死後深陷入深深的悲慟,他盡畢生之力只為了紀念一個為他而死之人。



 「一個人擁有一切,不知疾苦,歲數大了,就盲目粗魯起來。我何德享有此等厚福?安提諾烏斯(Antinous)已魂歸西天。在羅馬城內,那些人都認為我太寵他了,其實我愛他愛得不夠,才沒能讓少年人肯繼續活下去。
 他的死是一種獻身予我的方式,心中因此感到既驚懼又歡喜。也唯有我一人才能衡量,在情深處,又有多少的酸澀,在自我犧牲之下,又隱藏著多 少的絕望,又有多少恨意夾雜在愛意之中,被我羞辱的少年人丟回給我的,是他忠誠不二的憑據,害怕失去我的少年人,以這方式讓我永遠眷戀他。」


Memoirs of Hadrian by Marguerite Yourcenar

瑪格麗特 尤瑟娜(Marguerite Yourcenar, 1903-1987
「她最廣為人知的巨作《哈德里安回憶錄》(Mémoires d'Hadrien (1951 ) 《哈德良回憶錄》 Memoirs of Hadrian),1951年出版),就是以西元二世紀的羅馬皇帝Hadrian為主角,用書信的方式交錯想像與真實。」
學建築藝術者,多半知道他最著名的遺澤:羅馬萬神殿。許多年前看W. L. MacDonald著的The Pantheon,以前沒有仔細讀它,成為藏書。後來又看到日本名建築師說每到羅馬,必謁它。
http://www.answers.com/topic/pantheon-rome?
看了談這「廟」的天光等等,才再努力將The Pantheon好好讀一次。書中引Memoirs of Hadrian 自述(「黃金時代」(saeculum aureum )章,緬懷永恆………
(頂好的大天窗,其實是日晷,光投過處,猶如時光之足跡。它像人類最古的爐灶的炊煙,通過一個開在屋脊的圓孔飄散出去。)
On the same day, with graver solemnity, as if muted, a dedicatory ceremony took place inside the Pantheon. I myself had revised the architectural plans, drawn with too little daring by Apollodorus: utilizing the arts of Greece only ...structure to primitive, fabled times of Rome, to the round temples of ancient Etruria. My intention had been that this sanctuary of All Gods should reproduce the likeness of the terrestrial globe and of the stellar sphere, that globe wherein are enclosed the seeds of eternal fire, and that hollow sphere containing all.
Mémoires d'Hadrien is a novel by French writer Marguerite Yourcenar describing the life and death of the Roman emperor Hadrian, who meditates on his military triumphs, love of poetry and music and his philosophy and his passion for his lover Antinous, capturing what Gustave Flaubert calls "the melancholy of the antique world." The book was published in France in French in 1951 and was an immediate success, meeting with enormous critical acclaim.



Hadrian: Empire and Conflict is at the British Museum,

From
July 20, 2008

Hadrian: Empire and Conflict at the British Museum

The BM’s Hadrian show couldn’t be more timely. His political problems were just like ours



Hadrian's Memoirs
Mémoires d'Hadrien is a novel by French writer Marguerite Yourcenar describing the life and death of the Roman emperor Hadrian, who meditates on his military triumphs, love of poetry and music and his philosophy and his passion for his lover Antinous, capturing what Gustave Flaubert calls "the melancholy of the antique world." The book was published in France in French in 1951 and was an immediate success, meeting with enormous critical acclaim.
The real Hadrian did pen an autobiography which has been lost to history.
http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0374503486/ref=sib_rdr_toc/002-6081788-8559223?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S00A&j=0#reader-page

Quotations

"Of all our games, love's play is the only one which threatens to unsettle our soul, and is also the only one in which the player has to abandon himself to the body's ecstasy. …Nailed to the beloved body like a slave to a cross, I have learned some secrets of life which are now dimmed in my memory by the operation of that same law which ordained that the convalescent, once cured, ceases to understand the mysterious truths laid bare by illness, and that the prisoner, set free, forgets his torture, or the conqueror, his triumph passed, forgets his glory".
"Like everyone else I have at my disposal only three means of evaluating human existence: the study of self, which is the most difficult and most dangerous method, but also the most fruitful; the observation of our fellowmen, who usually arrange to hide secrets where none exist; and books, with the particular errors of perspective to which they inevitably give rise."
the horse's mouth, April 3, 2003
Reviewer: marzipan "panchild" (Greenwich, CT United States) - See all my reviews
So many reviews have commented on how remarkable this book is that it's difficult to add anything to what has been said. It is a wonderful book, one to read again and again. I'm only making an attempt to add something because for me the most amazing aspect of this very great (and completely enjoyable) historical novel was how I forgot, while reading, that the author was not Hadrian himself. I can't think of any book where an author has so convincingly vanished behind the main character. Hadrian speaks! I also found the book easy to start reading and hard to put down
At the end of his life, looking back through his memoir as imagined by Marguerite Yourcenar, the emperor doesn't try to create a picture of a man who is flawless. This most thoughtful leader was far from that. But by accepting himself as he was, he had the courage to lead.
Any visitor to Rome feels the soul of the Emperor Hadrian, particularly, I think, in his most remarkable monument, the Pantheon. This is a book all travelers to Rome should read--before and after the visit.
Marguerite Yourcenar
Marguerite Yourcenar was the pseudonym of French novelist , Marguerite de Crayencour ( June 8, 1903 - December 17, 1987 ). Yourcenar was born in Brussels, Belgium , and educated privately to a prodigious standard. She read Racine and Aristophanes by the age of eight and her father taught her Latin at ten, and Greek at twelve.
Her first novel Alexis was published in 1929. Her intimate friend and companion, the translator Grace Frick invited her to America, where she lectured in comparative literature in New York City. In 1951 she published, in France, the French-language novel Mémoires d'Hadrien (translated as Hadrian's Memoirs), which she had been writing with pauses for a decade. The novel was an immediate success and met with great critical acclaim. In this novel Yourcenar recreated the life and death of one of the great rulers of the ancient world, the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who writes a long letter to Marcus Aurelius, his successor and adoptive son. The Emperor meditates on his past, describes his triumphs and love for Antinous, his philosophy. This novel has become a modern classic, a standard against which fictional recreations of Antiquity are measured.
Yourcenar was elected as the first woman to the Academie Française. One of the respected writers in French language, she published many novels, essays, poetry, and three volumes of memoirs.
Yourcenar lived much of her life at Petite Plaisance in Northeast Harbor on Mount Desert Island, Maine. Petite Plaisance is now a museum dedicated to her memory.

Works

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