Richard Lehan 《文學中的城市》The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History: Richard ...1998 上海人民 2008
Richard Daniel Lehan - 1998 - Literary CriticismLITERATURE/URBAN STUDIES "Richard Lehan's is the first book to tackle, head
---《 柏 德 遜 》p.266
WC.威廉斯【柏德遜】(初版, 阿爾泰出版社, 譯者, 翱翱 (張錯) ...1978
《 柏 德 遜 》 (Paterson by William Carlos Williams)( 台 北 黎 明?? ， 1978)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediapoem by influential modern American poet William Carlos Williams.
The poem is composed of five books and a fragment of a sixth book. The five books of Paterson were published separately in 1946, 1948, 1949, 1951, and 1958, and the entire work was published as a unit in 1963. This book is considered to be Williams' epic. Williams' book In the American Grain is claimed to be Paterson's abstracted introduction involving a rewritten American history. It is a poetic monument to, and personification of, the city of Paterson, New Jersey. However, as a whole the three main topics of the poem are Paterson the Man, Paterson the City, and Identity. The theme of the poem being centered in an in-depth look at the process of modernization and its effects.
 CompositionWilliams saw the poet as a type of reporter, who relays the news of the world to the people. He prepared for the writing of Paterson in this way:
I started to make trips to the area. I walked around the streets; I went on Sundays in summer when the people were using the park, and I listened to their conversation as much as I could. I saw whatever they did, and made it part of the poem.While writing the poem, Williams struggled to find ways to incorporate the real world facts obtained through his research into the poem. On a worksheet for the poem, he wrote, "Make it factual (as the Life is factual-almost casual-always sensual-usually visual: related to thought)". Williams considered, but ultimately rejected, putting footnotes into the work describing some facts. Still, the style of the poem allowed for many opportunities to incorporate 'factual information', including portions of his own correspondence with the American poet Marcia Nardi and fellow New Jersey poet Allen Ginsberg .
- ^ Bollard, Margaret Lloyd (1975). "The "Newspaper Landscape" of Williams' "Paterson"". Contemporary Literature (University of Wisconsin Press) 16 (3): 317. doi:10.2307/1207405. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-7484%28197522%2916%3A3%3C317%3AT%22LOW%22%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3.
- ^ Bollard (1975), p. 320
William Carlos Williams was born on September 17, 1883, in Rutherford, New Jersey. His father had emigrated from Birmingham, England, and his mother (whose mother Basque and whose father was of Dutch-Spanish-Jewish descent) from Puerto Rico. Williams attended schools in Rutherford until 1897, when he was sent for two years to a school near Geneva and to the Lycée Condorcet in Paris. On his return he attended the Horace Mann High School in New York City. After having passed a special examination, he was admitted in 1902 to the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania. There he met two poets, Hilda Doolittle and Ezra Pound. The latter friendship had a permanent effect; Williams said he could divide his life into Before Pound and After Pound.
Williams did his internship in New York City from 1906 to 1909, writing verse in between patients. He published a first book, Poems, in 1909. Then he went to Peipzig in 1909 to study pediatrics, and after that retuned to Rutherford to practice medicine there for the rest of his life. In 1912 he married Florence Herman (or "Flossie"). In 1913 Pound secured a London publisher for Williams' second book, The Tempers. But his first distinctly original book was Al Que Quiere! (To Him Who Wants It!), published in Boston in 1917. In the following years he wrote not only poems but short stories, novels, essays, and an autobiography. In 1946 he began the fulfillment of a long-standing plan, to write an epic poem, with the publication of Paterson, Book I. The three following books appeared in 1948, 1949, and 1951; in 1952 he suffered a crippling stroke, which forced him to give up his medical practice and drastically limited his ability to write. Nonetheless he continued to so so, producing an unanticipated fifth book of Paterson in 1958 as well as shorter poems. He died in Rutherford in March 4, 1963. Two months later his last book of lyrics won the Pulitzer prize for poetry.
***帕特森 （Paterson, New Jersey）是美國新澤西州巴賽克縣縣治。面積22.6平方公里，2006年人口148,708人，是該州第三大城市。
In 1791, Alexander Hamilton helped found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures (S.U.M.), which helped encourage the harnessing of energy from the Great Falls of the Passaic, to secure economic independence from British manufacturers. Paterson, which was founded by the society, became the cradle of the industrial revolution in America. Paterson was named for William Paterson, Governor of New Jersey, statesman, and signer of the Constitution.
French architect, engineer, and city planner Pierre L'Enfant, who developed the plans for Washington, D.C., was the first superintendent for the S.U.M. project. He devised a plan, which would harness the power of the Great Falls through a channel in the rock and an aqueduct. However, the society's directors felt he was taking too long and was over budget. He was replaced by Peter Colt, who used a less-complicated reservoir system to get the water flowing to factories in 1794. Eventually, Colt's system developed some problems and a scheme resembling L'Enfant's original plan was used after 1846. L'Enfant, meanwhile, brought his city plans with him when he designed Washington, and that city's layout resembles the plan he wanted to develop for Paterson.
The industries developed in Paterson were powered by the 77-foot high Great Falls, and a system of water raceways that harnessed the power of the falls. The city began growing around the falls and until 1914 the mills were powered by the waterfalls. The district originally included dozens of mill buildings and other manufacturing structures associated with the textile industry and later, the firearms, silk, and railroad locomotive manufacturing industries. In the latter half of the 19th century, silk production became the dominant industry and formed the basis of Paterson's most prosperous period, earning it the nickname "Silk City." In 1835, Samuel Colt began producing firearms in Paterson, although within a few years he moved his business to Hartford, Connecticut. Later in the 19th century, Paterson was the site of early experiments with submarines by Irish-American inventor John Holland. Two of Holland's early models — one found at the bottom of the Passaic River — are on display in the Paterson Museum, housed in the former Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works near the Passaic Falls.
The city was a mecca for immigrant laborers who worked in its factories as well. Paterson was also the site of historic labor unrest that focused on anti-child labor legislation, and the six-month long Paterson silk strike of 1913 that demanded the eight-hour day and better working conditions, but was defeated by the employers with workers forced to return under pre-strike conditions. Factory workers labored long hours for low wages under dangerous conditions, and lived in crowded tenement buildings around the mills. The factories then moved south where there were no labor unions, and later moved overseas.
In 1932, Paterson opened Hinchliffe Stadium, a 10,000-seat stadium named in honor of John V. Hinchliffe, the mayor at the time. Hinchliffe originally served as the site for high school and professional athletic events. From 1933–1937, 1939–1945, Hinchliffe was the home of the New York Black Yankees and from 1935-36 the home of the New York Cubans of the Negro National League. The historic ballpark was also a venue for many professional football games, track and field events, boxing matches and auto and motorcycle racing.Abbott and Costello performed at Hinchliffe prior to boxing matches. Hinchliffe is one of only three Negro League stadiums left standing in the United States, and is on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1963, Paterson Public Schools acquired the stadium and used it for public school events until 1997, but it is currently in a state of disrepair, while the schools have been taken over by the state.
During World War II Paterson played an important part in the aircraft engine industry. By the end of WWII, however, there was a decline in urban areas and Paterson was no exception, and since the 1970s the city has suffered high unemployment rates.
Once a premier shopping and leisure destination of northern New Jersey, competition from the malls in upscale neighboring towns like Wayne and Paramus have forced the big-chain stores out of Paterson’s downtown. The biggest industries are now small businesses because the factories have moved overseas. However, the city still, as always, attracts many immigrants. Many of these immigrants have revived the city's economy especially through small businesses.
The downtown area was struck by massive fires several times, most recently Jan. 17, 1991. In this fire, a near full city block (bordered on the north and south by Main and Washington Street and on the east and west by Ellison Street and College Boulevard, a stretch of Van Houten Street that is dominated by Passaic County Community College) was engulfed in flames due to an electrical fire in the basement of a bar at 161 Main Street and spread to other buildings. Firefighter John A. Nicosia, 28, of Engine 4, went missing in the fire, having gotten lost in the basement. His body was located two days later. A plaque honoring his memory was later placed on a wall near the area. The area was so badly damaged that most of the burned buildings were demolished, with an outdoor mall standing in their place. The most notable of the destroyed buildings was the Meyer Brothers department store, which closed in 1987 and since had been parceled out.