2017年1月31日 星期二

Book Director,;The Vast Library of Congress Card Catalog Is Gathering Dust in the Basement

「動漫業界的人坐下畫畫的時間特別長 ,很多人有腰酸背痛 的問題 。這些人對頸椎保養 、身體鍛鍊方面的書感興趣 。第二 ,業界 的報酬普遍不是特別高 ,為了節省午餐費用 ,帶便當的人也不少 。這 些人想看看便當菜譜的書或常備菜那種食譜 。還有 ,因為剛搬遷過 來 ,大家對中野這個地方不熟悉 ,所以介紹中野商店街的雜誌 、JR 中央線附近的散步地圖也很受歡迎 。」
「有限公司BACH」代表 、Book Director,媒體如此介紹幅允孝。Book Director,可譯為「選書師」或「選書家」,也有人管 他叫「書店陳列設計師 」。幅允孝的工作確實是「選書 」和「陳 列 」的綜合 ,但並不僅僅是如此而已…
READ01.COM|作者:壹讀

~~~~
Library of Congress employees fought hard to keep the old cards around as a backup, so down they went into the basement.


There’s an abandoned bibliographic gem in the basement of the Library of Congress.
ATLASOBSCURA.COM

2017年1月30日 星期一

John Berger: Collected Poems

John Berger was born in London in 1926. In 1972 he won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and the Booker Prize for his novel G. In 2009 he was awarded the Golden PEN award by London PEN for a lifetime’s contribution to literature. He lives in a village in Haute-Savoie the French Alps.


John Berger: Collected Poems

Novelist, draughtsman, film-maker, essayist and critic – John Berger is one of the major European intellectuals of our time. For sixty years he has been challenging the way we see the world and how we think about it, in books like Ways of SeeingPermanent RedTo the WeddingA Painter of Our TimePig EarthOnce in EuropaLilac and Flag and From A to X. But although Berger has always written poetry, often smuggling poems inside books like The Seventh ManThe White Bird and Pages of the Wound, this is the first time his poetry has been collected in English.
Collected Poems reflects Berger’s longstanding concerns with art and politics, love and war, history and memory, emigration, immigration and the life of the European peasantry. It includes well-known poems like ‘The Ladle’, ‘Village Maternity’ and ‘Death of La Nan M.’ as well over twenty previously unpublished poems. From ‘My Coney’ (written in 1952 when Berger was just twenty-six) to ‘They Are the Last’ written in 2008, Berger the poet demonstrates an enduring commitment to the extraordinary lives of ordinary people. These are perfectly framed still-life images, sensual and plain, delicate sketches of hard lives caught between the provisional quality of language and the permanence of things. John Berger’s Collected Poems reveals its author to be a major poet of our time.

Sample Poems


Redder every day
the leaves of the pear trees.
Tell me what is bleeding.
Not summer
for summer left early.
Not the village
for the village though drunk on its road
has not fallen.
Not my heart
for my heart bleeds no more
than the arnica flower.

Nobody has died this month
or been fortunate enough
to receive a foreign work-permit.
We fed with soup
let sleep in the barn
no more thoughts of suicide
than is normal in November.
Tell me what is bleeding
you who see in the dark.

Hands of the world
amputated by profit
bleed in
streets of bloodsheds.

1983

It seems now that I was so near to that war.
I was born eight years after it ended
When the General Strike had been defeated.

Yet I was born by Very Light and shrapnel
On duck boards
Among limbs without bodies.

I was born of the look of the dead
Swaddled in mustard gas
And fed in a dugout.

I was the groundless hope of survival
With mud between finger and thumb
Born near Abbeville.

I lived the first year of my life
Between the leaves of a pocket bible
Stuffed in a khaki haversack.

I lived the second year of my life
With three photos of a woman
Kept in a standard issue army paybook.

In the third year of my life
At 11am on November 11th 1918
I became all that was conceivable.

Before I could see
Before I could cry out
Before I could go hungry

I was the world fit for heroes to live in.

1970
Writing
crouched beside death
we are his secretaries

Reading by the candle of life
we complete his ledgers

Where he ends,
my colleagues,
we start, either side of the corpse

And when we cite him
we do so
for we know the story is almost over.

1984

Perhaps God resembles the story tellers
loving the feeble more than
the strong
the victors less
than the stricken.
Either way
in weak late October
the forest burns
with the sunshine
of the whole vanished summer.

2004
Pewter pock-marked
moon of the ladle
rising above the mountain
going down into the saucepan
serving generations
steaming
dredging what has grown from seed
in the garden
thickened with potato
outliving us all
on the wooden sky
of the kitchen wall

Serving mother
of the steaming pewter breast
veined by the salts
fed to her children
hungry as boars
with the evening earth
engrained around their nails
and bread the brother
serving mother

Ladle
pour the sky steaming
with the carrot sun
the stars of salt
and the grease of the pig earth
pour the sky steaming
ladle
pour soup for our days
pour sleep for the night
pour years for my children

1977

ル・コルビュジエのインドLe Corbusier, Finding India

Le Corbusier, Finding India 

ル・コルビュジエのインド

彰国社編 ; 北田英治写真. (建築文化シナジー). 彰国社, 2005.6. Other Title. Le Corbusierfinding India. ルコルビュジエのインド
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandigarh

海明威 Ernest Hemingway《老人與海》






アーネストヘミングウェイ
Ibcパブリッシング, May 30, 2007 - 179 pages
3 Reviews




老人はたった1人で漁に出た。このところ、何も釣れない日がずっと続いていた。それでも彼はくじけず、大物に狙いを定めて、誰よりも遠くまで小舟を漕いでいく。執念の末、ようやく餌に食いついてきた獲物は、彼がこれまで見たこともないほど巨大な魚だった...。老人と大魚との死闘を通じて、老いの孤独、自然の厳しさを簡潔な文体で描いたヘミングウェイの代表作。
















The Old Man and the Sea : Om Illustrated Classics

Front Cover
Om Books International - 240 pages






The Old Man and the Sea : Om Illustrated Classics
Ernest Hemingway



The old man and the Sea (노인과 바다)






















【海明威】  (Ernest Hemingway),Thames and Hudson 作家圖文系列之一,台北:貓頭鷹,1999




On this day in 1952, The Old Man and the Sea was published in LIFE. Five million copies of the magazine sold in two days.




“Hemingway liked his burgers pan-fried, not grilled.”



The search for Hemingway’s hamburger.
THEPARISREVIEW.ORG|由 CHERYL LU-LIEN TAN 上傳

"Time did not seem to be pressing Hemingway the day he flew in from Havana."



Lillian Ross’s 1950 profile of Ernest Hemingway. “I started out very quiet and I beat Mr. Turgenev. Then I trained hard and I beat Mr. de Maupassant. I’ve fought two draws with Mr. Stendhal, and I think I had an edge in the...
NYR.KR|由 LILLIAN ROSS 上傳




















董橋︰饗宴


海明威愛住威尼斯一家宮殿旅館,金門綉戶,老氣橫秋,他的套房古典極了,大窗戶對着大運河,派頭不小。那年仲秋古城煙水悠忽,街巷闃寂,大橋小橋人影稀 疏,橋下遊船都靠在一邊午休。倫敦相熟的意大利同學帶路,繞完弄堂繞進大街繞到山腰上找到那家老舊的宮殿。掌櫃客氣,各處瀏覽了一遍還請喫下午茶,說旅館 裏老一輩伙計都不在了,他們記得海明威,粗獷一條漢子,毛茸茸像拳師,言談倒和氣,話不多,輕描淡寫,不嚕囌,像他筆下的英文句子。喝酒也斯文,房間裏煙 味濃得很,天熱赤膊寫作,用打字機打字,用鉛筆改稿。一住好幾天,衣着樸素,亞麻布衣褲皺兮兮,很瀟灑。掌櫃的說好多年前《紐約客》雜誌上一幅漫畫畫海明 威,畫一隻筋絡虬結的手臂和一隻多毛的手,手裏緊緊抓着一朵玫瑰花,題目是《海明威的靈魂》。我早歲愛讀海明威,英文報刊上寫他的文章都剪存,厚厚兩冊卷 宗塞得滿滿的,年久散佚,舊夢縹緲。都說他的短篇小說比長篇好。其實短的長的都講究。迷惘,虛無,陽剛,簡練,每一本都像照常昇起的太陽,那麼耀眼,那麼 闌珊。《戰地春夢》裏凱瑟琳臨終前說:「我一點兒都不怕。這祗是個卑鄙的騙局。」海明威從來不否定努力,不否定紀律。紀律,幫規,堅忍,他從來守着:「勇 敢的人不會出岔子」。凱瑟琳死了,弗烈德里哥熄了燈彷彿在向一具石像告別,然後走出醫院,然後在雨裏走回旅館。海明威整套作品離不開傳遞一個信息:告別虛 幻的榮耀,挑戰傲慢的騙局,承受磨難的救贖。他是《老人與海》裏的老人,為天生的信仰潛進字海裏跟典章制度的巨鯊搏鬥,求存。《老人與海》一九五二年初 版。一九五四年,諾貝爾文學獎頒給海明威。明年是二○一四年,得獎剛好六十年,一甲子。台灣老朋友老張很想籌錢出版一本追憶海明威的文集,翻譯歷來英美文 評家評論海明威的文章,選錄海明威同代人記述海明威的軼事,刊登海明威所有作品初版的封面。那些評論文章老張譯了不少。中文報刊上寫海明威的零散文章他也 剪存了,選一批收進文集裏不難,逐一釐清版權要花點時間。今日世界出版社出版的《戰地春夢》和《老人與海》中文譯本的導論和序文也應該收進集子裏。海明威 寫的報刊特稿美國結集出版過,書信集也有,都可以選一批譯成中文收成一輯。老張要我寫一篇搜藏海明威初版的隨筆,穿插一些閱讀海明威的散記。搜藏初版和讀 書散記我資歷不足,不敢亂寫,寫淺了怠慢他,寫深了冤枉他。海明威初版都很貴,我無力多買,只藏了幾部:一九二四年的《我們的時代》,一九二六年的《太陽 照常昇起》,一九二七年的《沒有女人的男人》,一九二九年的《戰地春夢》,一九三二年的《死在午後》,一九三五年的《非洲青山》,一九四○年的《鐘為誰 鳴》,一九五二年的《老人與海》。海明威一九六一年自殺死了,一九六四年蒐集出版的花都憶往之作《流動的饗宴》我最喜歡。他第四任妻子瑪麗說海明威一九五 七年秋天在古巴着手寫這本書,一九五八到五九年帶回美國愛達荷州故居接着寫,一九五九年四月又帶到西班牙寫。一九六○年春天他在古巴寫完這本書,秋天在美 國又修飾過一遍。書裏寫的是一九二一年到一九二六年的巴黎。海明威說那時候沒錢買書,常到西爾薇婭的莎士比亞書店借書。冬天街上風大,很冷,書店裏又暖和 又閑散,桌子上書架上都是書,新書擺在櫥窗裏,牆上掛滿著名作家的照片,故世的在世的都有。西爾薇婭一張臉像雕塑,輪廓深刻,言談生動。他說她的腿很漂 亮,人又和善,愛開玩笑,愛聊天。海明威說他第一次走進書店很不好意思,沒帶夠錢交保證金申請借書證。西爾薇婭說保證金什麼時候方便什麼時候交,她先給他 做了一張借書證,說隨便借走多少本書都可以。海明威說她沒理由這樣相信他,他在申請表上填的地址又是巴黎的窮苦區。她不在乎,照樣那麼高興那麼歡迎他。他 借了屠格湼夫和兩本體育雜誌和勞倫斯的《兒子與情人》。西爾薇婭說還可以多借些。他於是又借了《戰爭與和平》和一本陀思妥耶夫斯基的短篇小說。「看那麼多 書你不會那麼快再來了,」她說。「我得回來還錢,」海明威說,「我公寓裏還有些錢。」她說她不是那個意思:「等你方便才還錢不遲。」海明威問她喬伊斯什麼 時候會來。她說通常過了午後晚些才來:「你沒見過他嗎?」海明威說餐館裏見過,他和家人在用膳,沒好意思多看,不禮貌,況且那家館子貴極了。那是八十多年 前的巴黎。四十多年前我第一次去巴黎好餐館還是貴。便宜的其實也不少,碰運氣碰得到好吃的。我住的小旅館靜得很,房間小陽台雕花欄杆前俯看小巷很詩意。午 後四點多鐘了,大街小餐館的後門就在巷子裏,相熟的伙計捲起衣袖點算剛送到的海鮮:「好大的魚,」他仰着頭跟我打招呼,「來吃晚飯吧!」小旅館隔壁是一家 麵包店,麵包剛出爐,好香。海明威說,在巴黎吃不飽的時候覺得特別餓,該死的糕餅舖子櫥窗裏那麼多糕餅,餐館外面路邊餐桌坐滿了食客,饞死人了。那幾天我 不斷想起海明威講究形容詞的用法,用得恰當不容易,盡量少用是出路:乾乾淨淨的屠格湼夫;乾乾淨淨的海明威,多好。有一天,海明威在咖啡館裏寫稿,一個麗 人走進來坐在角落裏等人。她太漂亮了。他一見動心,文思斷了:「你在等誰我不管,」他想。「從此再也見不到你了我也不管。這一刻,你是我的。全巴黎都是我 的。我卻屬於這本筆記簿和這枝鉛筆。」早年還有一個人喜歡《流動的饗宴》:倫敦一家律師樓的見習律師奈吉爾。二十來歲,又高又瘦,一頭鬈髮像鳥窩,一臉書 卷氣,金絲眼鏡兩塊圓圓的鏡片護着一雙湖水藍眼睛。鼻樑高得出奇,嘴唇薄得出奇,人中長得出奇。話不多,一口牛津英語跟他的相貌很般配。是個書蟲,經常蹲 在老威爾遜舊書店裏挑書。老威爾遜說是個世家子弟,爺爺第一次世界大戰時期當財政大臣的機要秘書,父親是郵政局出納部主管,母親是舞台設計師,他們家珍藏 歷代飛禽書籍出名,爺爺是這門學科的專家,寫過專書。奈吉爾不一樣,只收老小說,當代小說只愛喬伊斯和海明威。老威爾遜介紹我們認識。他上班的律師樓跟我 上班的英國廣播電台很近,他來參觀過,我請他在電台餐廳吃午飯,他說比外頭好吃,又便宜,從此得空常來找我吃飯,飯後到電台酒吧喝咖啡。海明威小說奈吉爾 熟透了,說寫得極好的是《雪山盟》和《老人與海》:「寫得最好的倒是《流動的饗宴》了。」《雪山盟》我讀外文系啃過,考過,苦死了。「你細細再讀一遍,不 難看出斯泰因為什麼這樣評定海明威的小說,」奈吉爾說。斯泰因是美國女作家,比海明威老,長住巴黎,提倡先鋒派藝術,運用重複和瑣碎和簡化的手法寫作,她 的小說《三個女人的一生》我喜歡。她說海明威是她讀到的「最羞澀最驕傲最芳香的說故事的人」。《流動的饗宴》裏寫斯泰因寫了不少,幾乎當她是寫作班的老 師,教訓海明威必須讀哪些作家不要讀哪些作家。奈吉爾說寫巴黎寫人物寫成《流動的饗宴》簡直了不起。翻譯家湯新楣先生也這樣說。威尼斯一家書籍裝幀作坊有 一本《流動的饗宴》,皮面裝潢很漂亮,說是一位藏書家訂做的,皮畫貼出畢加索一幅靜物,有酒杯,有水果,有盤子,有刀叉,有調羹。我跟奈吉爾說了,他心 動,也想找桑科斯基裝幀店做一本,後來做了沒有我不知道。這本書美國初版書衣其實也好看,油畫畫巴黎納夫橋的秋冬景色。書名摘自海明威一九五○年寫給朋友 信上的一句話:「年輕的時候運氣好住過巴黎,這輩子不論去到什麼地方,巴黎都和你在一起,因為巴黎是一席流動的饗宴」。我在巴黎找過海明威住過的房子,照 書上寫的地址找,路人都說拆掉了,門牌也重編,找不到。那天天陰,細雨迷濛。
董橋





http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway



 Baker, Carlos. (1969). Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-0-02-001690-8

 海明威傳 台北: 志文 1981/1990

 ---
 爸爸海明威,南京:譯林,1999

A. E. Hotchner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._E._Hotchner - 頁庫存檔 - 翻譯這個網頁
Hotchner is best known for Papa Hemingway, his 1966 biography of Ernest Hemingway, whose work he had adapted for plays and television. His play Sweet ...
 *****

To Use and Use Not


In an interview in The Paris Review in 1958 Ernest Hemingway made an admission that has inspired frustrated novelists ever since: The final words of “A Farewell to Arms,” his wartime masterpiece, were rewritten “39 times before I was satisfied.”
Those endings have become part of literary lore, but they have never been published together in their entirety, according to his longtime publisher, Scribner.
按图放大
John F. Kennedy Library and Museum
Ernest Hemingway in 1947.
按图放大
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
Ernest Hemingway's first-page draft for “A Farewell to Arms.”
按图放大
The new edition, with the original cover art.
A new edition of “A Farewell to Arms,” which was originally published in 1929, will be released next week, including all the alternate endings, along with early drafts of other passages in the book.
The new edition is the result of an agreement between Hemingway’s estate and Scribner, now an imprint of Simon & Schuster.
It is also an attempt to redirect some of the attention paid in recent years to Hemingway’s swashbuckling, hard-drinking image — through fictional depictions in the best-selling novel “The Paris Wife” and the Woody Allen film “Midnight in Paris,” for instance — back to his sizable body of work.
“I think people who are interested in writing and trying to write themselves will find it interesting to look at a great work and have some insight to how it was done,” Seán Hemingway, a grandson of Ernest Hemingway who is also a curator of Greek and Roman art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, said in an interview. “But he is a writer who has captured the imagination of the American public, and these editions are interesting because they really focus on his work. Ultimately that’s his lasting contribution.”
The new edition concludes that the 39 endings that Hemingway referred to are really more like 47. They have been preserved in the Ernest Hemingway Collection at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston since 1979, where Seán Hemingway studied them carefully. (Bernard S. Oldsey, a Hemingway scholar, listed 41 endings in his book “Hemingway’s Hidden Craft,” but Seán Hemingway found 47 variations in manuscripts preserved at the Kennedy Library.)
The alternate endings are labeled and gathered in an appendix in the new edition, a 330-page book whose cover bears the novel’s original artwork, an illustration of a reclining man and woman, both topless.
For close readers of Hemingway the endings are a fascinating glimpse into how the novel could have concluded on a different note, sometimes more blunt and sometimes more optimistic. And since modern authors tend to produce their work on computers, the new edition also serves as an artifact of a bygone craft, with handwritten notes and long passages crossed out, giving readers a sense of an author’s process. (When asked in the 1958 Paris Review interview with George Plimpton what had stumped him, Hemingway said, “Getting the words right.”)
The endings range from a short sentence or two to several paragraphs.
In No. 1, “The Nada Ending,” Hemingway wrote, “That is all there is to the story. Catherine died and you will die and I will die and that is all I can promise you.”
The “Live-Baby Ending,” listed as No. 7, concludes, “There is no end except death and birth is the only beginning.”
And in No. 34, the “Fitzgerald ending,” suggested by Hemingway’s friend F. Scott Fitzgerald, Hemingway wrote that the world “breaks everyone,” and those “it does not break it kills.”
“It kills the very good and very gentle and the very brave impartially,” he wrote. “If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry.”
Hemingway also left behind a list of alternate titles, which are reprinted in the new edition. They include “Love in War,” “World Enough and Time,” “Every Night and All” and “Of Wounds and Other Causes.” One title, “The Enchantment,” was crossed out by Hemingway.
Patrick Hemingway, Ernest Hemingway’s only surviving son, said in an interview from his home in Montana that when Scribner suggested the raw material be published, he agreed.
“They do give insight to how Hemingway was thinking,” said Patrick Hemingway, who is 84. “But it is absolutely true that no matter how much you analyze a classic bit of writing, you can never really figure out what makes talent work.”
Susan Moldow, the publisher of Scribner, said that while Hemingway is a perennial strong seller, especially for schools and libraries, “the estate is constantly wanting to present the work afresh.”
“This is one of the most important authors in American history,” she said. “And fortunately or unfortunately you need to keep refreshing or people lose interest.”
After reading the various endings, Ms. Moldow added, she didn’t question the author’s decision; the actual ending — cool and passionless after an epic tale of war and love, with the protagonist leaving a hospital in the rain — has stood the test of time.
“Ultimately,” she said, “I think we have to be glad that he went with the ending that he went with.”

書業

海明威的47個結尾

1958年,歐內斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)在《巴黎評論》(Paris Review)訪談中坦言,他那部講述戰爭年代的傑作《永別了,武器》(A Farewell to Arms)的結尾,他重寫了39遍才算滿意。對於寫作中受挫的小說家來說,這句話至今仍是一種啟迪。
那些結尾已成文壇佳話,但按照長期出版海明威作品的斯克瑞伯納出版社(Scribner)的說法,它們從未被放在一起完整地出版。
按圖放大
John F. Kennedy Library and Museum
1947年的歐內斯特·海明威。
按圖放大
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
海明威作品《永別了,武器》的第一頁手稿。
按圖放大
《永別了,武器》新版書延用了初版的封面畫作。
斯克瑞伯納出版社將於下周推出初版於1929年的《永別了,武器》的新版,其中會收錄這些不同的結尾,以及書中其他一些段落定稿前的修改稿。
這一新版是海明威遺產基金會和斯克瑞伯納雙方協議的結果。斯克瑞伯納目前隸屬於西蒙與舒斯特出版集團(Simon & Schuster)。
此舉也是力圖扭轉近年來暢銷小說《巴黎妻子》(The Paris Wife)、伍迪·艾倫(Woody Allen)的電影《午夜巴黎》(Midnight in Paris)等虛構作品將海明威塑造成的那種虛張聲勢、酗酒莽漢的形象,讓人們對海明威的注意力放回到他數量可觀的作品上。
歐內斯特·海明威的孫子、紐約大都會博物館希臘與羅馬藝術部負責人肖恩·海明威(Seán Hemingway)在採訪中說:“我想,對寫作有興趣、剛開始寫作的人都會興緻勃勃地看一部傑作,看看它是怎樣寫成的。他也是一位俘獲了美國公眾想像力 的作家,這些不同版本令人感興趣,因為它們集中展現的是他的工作。這終究是他永恆的貢獻。”
這個收入海明威所說的那39種結尾的新版,實際上收了47種結尾。自1979年以來,這些資料被保存於波士頓的約翰·F.肯尼迪總統圖書館 (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum)中的歐內斯特·海明威藏區,肖恩·海明威在那裡做過仔細研究。(海明威研究專家伯納德·S.歐德塞[Bernard S.Oldsey]在他的著作《海明威的秘技》[Hemingway’s Hidden Carft]一書中曾列舉41種結尾,但肖恩·海明威在肯尼迪圖書館收藏的書稿中發現了47種。)
這些不同的結尾被編上名稱,作為附錄收入這個330頁的新版中。該書封面沿用了初版封面上的畫作——一對赤裸着上身、相互倚靠的男女。
對於熱愛海明威作品的讀者來說,這些結尾就像驚鴻一瞥,讓人陶醉地看到這部小說也可能以另一種基調結束,有的更直率,有的更樂觀。由於當代作家大都 使用電腦寫作,這個新版《永別了,武器》也像是一種手工製品,展現了一種業已失傳的手藝,上面有手寫的注釋、筆記和劃掉的長段落,讓讀者感覺像在看作家寫 作的過程。(1958年《巴黎評論》那次訪談中,採訪者喬治·普林頓[George Plimton]問海明威什麼是他的挑戰,他說,“用對詞。”)
這些結尾,短則一兩個短句,長則好幾個段落。
在一號“虛無結尾”中,海明威寫道:“那就是這個故事的全部。凱瑟琳死了,你會死,我也會死,那就是我能向你保證的一切。”
在七號“活嬰結尾”中,他最後寫道:“除了死亡,沒有終結。誕生只是開始。”
而34號結尾叫“菲茨傑拉德結尾”,是因為靈感來自海明威的朋友F.司各特·菲茨傑拉德(F. Scott Fitzgerald)提的建議。海明威寫道:這個世界“擊倒了每個人”,有些人“即使沒有被擊倒,也會死”。
“它不偏不倚地殺死善良的人,溫和的人,勇敢的人,即使你一概不是,請相信它也會殺死你,只是沒那麼匆忙而已。”
海明威還留下了一系列可供選擇的書名。新版中也收了這些書名,其中有《戰爭中的愛情》(Love in War),《世界夠了,時間也夠了》(World Enough and Time),《創傷與其他事業》(Of Wounds and Other Causes),還有一個被海明威自己劃掉的標題《魅力》(The Enchantment)。
海明威唯一還在世的兒子帕特里克·海明威(Patrick Hemingway)在蒙大拿州的家裡接受採訪時說,聽說斯克瑞伯納出版社提議出版這些原始材料,他就同意了。
84歲的帕特里克說:“它們確實讓人可以看到海明威是怎麼思考的。但無論你怎樣分析一部經典作品的寫作,有一點是絕對無疑的:你始終弄不明白他是如何施展才華的。”
斯克瑞伯納出版人蘇珊·莫爾多(Susan Moldow)說,雖然海明威作品的銷量經久不衰,尤其受學校和圖書館歡迎,“遺產基金會仍然想讓他的作品保持新鮮感”。
她說:“這是美國歷史上最重要的作家之一,無論幸或不幸,你都要保持出新,不然人們就失去了興趣。”
莫爾多還說,她讀了不同的結尾,認為作者最終的決定,也就是實際的那個結尾無可挑剔:一場戰爭與愛的史詩故事之後,主人公在雨中離開醫院。這個結尾冷靜而不動聲色,經受住了時間的考驗。
她說:“總而言之,我們還是得為他選擇了這個符合他風格的結尾而感到高興。”
特約翻譯:彭倫。外國文學編輯,業餘從事文學翻譯,他正在編纂《巴黎評論》系列中譯本。

 ----
  Hemingway and Ourselves  1954 223(8) 海明威與我們*


「詮釋 伊塔羅.卡爾維諾( Italo Calvino)著《為什麼讀經典》
*翻譯可能不正確




"He is so very incorrect, except in this: he gave the century a way of making literary art that dealt with the remarkable violence of our time. He listened andwatched and INVENTED the language--using the power, the terror, of silences--with which we could name ourselves." (Frederick Busch, Reading Hemingway without Guilt)


1992年,紐約時報在海明威逝世30周年刊了一篇文章,標題是:沒有罪惡感地讀海明威。"政治不正確"--這是紅極一時的海明威,後來最受批評之處。他對女性對猶太人對同志甚至對各種暴烈運動的觀點都在60年代以後備受奚落。然而毫不意外,真正懂創作的人都繼續推崇他,即使對他也有過意見的卡爾維諾。他在1954年剖析自己從年輕到後來對海明威的愛恨交織的那篇文章<海明威與我們這一代>中,像個叛逆後再度理解並感激父輩的學徒說道:

"你唬不了我的,老頭。你沒有誤人子弟,你不是那種冒牌大師。"

卡爾維諾知道,現代文學如果有本帳,那海明威給的絕對比他拿走的多。沒有海明威,現代文學裡就沒有那些冷峻直接、不加裝飾又幹練的語言,那些20世紀人們得以說出自己不同於前世代的語言。






ourselves[our・selves]
  • [代](複)
1 ((〜 -self))我々自身を[に]. ▼動詞の直接・間接目的語または前置詞の目的語. ⇒HERSELF 1
We seated ourselves.
私たちはこしかけた.
2 ((強意))私たち自身[みずから].
(1) ((weとともに用いて))
We will handle the problem ourselves.
私たち自身がその問題を取り扱おう.
(2) ((usの代わりに用いて))
They, unlike ourselves, dislike travel.
彼らは私たちとちがって旅行がきらいだ.
(3) ((weまたはwe ourselvesの代わりに用いて))
Our children and ourselves will be glad to come.
子供たちも私どもも喜んでうかがいます.
3 いつもの自分, 正常な精神状態. ⇒ONESELF[語法]
We have not been ourselves since he left.
あの人がいなくなってから, どうかなってしまった.
between ourselves
ここだけの話だが.

 牌子上刻著海明威在《流動的饗宴???》中的一句話:「這就是我們年輕時的巴黎;雖然窮,卻很快樂。」......晚年的海明威曾說:「要是我那時候死了就好了。」唉!

命運是不能比的,紀弦詩中說:「君非海明威此一起碼認識之必要」。

我說了:MOMENT OF TRUTH 其實是海明威翻譯西班牙鬥牛的"決戰之剎那間"…..

十幾年前(可能近 20年),台灣翻譯一本談北歐航空公司生意和服務品質的書:
『關鍵時刻』( Moments of truth by J Carlzon - 1989 - New York: Perennial Library

這書名有典故,是 1932年海明威(Ernest Hemingway )寫 Death in the Afternoon 時,從西班牙文的el momento de la verdad 翻譯過來的,原先的 the moment of truth 是指闘牛時最後鬥牛士瞄準、給牛致命一刺的瞬間。後來引伸為「一大危機[転機] .」。( A critical or decisive time, at which one is put to the ultimate test, as in Now that all the bills are in, we've come to the moment of truth—can we afford to live here or not?

管理學上,想讓服務過程的互動更為人性化,所以有這方面的說法: The humanization of service: respect at the moment of truth by GR Bitran, J Hoech - Sloan Management Review, 1990 或醫療上When this initial moment of truth goes well, a positive cycle begins be- tween the customer and the organization; when it goes poorly, it may be difficult to ...




荷馬到海明威/
蔡義忠撰.
出版地/出版者/出版年, 臺中市/普天/1971 民60. 稽核項, [9],254面/19公分.

 《一個乾淨明亮的地方》

海明威著,陳夏民編譯,逗點文創出版
用字簡潔,大量對話,降低對事物的判斷或描述, 使讀者自行體會未被說出的部分——美國小說家海明威(Ernest Miller Hemingway,1899-1961)堅信「冰山理論」,作品也服膺此一美學,因此,由譯者陳夏民所編的這本短篇小說傑作選,故事核心總在情節之外, 看似呼之欲出,卻終究如生活局部般被時間截斷,留下想像的泛音。全書有洋溢童年啟蒙氣味如〈印第安人的營地〉或〈三聲槍響〉,挫敗愛情如〈一則很短的故 事〉或〈白象似的群山〉;有時敘事柔軟體貼,如〈雨中的貓〉或〈等了一整天〉,有時則強悍俐落不改記者本色,如〈法蘭西斯.麥坎伯幸福而短暫的一生〉。被 喬伊思力讚的〈一個乾淨明亮的地方〉,速寫一間午夜咖啡館,一老一少店員對話,折映出一個時代的疲軟與空無,而始知:「世物皆空,人也不例外。需要的,不 過是光,還有某些程度的乾淨與秩序罷了。」 (Herbie Hancock)


完全沒作者介紹
一票名家名著的簡介 不過多說"評價"


2017年1月29日 星期日

Karl Polanyi on the Rise of Fascism and Market Economy. Fascism Edited by Roger Griffin/ fascismo:法西斯的威權人格

Chu-po Chen 分享了 1 條連結

1 小時

A spectre is haunting Europe and the world — the spectre of Fascism (veiled as defensive democracy and common-sense patriotism) and authoritarian…
ECONOMICSOCIOLOGY.ORG

蘋論:閱兵法西斯主義

2015.9.23
中國本月3日在天安門舉行反法西斯紀念抗日戰爭大閱兵,由於連戰出席,引起莫大的爭議,餘波至今蕩漾不息。
台灣社會只在意連是否閱兵,對中國官方號稱的「反法西斯」理念毫無興趣,也對中國使用法西斯最耽溺的大閱兵儀式壯大法西斯來反法西斯,造成內在邏輯的自我逆反,演化出21世紀初最大的二律背反之悖論。這種演化非常不祥,邏輯矛盾,自我背反,可能失去自我的控制而導致如墨索里尼、希特勒、日本軍閥的「民族法西斯主義」,其危害大矣哉。
西方有段說法相當傳神:當牠走路像鴨子、長得像鴨子、叫聲像鴨子,牠不會是別的東西,牠就是鴨子。當一個國家儀式像法西斯、行為像法西斯、語言像法西斯、姿態像法西斯,它不會是別的東西,它就是法西斯,儘管它拿社會主義、中國模式等漂亮的布幕遮住後面法西斯怪物的臉,卻仍然到處露出法西斯的黑色衣角。中國也許不是那麼純種的法西斯,但它們把狂熱民族主義的基因和法西斯基因混合改造,誕生出一個雜種醜怪的民族法西斯主義,比純種法西斯更厲害恐怖,也讓民族主義變種成集體歇斯底里、殘暴嗜血的原始部落式復仇民族主義。兩相結合,遠比連戰閱兵更嚴重百倍。 
我們不能學洪秀柱對民粹這個專有名詞做無限大解釋,只要她反對的就統稱民粹。法西斯的拉丁文字源是fasces,是古羅馬做為護民官象徵儀式所用的「棒束」,意指團結,特別是領導者意志指揮下的團結。所以法西斯都強調領袖意志的「領袖崇拜」,並從根本否定了人民個體的自主性。這段定義很耳熟,像極了對岸從毛到習的政治文化,簡直絲絲入扣。 
法西斯藏在每個人的基因裡。法哲傅柯在〈反伊迪帕斯序〉中寫道:「最後來臨絕不能輕視的最大敵人……就是法西斯。這裡說的法西斯,不只是歷史上的法西斯─動員大眾的欲望並能有效運用─希特勒與墨索里尼的法西斯,同時也是存在我們所有人中,存在我們頭腦裡和我們日常行動中的法西斯,更是使我們愛權力、渴望支配並詐取我們權力基礎的法西斯。」 
華人從習近平、馬英九到親友鄰居,都在基因裡帶有濃重的法西斯的威權人格,三位總統參選人也十分嚴重,要警惕自覺啊! 

ファシズム - Wikipedia

ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ファシズムTranslate this page
ファシズム(英: fascism、伊: fascismo)は、イタリアのムッソリーニと国家ファシスト党(以下ファシスト党)が提唱した思想や政治運動、および1922年から1942年までの政権獲得時に行った実践や体制の総称である。広義にはドイツのナチズムなど他国の類似の ...

立命館大名誉教授の山口定さん死去 ファシズム研究

2013年11月20日04時55分

山口定さん(やまぐち・やすし=立命館大名誉教授、大阪市立大名誉教授・政治学)が17日、多臓器不全で死去、79歳。通夜は21日午後7時、葬儀は22日午前11時から奈良市佐保台1の3574の4のならやま会館で。喪主は長男和生さん。
 ファシズム研究で知られる。著書に「ファシズム」「政治体制」など。


2011.1
Fascism
ISBN13: 9780192892492ISBN10: 0192892495 Paperback, 432 pages
Jul 1995, In Stock

See more from the series


Description

No political ideology has had a greater impact on modern history, or caused more intellectual controversy, than fascism. It has been identified with totalitarianism, state terror, fanaticism, orchestrated violence, and blind obedience, and was directly associated with the horrors of the Second World War, which left more than 40 million dead and introduced inconceivable notions of inhumanity. The mere mention of the term today evokes visions of atrocities and ineffable cruelty. Yet, the end of the twentieth century appears to have spawned a renewed interest in fascism, suggesting that it is time for us to examine our understanding of its ideas, ideals, and inequities.
Edited by Roger Griffin, described as 'the premier theorist {of fascism} of the younger generation' (Contemporary European History ), this important Oxford Reader demonstrates why fascism strongly appeals to many people, and how dangerous the result of this fascination may be. It includes a wide selection of texts written by fascist thinkers and propagandists, as well as by prominent anti-fascists from both inside and outside Europe, before and after the Second World War. Included are texts on fascism in Germany and Italy, on the abortive pre-1945 fascisms in more than a dozen countries around the world, on reactions to fascism, and on post-war and contemporary fascism. With contributions from writers as diverse as Benito Mussolini and Primo Levi, Joseph Goebbels and George Orwell, Martin Heidegger and Max Horkheimer, this compelling anthology provides insight into the depths and breadths of the destructive repercussions of fascist ideology. In no other volume will students of political theory, history, sociology, and psychology have access to such a compendium of key texts on this simultaneoulsy intriguing and frightening political force.

Product Details

432 pages; ISBN13: 978-0-19-289249-2ISBN10: 0-19-289249-5

About the Author(s)

Roger Griffin is the author of several studies of fascism, including The Nature of Fascism (1991, 1993), and contributor to Contemporary Political Ideologies (1993). He is Principal Lecturer in the Department of History at Oxford Brookes University.

Table of Contents

General Introduction
PART I: FASCISM IN ITALY
Introduction
A. Fascism as an Oppostion Movement
Introduction
i. Pre-1918 Tributaries of Fascism
1. The War as a Source of National Renewal , Giovanni Papini
2. The War as a Proletarian Cause , Revolutionary Syndicalism
3. The War as the Catharsis of Italian Society , Filippo T. Marinetti
4. The War as a Revolutionary Event , Benito Mussolini
5. 'Trenchocracy' , Benito Mussolini
6. The Futurist Vision of the New Italy , Political Futurism
7. Alfredo Rocco
8. The War as the Midwife of a New Italian People , Roberto Farinacci
ii Fascism in Opposition 23 March 1918 - 27 October 1922
9. San Sepulcro Fascism , Benito Mussolini
10. The Regency of Fiume as the Harbinger of the New Italy , Gabriele D'Annunzio and Alceste De Ambris
11. The Nationalist Blueprint for a New Italy , The Italian Nationalist Association
12. The Squadistri as the Revolutionaries of the New Italy , Mario Piazzesi
13. Fascism as the Victory of the New Italy , Luigi Federzoni
14. The Incorporation of the Peasantry into the Italian Nation , Benito Mussolini
15. Fascism's Myth: The Nation , Benito Mussolini
iii. The Coalition Government 30 October 1922 - 3 January 1925
16. A Futurist Portrait of the New Prime Minister of Italy , Filippo T. Marinetti
17. The New State Born of Syndicalism and Statism , Sergio Panunzio
18. Fascism's European Mission , Curzio Malaparte
19. The End of the Liberal Regime , Benito Mussolini
B. Fascism in Power January 1925-April 1945
Introduction
i. The Formative Years of the 'Totalitarian' Regime January 1925-February 1929
20. Fascism as a Total Conception of Life , Giovanni Gentile
21. Fascist Mysticism , Italian Fasci Abroad
22. Fascism as the Creator of the Third Italian Civilization , Benito Mussolini
23. The Leader as the Voice of the Reborn Race , Augusto Turati
24. The Strength in Numbers , Benito Mussolini
25. The Anti-Modernist Aesthetic of Strapaese , Mino Maccari
26. The Modernist Aesthetic of Novecento , Marco Bontempelli
27. The University as the Incubator of a Fascist Elite , Giuseppe Bottai
28. The Achievements of the Fascist Revolution , Benito Mussolini
ii The Period of Consolidation 1930-1934
29. Towards a Fascist Europe , Asvero Gravelli
30. The Role of Youth under Fascism , Giovanni Giurati
31. Fascist Corporativism as the Key to a New International Order , Ugo Spirito
32. Mussolini's Century , Giuseppe Bottai
33. Going to the People , Achille Starace
34. The Birth of a New Civilization , Benito Mussolini
iii Imperialist Expansion and Alignment with Nazism 1935-1939
35. The Vital Need for Empire , Benito Mussolini
36. Two Marching Songs of Fascist Soldiers Abroad
(a) From the Abyssinian Campaign
(b) From the Spanish Campaign
37. The Autarkic Mentality and the New Fascist Order , Edmondo Rossoni
38. Blood Brothers: Fascism and Nazism , Benito Mussolini
39. The Introduction of Fascist Racial Policy , Gioacchino Volpe
iv Fascism at War 1940-1943
40. People of Italy! Run to your Arms! , Benito Mussolini
41. Safeguarding Europe's Birthright against the Jewish Conspiracy , Alfredo Cioffi
42. The New Europe which will Arise from the Axis Victory , Carlo Costamagna
v The Italian Socialist Republic 1943-1945
43. Fascism Reborn , The Fascist Republican Party
44. The Greatest Massacre of All Time: Democracy , Benito Mussolini
45. What Might Have Been: Axis Europe , Benito Mussolini
PART II: FASCISM IN GERMANY
Introduction
A. German Fascism before the Nazi Seizure of Power
Introduction
i Pre-1914 Precursors of German Fascism
46. The Redemptive Mission of German Culture , Richard Wagner
47. The Need to Transcend Liberalism , Paul De LaGarde
48. The Rebirth of German Genius , Julius Langbehn
49. Planting the New Reich , Stefan George
50. The Need for the Nation to be Healed , Theodor Fritsch
ii Non-Nazi German Fascisms
51. The Resurgence of the West , Otto Dickel
52. The Eternal German Reich , Arthur Moeller Van Den Bruck
53. The Organic German Nation , Edgar Jung
54. The Great War: Father of a New Age , Ernst Junger
55. The Germany of the Freikorps , Ernst Von Salomon
56. The Emergence of a New Type of Human Being , Ernst Junger
57. The Prussian Spirit: Salvation of the White Race , Oswald Spengler
58. The German Knight as the Key to Europe's Recovery , Otto Strasser
iii Nazism before 1933
59. The Mission of the Nazi Movement , Adolf Hitler
60. Barren Trees , Franz Pfeffer Von Salomon
61. 'Christ-Socailism' , Joseph Goebbels
62. Let there be Light , Gottfried Feder
63. Motherhood and Warriorhood as the Key to a National Socialism , Gregor Strasser
64. Nordic Thinking and the German Rebirth , Hans F.K. Gunther
65. Breeding a New Nobility , R. Walther Darre
66. The New Human Synthesis , E. Gunther Grundel
B. German Fascism in Power 1933-1945
Introduction
i The Establishment of the Third Reich 1933-1935
67. German Rebirth , Alfred Rosenberg
68. The Third Reich as Savior of the West , Hermann Goering
69. The Total Revolution of National Socialism , Joseph Goebbels
70. The New Breed of German , Gottfried Benn
71. The New German Woman , Paula Siber
72. The Legal Basis of the Total State , Carl Schmitt
73. The Place of Art in Germany's Political Reawakening , Adolf Hitler
ii The Period of Consultation 1936-1939
74. Soldierly Economics , Werner Daitz
75. The Joy of the National Socialist Economy , Robert Ley
76. The Expansionary Spirit of a Rejuvenated People , Paul Ritter
77. Nazism's World Crusade against the Jews , Hammer Press
78. The Divine Mission of the SS , Heinrich Himmler
79. The Role of Youth in Perpetuating the Third Reich , Willi F. Konitzer
80. The Successful Cleansing of German Culture , Helmuth Langenbucher
81. National Socialism as the Custodian of European Being , Martin Heidegger
82. The Third Reich as the Cure for the European Sickness , Christoph Steding
iii The Third Reich at War 1939-1945
83. The New European Order , Paul Herre
84. A National Socialist Common Market , Hans S. V. Heister
85. Improving the Stock , Walter Gross
86. The True Meaning of the War , Joseph Goebbels
87. The Ultimate Turning-Point: Total War , Robert Ley
88. Moral Dilemmas , Heinrich Himmler
89. Heimat , Schwarzes Korps
90. The Rebirth of National Socialism , Adolf Hitler
PART III: ABORTIVE FASCISMS 1922-1945
Introduction
A. European Fascisms
i. Britain
91. Christ, Nietzsche, and Caesar , Oswald Mosley
92. Towards a Fascist Europe , Oswald Mosley
93. A Corporate Britain , Alexander Raven Thomson
94. Britain Awake! , E.D. Randell
95. A Spiritual Typhus , Arthur Kenneth Chesterton
96. Hitler Shows the Way , William Joyce
ii Ireland
97. The New Corporate Ireland , Eoin O'Duffy
iii Spain
98 Ramiro Ledesma Ramos. The Voice of Spain
99. Total Feeling , Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera
100. Bread and Justice , Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera
101. A New Breed of Spaniards , Antonio Vallejo-Nagera
iv Portugal
102. The Wind of Change , Rolao Preto
103. Ersatz Fascism , Rolao Preto
v France
104. Empty Portfolios , George Valois
105. Saving France , Jacques Doriot
106. The European Revolution and the New State , Marcel Deat
107. The Rebirth of European Man , Pierre Drieu La Rochelle
vi Belgium
108. The Revolution of Souls , Leon Degrelle
109. Fascism's Century , Jose Streel
vii Norway
110. The Nordic Revival , Vidkun Quisling
111. A Greater Norway , Vidkun Quisling
viii Finland
112. The Battle for the New Finland , Lapua
113. The Revolution of the Finnish Heart , Elias Simojoki
ix Estonia
114. A New Estonia , Evl
x Latvia
115. A Latvian Latvia , Gustavs Celmin
xi Romania
116. The Romanian Legionary's Mission in Spain , Ion Mota
117. The Resurrection of the Race , Corneliu Codreanu
xii Hungary
118. Hungarism , Ferenc Szalasi
B. Non-European Fascisms
i. South Africa
119. The Reawakening of the Boerevolk , Ossewabrandwag
ii Chile
120. Chilean Action and National Regeneration , Carlos Keller
121. The Soul of the Race , Jorge Gonalez
iii Brazil
122. A Fourth Era of Humanity Dawns , Plinio Salgado
123. The Soul of the Nation Awakens , Plinio Salgado
iv Japan
124. The Need for a Totalitarian Japan , Nakano Seigo
125. Write Your Own Mein Kampf , Nakano Seigo
PART IV: THEORIES OF FASCISM
Introduction
A. Reactions to Fascism 1920-1945
Introduction
i Ambivalent or Positive Reactions to the Spread of Fascism
126. Black Sheep , Vilfredo Pareto
127. A Plague of Amateur Mussolinis , Kenneth Roberts
128. A Sunny Disposition , Robert Michels
129. The Italian Volksstaat , Johann W. Mannhardt
130. The Italian Experiment , Erwin von Beckerath
131. To Each Country its Own Fascism , James Strachey Barnes
132. The Makers of Europe , Giuseppe Borgese
133. A Sense of Humor , Sir Charles Petrie
134. A Bad Good Thing , H.G. Wells
ii Interpretations of Fascism by Marxists
135. Three Comintern Responses to Fascism
(a) Opening the Door to Fascism
(b) White Terror
(c) Fruit of the Womb
136. Erroneous Definitions , Palmiro Togliatti
137. The Purging Fires of Fascism , R. Palme Dutt
138. The Return of the Dark Ages , E. J. Strachey
iii Democratic Critiques of Fascism
139. Tribal Loyalties , G.D.H. and M.I. Cole
140. Dragon's Teeth , R.A. Brady
141. The Hopeless Task , Karl Polanyi
142. Rabbits Ruled by Stoats , George Orwell
143. Black Magic , Peter Drucker
144. The Iron Heel , Max Horkheimer
iv Four Wartime Analyses of Fascism
145. Forcing Elephants into Foxholes , Wilhelm Reich
146. The Fear of Freedom , Erich Fromm
147. Market Forces , Harold Laski
148. Rationalism Debunked , Talcott Parsons
B. Post-War Judgements on Fascism
Introduction
i Some Approaches to Fascism
149. Paradigms of Fascism , Bernt Hagtvet and Stein Larsen
a. Marxist Approaches
150. The View From Moscow , A Soviet Political Dictionary
151 Joachim Petzold. The View from East Germany
152. The View of a Western Marxist , Martin Kitchen
b. Fascism as the Product of Structural Forces
153. Extremism of the Centre , Seymour M. Lipset
154. Defective Nation-Building , Bernt Hagtvet and Stein Rokkan
155. Redemptive Potential , Geoffrey Eley
c. Psycho-Historical Approaches
156. Fear and Destructiveness , The Frankfurt School
157. Making Sense , Gerald M. Platt
158. Raising the Dead , Klaus Theweleit
d. Modernization Theories
159. Blood and Death , Barrington Moore
160. Utopian Anti-Modernism , Henry A. Turner Jun
161. Fascist Modernity , Emilio Gentile
ii Some Individual Theories of the Fascist Minimum
162. Resisting Transcendence , Ernst Nolte
163. The Total Charismatic Community , A. James Gregor
164. The Latecomer , Juan B. Linz
165. Verbal Revolutionarism , Renzo de Felice
166. A Mulish Concept , Gilbert Allardyce
167. A Third Way , George L. Mosse
168. A New Nationalist Authoritarian State , Stanley Payne
160. A New Civilization , Zeev Sternhell
170. The New Synthesis , Roger Eatwell
PART V: POST-WAR FASCISMS
Introduction
i Verdicts on the 'Fascist Era' from Veteran Fascists
171. Fascism: Myth and Reality , Julius Evola
172. The Third Reich: The Triumph of the Demagogues , Ernst Niekisch
173. Lenin was Right , Maurice Bardeche
174. The Ideals of the Fascist Era , Leon Degrelle
175. The Lunacy of Fascism and Nazism , Arthur Kenneth Chesterton
176. Hubris and Miscalculation , Oswald Mosley
ii Discourses of Post-War Fascism
(a) Universal Nazism
177. The Revival of National Socialism , Colin Jordan
178. A Racist Catechism , The West European Foundation
179. How to Save Europe , Guy Amaudruz
(b) Holocaust Denial
180. The Miracle of the Telephone Box , Leon Degrelle
181. A Monumental Lie , Thies Christophersen
182. An Ever-Flowing River , John Day
(c) Historical Revisionism
183. The Bicycle Thief , David Irving
184. Laying it on the Line , David Irving
185. From Class War to Race War , Ernst Nolte
186. Truth and Fiction , Gerhard Frey
(d) Eurofascism
187. The European Revolution , The Malmo Manifesto
188. The True Europe's Revolt against the Modern World , Juliys Evola
189. Europe a Nation , Oswald Mosley
(e) The New Right
190. Regenerating History , Alain de Benoist
191. The Metapolitical Rebirth of Europe , Pierre Krebbs
192. A Breath of Fresh Air , Michael Walker
(f) The Conservative Revolution
193. German Nihilism , Armin Mohler
194. The Will to Modernity of the Conservative Revolution , Louis Dupeux
195. Heroic Realism , Robert Steukers
(g) Third Position
196. The European Genius and the Rediscovery of the Sacred , Adolfo Morganti
197. The Political Soldier and the National Revolution , Derek Holland
198. A Community of Destiny , Groupe Union Defense
iii Contemporary Expressions of Fascism
(a) Ideological Fascism
199. Songs for Europe , Skrewdriver
200. The Immortal Principle , Hartwig Huber
201. The Greening of Nazism , Padraig Cullen
202. Spiritual AIDS , John Tyndall
(b) Militant Fascism
203. Blood, Soil, and Faith , L'Oeuvre Francaise
204. The Cleansing Hurricane , William Pierce
205. Patriots of the World Unite! , Paymat
206. God's Own , Afrikaner-Weerstandsbeweging
207. The Romanian Ethnocratic State , Noua Dreapta
(c) Electoral Fascism
208. Living Stones of the New Spain , Frente Nacional
209. The European Home , Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
210. Saving the Nation , British National Party
211. For a New Italy , Movimento Sociale Italiano
212. King Kong Meets his Match , Russia's Liberal Democratic Party
EPILOGUE
213. The Deadly Trunk of Fascism , Primo Levi
Select Bibliography
Acknowledgements
Index


---
 http://www.cw.com.tw/blog/blogTopic.action?id=9&nid=2228

法西斯式的貪腐經濟

作者:南方朔  2012/08/10

黨官僚、政客互喬利益,集結勢力。
這種少數人綑綁的利益體,卻傷害了大多數人民。
古羅馬時代,執政官巡行時,走在前面的開道人員中,一定有一個官員手持「束棒」(fasces),代表最高權威。「束棒」是一束櫸木棍,它由紅帶子綑綁在一起,中間則是一個斧頭柄。
「束棒」的象徵意義是,老百姓乃是散漫的木棒,它只有和代表權威的斧頭綑綁、團結在一起,才有力量。
一九一九年,「束棒」的意義被義大利的墨索里尼發揚光大,成了二十世紀上半期,對全球影響很大的法西斯。
法西斯既是政治運動,也是經濟運動。法西斯認為,國家的經濟活動乃是政治的黏著劑。因此,不但要發達國家資本,甚至要透過政府的經濟角色,將散漫的社會綑綁起來。
於是,黨官僚及政客透過運作,分配經濟資源和公共契約給自己人的公司。透過利益結合,將大家綑綁在一起,遂被認為是一種正當的方法。這也是法西斯體制下,黨官僚及政客致力於「喬利益」的原因。
這種「國家社會主義」的政治,由於受到經濟利益影響,當然系統性的腐化橫行。而它的經濟受到政治的干擾,當然成本大、效率差。
在二十世紀上半葉,國際競爭還不嚴重,因此它能良好運作。只是到了二十世紀後期,國際競爭激烈,而且民主政治深化。這種喬利益的制度,在經濟上,因成本過大而難以為繼;而在政治上,則普遍被認為是貪腐。
但在以前的法西斯國家,這種喬利益的方法,的確是被當作政治的黏著劑。不但歐洲法西斯國家:義大利、西班牙如此,亞洲及拉丁美洲具有法西斯特性的國家也如此。


前幾年,我讀了當代反貪專家李維(Michael Levi),和尼爾肯(David Nelken)所編的論文集《政治的貪腐及貪腐政治》。他們指出,歐洲法西斯經濟裡,那種黨官僚及政客喬事情、抽佣金的方式,乃是近代政治最壞的傳統。它造成貪污的體制化。
這也是一九九○年代,全球反貪都把「喬事情、分利潤」換成「政治獻金」列為最大重點的原因。
因此,對法西斯經濟的運作模式,世人應加強反省。法西斯主義強調國家整體利益,以不自由、不民主的方式,選擇性地瓜分國家利益,靠著利益共享,把這些人綑綁在一起。
但任何人都知道,這種綑綁可以綁出很大的勢力,但綁不成一個國家。它所造成的貪腐、無效率,反而會傷害到沒有綁在一起的大多數人民。
法西斯的這種喬利益、綁利益的運作方式,乃是歐洲許多有法西斯傳統的國家,如義大利、西班牙、希臘等,每況愈下的主因。
二十世紀上半葉,法西斯的政治及經濟思想曾影響到許多後進國。當時的中華民國,即很多事都學法西斯,在經濟上影響極大。瓜分利益、喬國家的採購契約,即是法西斯時代的殘餘。這也是中華民國轉型最需要揚棄的壞習慣!
 

網誌存檔