2015年12月12日 星期六

略讀《法國浪漫主義時期的音樂與文學》Hector Berlioz『柏遼茲回憶錄 』

略讀《法國浪漫主義時期的音 樂與文學》
《法國浪漫主義時期的音樂與文學》 溫永紅譯,天津,百花文藝出版社, 20057 月出版 。這本書說原作【La Musique et les lettres au temps du Romantisme Leon Guichard 】是1995年 的作品,不過,我找到一書評: Book Review: E Barineau - Modern Philology, 1957【印證:「此書最早發表於 1955年 (而不是中譯版上的 1995年)」】
有人說:「《法國浪漫主義時期的音 樂與文學》是法國著名的文藝評論家雷翁·吉沙爾所寫的一部具有影響力的……」不知道是否如此,不過可以找到作者的許多作品
La musique et les lettres en France au temps du Wagnerisme
L Guichard - 1963 -
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France
這本書的翻譯網路上有點資料: 2003年的「中央音樂學院音樂學研究所」:
「《法國浪漫主義時期的音樂和文 學》是法國作家雷翁·吉沙爾所作的一部具有影響力的專著,該書主要介紹了法國浪漫主義時期的音樂、文學,社會政治生活和哲 學藝術觀念,反映了法國大革命時期到 19世 紀中葉浪漫主義時期音樂與文學的互動關係,以及音樂在社會政治文化生活中的作用、社會及文化思潮對音樂藝術的影響;音樂對 文學家和文學創作的影響,也展示了他們之間的合作,改變和
該書由我院青年教師溫永紅翻譯,是我所2000年 度的所立翻譯課題,經專家評審委員會審議,該課題目前已結項。根據專家建議譯者目前正在積極聯繫出版事宜。 ]
我們可以知道一本書的翻譯和出版 (包括取得法國外交部的補助),過程至少花四五年。本書翻譯了所有的原注 /參考資 料,不過本書少數牽涉到拉丁文和西班牙文等,都未翻譯。可惜,缺索引 它之所 以有用的原因是許多人物在各章都出現,必須幫忙讀者融會貫通。
「書中對法國大革命至 1850年浪漫主義時期的音樂、文學氛圍,音樂在波瀾壯闊的社會政治生活中的作用,和社會 及文化生活對音樂藝術的影響進行了詳細和廣泛地介紹;並讓我們清晰地看到:這一時期音樂與文學間,音樂家與文學家之間的密切互動關 係,以及哲學藝術觀念對音樂的影響;最後本書通過對幾個生活在浪漫主義時期的大文學家與音樂相關的生活和創作的描述,向 我們展現了他們對音樂的熱愛以及音樂對他們文學創作的豐富和影響。」
「本書的作者閱讀了 17891850 年間有關文學與音樂的大量史料【hc案:作 者承認他只讀現有資料的部分】:包括一般性的研究和專題性的研究,也認真閱讀了這一時期的回憶錄、通信集、雜誌、報紙等。其 材料的豐富性令人印象深刻。作者利用自己掌握的大量材料,對當時音樂生活的多個方面進行了介紹,其中包括浪漫主義時期的音樂體裁,樂 器和名演奏家以及這一時期最時髦的音樂體裁——歌劇和最時髦的社交生活場所——歌劇院。此外,這本著述不僅像大多數此類著述一樣,注 意到了文學對音樂家和音樂創作的影響;更談到了音樂對像巴爾扎克、司湯達、奈瓦爾、喬治•桑等文學家和他們的文學創作的影響和豐富【 hc案: 這些文學家都有專章討論。我們對於奈瓦爾可能比較生疏,其實他翻譯『孚士德』都受哥德撐讚; Eco在 哈佛大學的講座一直用他的作品當主題; P. Valery有回憶他的文章 ……..】。尤其是對大文學家們與音樂有關的文學作品如:巴爾扎克的《康巴拉》、《馬西米拉•多 尼》,喬治•桑的《康絮愛蘿》和《吹奏樂師》及創作過程進行了逐一的介紹。
作者總結相當悲觀:現代人只喜歡德國浪漫主義的音樂,很少人會聽 法國浪漫主義時期的音樂了。不過,本書示範音樂與文學的相互關係的研究之簡單方式(還不夠細緻)。

「音樂、藝術、哲學、科學和文學」 這主題,從有史以來一直很豐富。在1894 年,象徴主義詩人Stephane Mallarme (1842-1898) 應邀英國兩大名校演講,主題為「音樂與文學」。

法國浪漫主義古典音樂的奠基人 Hector Berlioz(1803-1869) 有專章,本書各章都提到他。我注意到本書引的『柏遼茲回憶錄 第二章』所提的拉丁詩,本書與『柏遼茲回憶錄 』(北京:東方,2000 )都沒譯出,其實北京大學故楊先生都有翻譯可參考。或許,這些語言細節只說明一些現象,不怎麼礙事,就不多說。

Today we wish a very happy birthday to French composer HectorBerlioz, born on this day in 1803!
Berlioz is best known for his "Symphonie fantastique," "Grande messe des morts" (Requiem), and "La damnation de Faust." The ‪#‎Requiem‬ is scored for a large orchestra, four brass choirs, and a chorus (more than 400 performers!).
On opening night of his first season as Music Director of the New York Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein conducted Berlioz's "Roman Carnival Overture" as a surprise addition to the October 2, 1958 program.
In his Young People's Concert entitled "Berlioz Takes a Trip," originally broadcasted by CBS on May 25, 1969, Bernstein discusses what he describes as "the first psychedelic symphony", "La Symphonie Fantastique".

Berlioz Takes a Trip Aired date: May 25, 1969 Plot: Bernstein discusses what he describes as…

'Music is a whole world'

It took Elliott Carter almost 50 years to find himself as a composer. Now the 97-year-old is one of the greatest of modernists - as even his fellow Americans are beginning to agree. He talks to Andrew Clements

Tuesday January 3, 2006
The Guardian

Elliott Carter in 1973
Elliott Carter in 1973. Photograph: Henry Grossman/Getty/TimeLife
Elliott Carter is more than one of the most important composers of our time; he remains a vital link with a long-gone musical era. At the age of 97, and still composing (currently he's working on a song cycle scheduled for performance next autumn), he has been involved with new music on both sides of the Atlantic for nearly 80 years. "I've been in the middle of this all through my life," he says, and in the process he got to know many of the composers - such as Stravinsky, Ives and Varèse - who had forged the language of modernism in the first decades of the 20th century, as well as those like Boulez and Nono who led another musical revolution in the years after the second world war.

He may be the greatest composer the US has produced since Ives, but Carter's outlook has always been at least as much European as it is American, and it was audiences on this side of the Atlantic who first recognised the importance of his knotty, demanding music. Carter is a New Yorker: he was born there in 1908, and the city has remained his home throughout his life; he lives now in an apartment on the edge of Greenwich Village. But since childhood he has made regular visits to Europe, and expects to be in London once again next week - a 90% chance, he says - for the BBC's celebration of his music at the Barbican.
Carter's connections with Europe are deeply ingrained. He learned to speak French before he could read: "My father was an importer [of lace] from France, and he took me there many times when I was a child, so I am almost as familiar with Paris as I am with New York." Though Carter was given piano lessons (which he found boring at the time), his parents had no musical ambitions for their son, and expected him to make his career in the family business. It was not until his late teens, when he heard Stravinsky's Rite of Spring for the first time in 1924, that Carter realised what he really wanted to be was a composer.
Another European city he visited in the 1920s with his parents was Vienna, where he bought copies of the latest works by Schoenberg and other members of the Second Viennese School. Back in New York an enlightened music teacher took him to contemporary music concerts and, crucially, introduced him to Charles Ives ("He was not as isolated a man as he is sometimes made out to be," Carter says). Ives gave the schoolboy copies of the Concorde Sonata and the collection of his songs that had been privately printed, and became the guiding spirit behind Carter's first efforts at composition.
Nevertheless, when he became a student at Harvard University, Carter studied English, having decided the music department there was hopelessly conservative. He concentrated on composition only as a graduate student, when for one semester his teachers included Gustav Holst, whom he remembers as a rather melancholy old man. But by the time he left university he was still nowhere near to becoming the composer he wanted to be. "I tried to write the music that I wanted to write but couldn't do it, and I then realised those composers had a classical training, and so it was easy for me to be convinced that I should do that, too."
So in the 1930s, Carter spent three years in Paris studying with Nadia Boulanger. He arrived in 1933, at the time of the Reichstag fire, and found the city full of refugees from the Nazis, and "a very sad place". Boulanger's rigorous harmony and counterpoint exercises took him back to first principles, but also imbued him with the disciplines of neoclassicism, which ran counter to the much wilder, expressionist pieces he had got to know and tried to imitate in New York. "She wasn't encouraging if you wrote very dissonant music," Carter says. "But, meanwhile, the world of music had changed. It wasn't hard to think when we saw pictures of Hitler that it was expressionism that had gone on and produced such a terrible result in Germany, that it was a working out of that kind of extravagance that had become terrifying. So we thought that it was time to be more orderly and more consciously beautiful, and neoclassicism did seem to have a perfect logic about it."
The lessons he absorbed during his years of study with Boulanger remain paramount in his music today. With her he learned to write counterpoint in up to eight parts, and the virtuosity with which he was to invent the teeming lines of his greatest pieces, in which individual instruments often acquire a dramatic character of their own, was a direct result of his training. "To Nadia notes mattered a great deal, everything had to be justified. It was a whole world in which you had to think how every note fitted in; we were concerned not just with the detail of things, but with the total effect."
The music Carter composed when he returned to America was more or less faithful to the neoclassical ethos. But in his crucial pieces of the immediate postwar years - beginning with the 1946 Piano Sonata and culminating in 1951 in the arching sweep of the First String Quartet, the work that really established Carter's international reputation ("In this country you play it and people walk out, but in Europe it made a big impression") - he began the journey of self-discovery towards writing the music he wanted to compose. It was a process that lasted until 1980, during which period new works emerged with almost painful slowness. "Every one of those pieces is a new sort of thought. This was the way I was developing, until finally I felt that I had found my vocabulary and there was no longer any need to experiment."
During that period, too, it was his supporters in Europe rather than the US who championed Carter's music. The composer and conductor Pierre Boulez was an early convert, and, in Britain, William Glock, controller of music at the BBC from 1959 to 1973, was a fervent supporter. "William played all my music on the radio at one time or another and that was very influential, and I also taught at Dartington Summer School when Peter Maxwell Davies and Harry Birtwistle were students there." Stravinsky publicly admitted his admiration for Carter's 1962 Double Concerto for piano and harpsichord, proclaiming it a masterpiece, and the two composers became good friends. His mind, Carter says, is now filled with memories of Stravinsky: of the older composer's kindnesses to him and his wife, of having dinner in a New York restaurant when Frank Sinatra approached Stravinsky for his autograph, and of one of his last meetings with the composer in New York a couple of weeks before Stravinsky's death in 1971, when the only music the old man wanted to listen to was Mozart's Magic Flute.
Carter's music is still more highly regarded across Europe than in the US, yet he has always been in an important sense an American composer. He has regularly drawn inspiration from US writers such as Walt Whitman, Elizabeth Bishop, Robert Lowell, John Ashbery and Hart Crane; the new song cycle he is working on uses texts by Wallace Stevens. And Carter maintains that his musical language has always been intrinsically American: "I've always thought that in some very important way my pieces came from jazz - with a regular beat background and improvisations on top of that." But first and foremost he remains an unrepentant modernist, backing up his uncompromising stance with a cast-iron classical training. His music has its own cast-iron integrity, too, a fierceness and emotional power that is sometimes hard to square with the genial man one meets; great composers aren't supposed to be so courteous, and so charming, as Elliott Carter unfailingly is.
Ariel 的話就姑且如此一記