2007年11月27日 星期二

Just Words

[jacket image]

Conley, John M. and William M. O'Barr Just Words, Second Edition: Law, Language, and Power. 184 p., 1 line drawing. 6 x 9 1997, 2005 Series: (CSLS) Chicago Series in Law and Society

Paper $16.00sp ISBN: 978-0-226-11488-0 (ISBN-10: 0-226-11488-0) Spring 2005

Is it "just words" when a lawyer cross-examines a rape victim in the hopes of getting her to admit an interest in her attacker? Is it "just words" when the Supreme Court hands down a decision or when business people draw up a contract? In tackling the question of how an abstract entity exerts concrete power, Just Words focuses on what has become the central issue in law and language research: what language reveals about the nature of legal power.

Conley and O'Barr show how the microdynamics of the legal process and the largest questions of justice can be fruitfully explored through the field of linguistics. Each chapter covers a language-based approach to a different area of the law, from the cross-examinations of victims and witnesses to the inequities of divorce mediation. Combining analysis of common legal events with a broad range of scholarship on language and law, Just Words seeks the reality of power in the everyday practice and application of the law. As the only study of its type, the book is the definitive treatment of the topic that will be welcomed by students and specialists alike.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface
Acknowledgments
Note on Transcript Conventions
1: The Politics of Law and the Science of Talk
2: The Revictimization of Rape Victims
3: The Language of Mediation
4: Speaking of Patriarchy
5: A Natural History of Disputing
6: The Discourses of Law In Cross-Cultural Perspective
7: The Discourses of Law in Historical Perspective
8: Conclusion
Notes
References
Index

Subjects:

  • ANTHROPOLOGY: Cultural and Social Anthropology
  • LAW AND LEGAL STUDIES: International Law





中國的法律類書籍之出版盛況: "國內第一家法律書店,現書庫存二萬餘種,品種齊全、發貨及時。"


法律.語言權力,作者:(美)康利等著,譯者:程朝陽譯,法律出版社,2007


法律.語言與權力,作者:(美)康利等著,譯者:程朝陽譯,法律出版社,

《法律、语言与权力》是《法律语言学译丛》中的一本。作者康利和奥巴尔分别是美国北卡罗来纳大学法学院法学教授和人类学家。本书以法哲学的视角、语言学的 方法,对法制定、法研究、法实践中的专业语言现象进行全面的分析和定位,总结了专业语言符号系统的生成、运用及循环的规律及规则,阐述了这个语言系统存在 的实用意义和文化价值。作者通过系统挖掘、把握法律语言的性质、功能及其在不同语境下的应用规律,归纳了它们的法定规则和习惯规则,并适度分析了应用中的 得与失。本书社会语言学和批判语言学的优秀作品。



這篇我只想談一詞之翻譯l 頁30 的

Pin-drop effect 翻譯成"吊尾效果 "不清楚中文含義

"在律師問另一個問題之前的沉默可被律師用作對此前話語的可信性做出的另一種暗含的評論--幾個調查者所謂的吊尾效果(pin-drop effect ) ...

這其實很簡單 此效應即大家凝神靜聽 注意力特別集中 容易引導聽眾"You could have heard a pin drop,"

Nobody moves, nobody talks and you can hear a pin drop. It’s a desired effect .

100 Notable Books of 2007 (紐約時報)

紐約時報從1997年起網路提供"年度好書"

2007年有些好笑的 譬如說 如何就未讀過的書侃侃而談 HOW TO TALK ABOUT BOOKS YOU HAVEN’T READ. By Pierre Bayard. Translated by Jeffrey Mehlman. (Bloomsbury, $19.95.) A French literature professor wants to assuage our guilt over the ways we actually read and discuss books.

Holiday Books

100 Notable Books of 2007

Greg Clarke
Published: December 2, 2007

The Book Review has selected this list from books reviewed since the Holiday Books issue of Dec. 3, 2006.

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Note

This list will run in the Dec. 2 print edition of the Book Review.

More Notable Books Lists

2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997

RELATED

The 10 Best Books of 2006

(The 10 Best Books of 2007 will be released on the Web on Nov. 28.)

Fiction & Poetry

THE ABSTINENCE TEACHER. By Tom Perrotta. (St. Martin’s, $24.95.) In this new novel by the author of “Little Children,” a sex-ed teacher faces off against a church bent on ridding her town of “moral decay.”

AFTER DARK. By Haruki Murakami. Translated by Jay Rubin. (Knopf, $22.95.) A tale of two sisters, one awake all night, one asleep for months.

THE BAD GIRL. By Mario Vargas Llosa. Translated by Edith Grossman. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $25.) This suspenseful novel transforms “Madame Bovary” into a vibrant exploration of the urban mores of the 1960s, ’70s and ’80s.

BEARING THE BODY. By Ehud Havazelet. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $24.) In this daring first novel, a man travels to California after his brother is killed in what may have been a drug transaction.

THE BEAUTIFUL THINGS THAT HEAVEN BEARS. By Dinaw Mengestu. (Riverhead, $22.95.) A first novel about an Ethiopian exile in Washington, D.C., evokes loss, hope, memory and the solace of friendship.

BRIDGE OF SIGHS. By Richard Russo. (Knopf, $26.95.) In his first novel since “Empire Falls,” Russo writes of a small town in New York riven by class differences and racial hatred.

THE BRIEF WONDROUS LIFE OF OSCAR WAO. By Junot Díaz. (Riverhead, $24.95.) A nerdy Dominican-American yearns to write and fall in love.

CALL ME BY YOUR NAME. By André Aciman. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $23.) Aciman’s novel of love, desire, time and memory describes a passionate affair between two young men in Italy.

CHEATING AT CANASTA. By William Trevor. (Viking, $24.95.) Trevor’s dark, worldly short stories linger in the mind long after they’re finished.

THE COLLECTED POEMS, 1956-1998. By Zbigniew Herbert. Translated by Alissa Valles. (Ecco/HarperCollins, $34.95.) Herbert’s poetry echoes the quiet insubordination of his public life.

DANCING TO “ALMENDRA.” By Mayra Montero. Translated by Edith Grossman. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $25.) Fact and fiction rub together in this rhythmic story of a reporter on the trail of the Mafia, set mainly in 1950s Cuba.

EXIT GHOST. By Philip Roth. (Houghton Mifflin, $26.) In his latest novel Roth brings back Nathan Zuckerman, a protagonist whom we have known since his potent youth and who now must face his inevitable decline.

FALLING MAN. By Don DeLillo. (Scribner, $26.) Through the story of a lawyer and his estranged wife, DeLillo resurrects the world as it was on 9/11, in all its mortal dread, high anxiety and mass confusion.

FELLOW TRAVELERS. By Thomas Mallon. (Pantheon, $25.) In Mallon’s seventh novel, a State Department official navigates the anti-gay purges of the McCarthy era.

A FREE LIFE. By Ha Jin. (Pantheon, $26.) The Chinese-born author spins a tale of bravery and nobility in an American system built on risk and mutual exploitation.

THE GATHERING. By Anne Enright. (Black Cat/Grove/Atlantic, paper, $14.) An Irishwoman searches for clues to what set her brother on the path to suicide.

HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS. By J. K. Rowling. (Arthur A. Levine/Scholastic, $34.99.) Rowling ties up all the loose ends in this conclusion to her grand wizarding saga.

HOUSE LIGHTS. By Leah Hager Cohen. (Norton, $24.95.) The heroine of Cohen’s third novel abandons her tarnished parents for the seductions of her grand-mother’s life in theater.

HOUSE OF MEETINGS. By Martin Amis. (Knopf, $23.) A Russian World War II veteran posthumously acquaints his stepdaughter with his grim past of rape and violence.

IN THE COUNTRY OF MEN. By Hisham Matar. (Dial, $22.) The boy narrator of this novel, set in Libya in 1979, learns about the convoluted roots of betrayal in a totalitarian society.

THE INDIAN CLERK. By David Leavitt. (Bloomsbury, $24.95.) Leavitt explores the intricate relationship between the Cambridge mathematician G. H. Hardy and a poor, self-taught genius from Madras, stranded in England during World War I.

KNOTS. By Nuruddin Farah. (Riverhead, $25.95.) After 20 years, a Somali woman returns home to Mogadishu from Canada, intent on reclaiming a family house from a warlord.

LATER, AT THE BAR: A Novel in Stories. By Rebecca Barry. (Simon & Schuster, $22.) The small-town regulars at Lucy’s Tavern carry their loneliness in “rough and beautiful” ways.

LET THE NORTHERN LIGHTS ERASE YOUR NAME. By Vendela Vida. (Ecco/HarperCollins, $23.95.) A young woman searches for the truth about her parentage amid the snow and ice of Lapland in this bleakly comic yet sad tale of a child’s futile struggle to be loved.

LIKE YOU’D UNDERSTAND, ANYWAY: Stories. By Jim Shepard. (Knopf, $23.) Shepard’s surprising tales feature such diverse characters as a Parisian executioner, a woman in space and two Nazi scientists searching for the yeti.

MAN GONE DOWN. By Michael Thomas. (Black Cat/Grove/Atlantic, paper, $14.) This first novel explores the fragmented personal histories behind four desperate days in a black writer’s life.

MATRIMONY. By Joshua Henkin. (Pantheon, $23.95.) Henkin follows a couple from college to their mid-30s, through crises of love and mortality.

THE MAYTREES. By Annie Dillard. (HarperCollins, $24.95.) A married couple find their way back to each other under unusual circumstances.

THE MINISTRY OF SPECIAL CASES. By Nathan Englander. (Knopf, $25.) A Jewish family is caught up in Argentina’s “Dirty War.”

MOTHERS AND SONS: Stories. By Colm Toibin. (Scribner, $24.) In this collection by the author of “The Master,” families are not so much reassuring and warm as they are settings for secrets, suspicion and missed connections.

NEXT LIFE. By Rae Armantrout. (Wesleyan University, $22.95.) Poetry that conveys the invention, the wit and the force of mind that contests all assumptions.

ON CHESIL BEACH. By Ian McEwan. (Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, $22.) Consisting largely of a single sex scene played out on a couple’s wedding night, this seeming novel of manners is as much a horror story as any McEwan has written.

OUT STEALING HORSES. By Per Petterson. Translated by Anne Born. (Graywolf Press, $22.) In this short yet spacious Norwegian novel, an Oslo professional hopes to cure his loneliness with a plunge into solitude.

THE RELUCTANT FUNDAMENTALIST. By Mohsin Hamid. (Harcourt, $22.) Hamid’s chilling second novel is narrated by a Pakistani who tells his life story to an unnamed American after the attacks of 9/11.

REMAINDER. By Tom McCarthy. (Vintage, paper, $13.95.) In this debut, a Londoner emerges from a coma and seeks to reassure himself of the genuineness of his existence.

THE SAVAGE DETECTIVES. By Roberto Bolaño. Translated by Natasha Wimmer. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $27.) A craftily autobiographical novel about a band of literary guerrillas.

SELECTED POEMS. By Derek Walcott. Edited by Edward Baugh. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $25.) The Nobel Prize winner Walcott, who was born on St. Lucia, is a long-serving poet of exile, caught between two races and two worlds.

THE SEPTEMBERS OF SHIRAZ. By Dalia Sofer. (Ecco/HarperCollins, $24.95.) In this powerful first novel, the father of a prosperous Jewish family in Tehran is arrested shortly after the Iranian revolution.

SHORTCOMINGS. By Adrian Tomine. (Drawn & Quarterly, $19.95.) The Asian-American characters in this meticulously observed comic-book novella explicitly address the way in which they handle being in a minority.

SUNSTROKE: And Other Stories. By Tessa Hadley. (Picador, paper, $13.) These resonant tales encapsulate moments of hope and humiliation in a kind of shorthand of different lives lived.

THEN WE CAME TO THE END. By Joshua Ferris. (Little, Brown, $23.99.) Layoff notices fly in Ferris’s acidly funny first novel, set in a white-collar office in the wake of the dot-com debacle.

THROW LIKE A GIRL: Stories. By Jean Thompson. (Simon & Schuster, paper, $13.) The women here are smart and strong but drawn to losers.

TIME AND MATERIALS: Poems, 1997-2005. By Robert Hass. (Ecco/Harper-Collins, $22.95.) What Hass, a former poet laureate, has lost in Californian ease he has gained in stern self-restraint.

TREE OF SMOKE. By Denis Johnson. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $27.) The author of “Jesus’ Son” offers a soulful novel about the travails of a large cast of characters during the Vietnam War.

TWENTY GRAND: And Other Tales of Love and Money. By Rebecca Curtis. (Harper Perennial, paper, $13.95.) In this debut collection, a crisp, blunt tone propels stories both surreal and realistic.

VARIETIES OF DISTURBANCE: Stories. By Lydia Davis. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, paper, $13.) Dispensing with straight narrative, Davis microscopically examines language and thought.

THE VIEW FROM CASTLE ROCK: Stories. By Alice Munro. (Knopf, $25.95.) This collection offers unusually explicit reflections of Munro’s life.

WHAT IS THE WHAT. The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng: A Novel. By Dave Eggers. (McSweeney’s, $26.) The horrors, injustices and follies in this novel are based on the experiences of one of the Lost Boys of Sudan.

WINTERTON BLUE. By Trezza Azzopardi. (Grove, $24.) An unhappy young woman meets an even unhappier drifter.

THE YIDDISH POLICEMEN’S UNION. By Michael Chabon. (HarperCollins, $26.95.) Cops, thugs, schemers, rabbis, chess fanatics and obsessives of every stripe populate this screwball, hard-boiled murder mystery set in an imagined Jewish settlement in Alaska.


Nonfiction

AGENT ZIGZAG: A True Story of Nazi Espionage, Love, and Betrayal. By Ben Macintyre. (Harmony, $25.95.) The exploits of Eddie Chapman, a British criminal who became a double agent in World War II.

ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE: A Life. By Hugh Brogan. (Yale University, $35.) Brogan’s combative biography takes issue with Tocqueville’s misgivings about democracy.

ALICE: Alice Roosevelt Longworth, From White House Princess to Washington Power Broker. By Stacy A. Cordery. (Viking, $32.95.) A biography of Theodore Roosevelt’s shrewd, tart-tongued older daughter.

AMERICAN CREATION: Triumphs and Tragedies at the Founding of the Republic. By Joseph J. Ellis. (Knopf, $26.95.) This history explores an underappreciated point: that this country was constructed to foster arguments, not to settle them.

THE ARGUMENT: Billionaires, Bloggers, and the Battle to Remake Democratic Politics. By Matt Bai. (Penguin Press, $25.95.) An exhaustive account of the Democrats’ transformative efforts, by a political reporter for The New York Times Magazine.

ARSENALS OF FOLLY: The Making of the Nuclear Arms Race. By Richard Rhodes. (Knopf, $28.95.) This artful history focuses on the events leading up to the pivotal 1986 Reykjavik summit meeting between Reagan and Gorbachev.

THE ART OF POLITICAL MURDER: Who Killed the Bishop? By Francisco Goldman. (Grove, $25.) The novelist returns to Guatemala, a major inspiration for his fiction, to try to solve the real-life killing of a Roman Catholic bishop.

BROTHER, I’M DYING. By Edwidge Danticat. (Knopf, $23.95.) Danticat’s cleareyed prose and unflinching adherence to the facts conceal an undercurrent of melancholy in this memoir of her Haitian family.

CIRCLING MY MOTHER. By Mary Gordon. (Pantheon, $24.) Gordon’s deeply personal memoir focuses on the engaged and lively Catholicism of her mother, a glamorous career woman who was also an alcoholic with a body afflicted by polio.

CLEOPATRA’S NOSE: 39 Varieties of Desire. By Judith Thurman. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $27.95.) These surgically analytic essays of cultural criticism showcase themes of loss, hunger and motherhood.

CULTURAL AMNESIA: Necessary Memories From History and the Arts. By Clive James. (Norton, $35.) Essays on 20th-century luminaries by one of Britain’s leading public intellectuals.

THE DAY OF BATTLE: The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944. Volume Two of the Liberation Trilogy. By Rick Atkinson. (Holt, $35.) A celebration of the American experience in these campaigns.

THE DIANA CHRONICLES. By Tina Brown. (Doubleday, $27.50.) The former New Yorker editor details the sordid domestic drama that pitted the Princess of Wales against Britain’s royal family.

THE DISCOVERY OF FRANCE: A Historical Geography From the Revolution to the First World War. By Graham Robb. (Norton, $27.95.) Robb presents France as a group of diverse regions, each with its own long history, intricate belief systems and singular customs. 值得注意

DOWN THE NILE: Alone in a Fisherman’s Skiff. By Rosemary Mahoney. (Little, Brown, $23.99.) Mahoney juxtaposes her solo rowing journey with encounters with the Egyptians she met.

DRIVEN OUT: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans. By Jean Pfaelzer. (Random House, $27.95.) How the Chinese were brutalized and demonized in the 19th-century American West — and how they fought back.

DUE CONSIDERATIONS: Essays and Criticism. By John Updike. (Knopf, $40.) Updike’s first nonfiction collection in eight years displays breathtaking scope as well as the author’s seeming inability to write badly.

EASTER EVERYWHERE: A Memoir. By Darcey Steinke. (Bloomsbury, $24.95.) A minister’s daughter confronts her own spiritual rootlessness.

EDITH WHARTON. By Hermione Lee. (Knopf, $35.) This meticulous biography shows Wharton’s significance as a designer, decorator, gardener and traveler, as well as a writer.作家身份擺在最後 hc在譯藝部落討論些她的一中篇小說

THE FATHER OF ALL THINGS: A Marine, His Son, and the Legacy of Vietnam. By Tom Bissell. (Pantheon, $25.) Bissell mixes rigorous narrative accounts of the war and emotionally powerful scenes of the distress it brought his own family.

THE FLORIST’S DAUGHTER. By Patricia Hampl. (Harcourt, $24.) In her fifth and most powerful memoir, Hampl looks hard at her relationship to her Midwestern roots as her mother lies dying in the hospital.

FORESKIN’S LAMENT: A Memoir. By Shalom Auslander. (Riverhead, $24.95.) With scathing humor and bitter irony, Auslander wrestles with his Jewish Orthodox roots.

GOMORRAH: A Personal Journey Into the Violent International Empire of Naples’ Organized Crime System. By Roberto Saviano. Translated by Virginia Jewiss. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $25.) This powerful work of reportage started a national conversation in Italy when it was published there last year.

THE HOUSE THAT GEORGE BUILT: With a Little Help From Irving, Cole, and a Crew of About Fifty. By Wilfrid Sheed. (Random House, $29.95.) A rich homage to Gershwin, Berlin and other masters of the swinging jazz song.

HOW DOCTORS THINK. By Jerome Groopman. (Houghton Mifflin, $26.) Groopman takes a tough-minded look at the ways in which doctors and patients interact, and at the profound problems facing modern medicine.

HOW TO READ THE BIBLE: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Now. By James L. Kugel. (Free Press, $35.) In this tour through the Jewish scriptures (i.e., the Old Testament, more or less), a former professor of Hebrew seeks to reclaim the Bible from the literalists and the skeptics.

HOW TO TALK ABOUT BOOKS YOU HAVEN’T READ. By Pierre Bayard. Translated by Jeffrey Mehlman. (Bloomsbury, $19.95.) A French literature professor wants to assuage our guilt over the ways we actually read and discuss books.

IMPERIAL LIFE IN THE EMERALD CITY: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone. By Rajiv Chandrasekaran. (Knopf, $25.95.) The author, a Washington Post journalist, catalogs the arrogance and ineptitude that marked America’s governance of Iraq.

THE INVISIBLE CURE: Africa, the West, and the Fight Against AIDS. By Helen Epstein. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $26.) Rigorous reporting unearths new findings among the old issues.

LEGACY OF ASHES: The History of the CIA. By Tim Weiner. (Doubleday, $27.95.) A comprehensive chronicle of the American intelligence agency, from the days of the Iron Curtain to Iraq, by a reporter for The New York Times.

LENI: The Life and Work of Leni Riefenstahl. By Steven Bach. (Knopf, $30.) How Hitler’s favorite director made “Triumph of the Will” and convinced posterity that she didn’t know what the Nazis were up to.

LEONARD WOOLF: A Biography. By Victoria Glendinning. (Free Press, $30.) Glendinning shows Virginia Woolf’s accomplished husband as passionate, reserved and, above all, stoical.

A LIFE OF PICASSO: The Triumphant Years, 1917-1932. By John Richardson. (Knopf, $40.) The third, penultimate installment in Richardson’s biography spans a dauntingly complicated time in Picasso’s life and in European history.敬禮之作

LITTLE HEATHENS: Hard Times and High Spirits on an Iowa Farm During the Great Depression. By Mildred Armstrong Kalish. (Bantam, $22.) Kalish’s soaring love for her childhood memories saturates this memoir, which coaxes the reader into joy, wonder and even envy.

LONG WAY GONE: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. By Ishmael Beah. (Sarah Crichton/-Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $22.) A former child warrior gives literary voice to the violence and killings he both witnessed and perpetrated during the Sierra Leone civil war.

THE NINE: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court. By Jeffrey Toobin. (Doubleday, $27.95.) An erudite outsider’s account of the cloistered court’s inner workings.

THE ORDEAL OF ELIZABETH MARSH: A Woman in World History. By Linda Colley. (Pantheon, $27.50.) Colley tracks the “compulsively itinerant” Marsh across the 18th century and several continents.

PORTRAIT OF A PRIESTESS: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece. By Joan Breton Connelly. (Princeton University, $39.50.) A scholar finds that religion meant power for Greek women.

RALPH ELLISON: A Biography. By Arnold Rampersad. (Knopf, $35.) Ellison was seemingly cursed by his failure to follow up “Invisible Man.”(這小說台灣翻譯過)

THE REST IS NOISE: Listening to the Twentieth Century. By Alex Ross. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $30.) In his own feat of orchestration, The New Yorker’s music critic presents a history of the last century as refracted through its classical music.

SCHULZ AND PEANUTS: A Biography. By David Michaelis. (Harper/ Harper-Collins, $34.95.) Actual “Peanuts” cartoons movingly illustrate this portrait of the strip’s creator, presented here as a profoundly lonely and unhappy man.

SERVICE INCLUDED: Four-Star Secrets of an Eavesdropping Waiter. By Phoebe Damrosch. (Morrow, $24.95.) A memoir about waiting tables at the acclaimed Manhattan restaurant Per Se.

SOLDIER’S HEART: Reading Literature Through Peace and War at West Point. By Elizabeth D. Samet. (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $23.) A civilian teacher at the Military Academy offers a significant perspective on a crucial social and political force: honor.

STANLEY: The Impossible Life of Africa’s Greatest Explorer. By Tim Jeal. (Yale University, $38.) Of the many biographies of Henry Morton Stanley, Jeal’s, which profits from his access to an immense new trove of material, is the most complete and readable.

THE STILLBORN GOD: Religion, Politics, and the Modern West. By Mark Lilla. (Knopf, $26.) With nuance and complexity, Lilla examines how we managed to separate, in a fashion, church and state.

THOMAS HARDY. By Claire Tomalin. (Penguin Press, $35.) Tomalin presents Hardy as a fascinating case study in mid-Victorian literary sociology. 有點興趣

TOO CLOSE TO THE SUN: The Audacious Life and Times of Denys Finch Hatton. By Sara Wheeler. (Random House, $27.95.) The story of the man immortalized in “Out of Africa.”

TWO LIVES: Gertrude and Alice. By Janet Malcolm. (Yale University, $25.) Sharp criticism meets playful, absorbing biography in this study of Stein and Toklas.

THE WHISPERERS: Private Life in Stalin’s Russia. By Orlando Figes. (Metropolitan, $35.) An extraordinary look at the gulag’s impact on desperate individuals and families struggling to survive.

THE YEARS OF EXTERMINATION: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945. By Saul Friedländer. (HarperCollins, $39.95.) Individual testimony and broader events are skillfully interwoven.

new Shorter Oxford

Connections

Menagerie, Not Museum, for Words That Live


Published: November 26, 2007

In his 1755 dictionary Samuel Johnson defined the lexicographer as “a writer of dictionaries; a harmless drudge, that busies himself in tracing the original, and detailing the signification of words.” Unfortunately Johnson was uncharacteristically wrong. A lexicographer, if any good, is hardly a drudge, and if bad, is hardly harmless.

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Yale University Press

From “Treasure-House of the Language: The Living OED.”

Nor, for that matter, are dictionaries “written” anymore. They are “compiled,” a word that, according to the newly published Sixth Edition of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, comes from the Latin, compilare, meaning to plunder or plagiarize.

Of that, this two-volume dictionary may be partly guilty, since it is partly plundered. The mother lode (“a principal or rich source”) is, of course, the great 1928 first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, which defined 414,000 words in 15,490 pages. That dictionary, like this, its latest spinoff (“a byproduct or an incidental development from a larger project”), was created “on historical principles.” This means that it not only defined the words but also cited their earliest known uses, drawn from what the first volume of that first edition, published in 1888, called “all the great English writers of all ages.”

Much has changed since then, when Walter Scott — now a literary wraith ( ━━ n. (人の死の直前に現れる)生霊, 死霊; 幽霊; やせこけた人.)— was the dictionary’s second most-quoted English writer after Shakespeare. And the new Shorter Oxford provides a telling example of those changes, reflecting, and partly anticipating, the transformations unfolding in the unabridged third edition of the O.E.D. (as the project is called). That new O.E.D. began in 2000 with the letter M, and, as of September 2007, reached the word purposive, each successive change made available for the dictionary’s online subscribers. (See oed.com.)

The first edition grew out of a different conceptual universe. James Murray, its remarkable editor, said in 1900 that the O.E.D. was “permeated” with “the scientific method of the century.” Charlotte Brewer points out in a valuable forthcoming book, “Treasure-House of the Language: The Living OED” (Yale), that meant illuminating the evolution of English, chronicling the origins of its linguistic species and surveying their habitats. Historical quotations were as crucial as current definitions.

This also meant that from the very start the dictionary’s creators were engaged in a debate. Would this dictionary, with its display cases of literary specimens, demonstrate the natural history of English, constructing a “treasure-house of the language,” as Ms. Brewer’s title puts it? Or would it show something more like an open-air menagerie pulsing with ever-changing life, admitting even the newest words and meanings? Was the dictionary to be prescriptive, showing how language should be used, or descriptive, reflecting how it actually was used?

The first edition tended to prove the inadequacy of the first position. Murray, for example, refused to include the word appendicitis【醫】闌尾炎,盲腸炎(日文 ━━ n. 虫垂炎.) , criticizing ugly Latinizations of words by the medical profession. Aesthetics, however, did not prevent the word from entering popular awareness in 1902 when Edward VII had to postpone his coronation because of that diagnosis.

The sheer length of time it took to produce the first edition — 40 years of cataclysmic history unfolded between the appearance of its first volume and the publication of the last — demonstrated just how mercurial the language was and how difficult to codify. The O.E.D. was antique before its completion, requiring an immediate supplement that incorporated words from radium to robot.

The second supplement required four volumes and 29 years, and was completed in 1986; its changes were then folded into the original O.E.D., creating a 20-volume second edition in 1989 (available on a $295 CD-ROM). The continually evolving third edition is being overseen by John Simpson and more than 70 lexicographers. In the meantine this Shorter O.E.D. ($175, including a CD-ROM), with about 600,000 definitions, is a remarkable resource, but it also offers some glimpses of the issues being faced.

For included here are 2,500 new entries that treat language more as living menagerie than as natural history museum. Along with restless leg syndrome and flatline come more questionable entries, where use becomes the main criterion for inclusion.

“Generic,” for example, has given birth to a verb that makes even appendicitis seem attractive: “genericize.” Bureaucratic identifications make the cut, however local and obscure: “P45” is defined as a certificate given to an employee in Britain and Ireland “at the end of a period of employment, providing details of his or her tax code.”

But once description trumps prescription and currency eclipses timelessness, it becomes difficult to capture the slippery shifts in tone and fashion that accompany new words. “Ghetto fabulous” is defined here as “pertaining to or favoring an ostentatious style of dress associated with the hip-hop subculture,” though its use now is broader and sometimes more ambiguous. And “ghetto blaster” should probably be marked obs. (for obsolete).

But the biggest difficulties are in the “ historical principles,” which seem to have become historical themselves — held over from the past, only to be jettisoned when inconvenient. This is clearest in the use of quotations. Of course the first O.E.D. was skewed in its choices, reflecting few writers of the 18th century, and offering a selection not fully representative of the language’s powers. But now the O.E.D. does not even pretend to offer “all the great English writers of all ages.”

Diversity becomes a greater priority. The Shorter dictionary has 1,300 new quotations from writers like Susan Faludi, Spike Lee, Isaac Bashevis Singer and Zadie Smith, and the editors emphasize their broad demographic intentions. This can be illuminating. I like, for example, the Shorter’s definition for “mook” (“a stupid or incompetent person”) with an illustration from Mr. Lee, “Who are you gonna listen to, me or that mook?” But in that case, there is also too little information: Only cross-references lead the reader to guess that the word evolved out of a racial slur.

And while it may be fine, in the old O.E.D., to cite authors like Shakespeare or Tennyson by first initial and last name, once the floodgates are opened, undated identifications become bewildering.

A. Cohen, for example, turns out to be the writer Arthur Cohen. But in what way does his quotation, “He could make no promises,” illuminate the evolution of the language or masterly use of the word promise? Similarly, the word smile is illustrated by a quotation from The Japan Times: “A smile creases his ...face.” There is no distinction in these examples other than the lexicographers’ desire to certify their broad representation of sources. To what linguistic end?

Does it matter, for example, that the word entrust is entrusted with a quote from L. Bruce — “I was entrusted with the unromantic job of weeding” — even if the L. in question is Lenny? As for a more obscure word, like enubilate, it might have been made as clear as its meaning (“make clear”) by providing some appropriate examples. For that you must turn to the unabridged O.E.D., where a 1903 citation from The Saturday Review establishes an enchantingly ornate context: “Maeterlinck is gradually enubilating himself from those enchanting mists in which first he strayed.”

Of course this Shorter is necessarily a snapshot — a glimpse of a very great dictionary grappling with its tradition and ambitions, offering much that fascinates, along with much that vexes or perplexes. For more detail look at Ms. Brewer’s book, or at her illuminating Web site (oed.hertford.ox.ac.uk???), in which the O.E.D.’s third edition is being closely scrutinized.

By the time that edition is complete, perhaps decades hence, it may never even be printed. The Internet is now the O.E.D.’s perfect home — as revisable and seemingly beyond codification as language itself. But the new O.E.D. also seems tempted by the unbounded possibility of that infinite revision, as if the very idea of a “treasure-house of the language” were somewhat quaint. And to that one can only respond with an exclamation that has just made it into the O.E.D.’s third edition: “Puh-leeze!”

(Connections is a critic’s perspective on arts and ideas.)

2007年11月25日 星期日

{錢牧齋柳如是佚詩及柳如是有關資料}

周法高編著,{錢牧齋柳如是佚詩及柳如是有關資料}自費出版 台北 1978

佚叢序

牧齋集外詩目

牧齋集外詩補目

牧齋集外詩

牧齋集外詩補

柳如是詩

柳如是詩補

柳如是詞

柳如是有關資料


· 讀柳如是別傳,《 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊 53.2 1982 ): 189-203

孫康宜著,{陳子龍柳如是詩詞情緣}

周法高主要從事語言學、音韻學、訓詁學、文字學等方面的研究,取得了很高的成就。音韻學方面,學士論文為《經典釋文反切考》、碩士論文為《玄應音研究》,進入史語所後 ...央研究院歷史語言研究所

199010,向周法高教授請益問學,《國文天地》第65期,67-69,臺北.--本篇論文,作者藉由此次訪談,詳細記錄了周教授於語言學、文字學等方面的貢獻。

2007年11月24日 星期六

Essence of Decision :王壽來

Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (ペーパーバック)
Graham T. Allison (著), Philip Zelikow (著)

2.G.T.Allison, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.
外交決策分析參考書目

包宗和教授的教學網誌





我可能在2002年夏才從當時任職寶成Nike的 Bruce Lee 先生(他讀外交與政治)知道這本書-- Essence of Decision-- 妙的是 這書既然這樣有名 竟然至今沒有翻譯

日本早有翻譯: Essence of Decision , Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. ,. 1971. アリソン著(宮里政玄訳)『決定の本質』(中央公論社、1977年)

有點奇怪
查一下 原來1985年台灣有翻印本.......


某書局早年出版的《奧古斯丁懺悔錄》
《中華副刊 2007/11/24 王壽來 撰》

 經典之書,使人永遠受益;經典之言,使人茅塞頓開。

  二十年前,我在華府念書的時候,選了一門公共政策的課,任教的古德曼老師上課超認真,規定閱讀的教材多屬問世不久的最新著作,唯一他所指定的老書,就是討 論古巴飛彈危機事件的《決策之本質》( Essence of Decision)。他強調,此書是研究美國公共政策的經典之作,非讀不可。
 多年後,我看電影《驚爆十三天》時,能比一般人更能了解當時甘迺迪總統面臨美蘇戰爭邊緣的處境及決策模式,實不得不歸因於過去所打下的基礎,而這也讓我印證了一本好書使人一生受益的道理。




Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis

イメージを拡大



‘Avoid Boring People’

He is aware there is a second way to parse his title, with “boring” serving as a verb instead of an adjective: “Not boring others, of course, requires that you take pains not to become boring, as often happens when you begin to bore yourself.”

George Johnson’s eighth book, “The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments,” will be published next spring.--So You Want to Be a Nobelist

Gutenberg Bible

Tutor's tip: A "berg" is an iceberg, a "burg" is a fortified or walled town, and a "burgh" is a town in Scotland.

Gutenberg, the inventor of the printing press

Wikipedia article "Johannes Gutenberg".

約翰內斯·古騰堡Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg,又譯作谷登堡古登堡古滕貝格—hc 此翻譯比較好 因為berg不是),約1400出生於德國美因茲146823逝世於美因茲,是西方活字印刷術的發明人,他的發明導致了一次媒介革命,迅速地推動了西方科學和社會的發展。

Gutenberg Bible

... <目次>. I. 慶應本グーテンベルク聖書の概要. II

YouTube - Gutenberg Bible

A short video of the Gutenberg Bible at the University of Texas. Music is the Sarabande from Partita No. 1 in B Minor written by Bach, played by Nathan Mils ...

大英圖書館的谷登堡聖經網站(英文)

維基百科,自由的百科全書

(重定向自古騰堡聖經)


美国国会图书馆中的谷登堡圣经


美國國會圖書館中的谷登堡聖經

古騰堡聖經Gutenberg Bible,另譯谷登堡聖經,也叫做四十二行聖經,即42-line Bible) 是《聖經拉丁文公認翻譯的印刷品,由同名人古騰堡1454年1455年德意志美因茲採用活字印刷術印刷的。這個聖經是最著名的古版書,他的產生標志著西方圖書批量生產的開始。

完整的拷貝由1282頁組成,裝訂成兩卷。據說一共有180個(sic套)谷登堡聖經被印刷出來,40本印刷在羊皮紙上,另外140本印刷在上。 2003年,已知現存的谷德堡聖經包括11個羊皮紙上的完全拷貝,一個羊皮紙上的新約全書, 48個基本完全的紙上的拷貝,還有一些零散的拷貝。


古滕貝格博物館(Gutenberg-Museum)展現的是約翰尼斯·古滕貝格(Johannes Gutenberg) ... 博物館於1900年約翰內斯 #21476;滕貝格(Johannes Gutenberg)誕辰五百周年之際 ...

古登堡计划(Project Gutenberg)是一个以自由的和电子化的形式,基于互联网,大量提供版权过期而进入公有领域书籍的一项协作计划。最初是在19717月由Michael Hart ...

2007年11月21日 星期三

訓道篇:Chapter 12

此 blog 在2007年11月10日 星期六談過

傳道書 Ecclesiastes or The Preacher

今天讀到王德威先生{畫夢記}談朱西寧先生作品的題詞引一段
不過王先生忘記交待它的版本


我故意引另一版本
10訓道者費神尋找適當的語句,忠誠地寫下了真理之言。
10He sought profitable words, and wrote words most right, and full of truth.

訓道篇:Chapter 12




Irina Palm (2007)

今天開始也將影片類歸入此 blog

2007/11/21 晚上在NTU 看九成的片子:

· Irina Palm (2007)

洞裡春光. IRINA PALM. 導演: 山姆賈巴爾斯基 Sam GARBARSKI

日本[やわらかい手]

(やわらかい 柔[軟]らかい

《体》pliable; supple; 《頭》flexible; pliable.
薪で焚いたお風呂はお湯が~ The water of a bath heated with firewood feels soft to the skin.)


Marianne Faithfull 女主角

又 可參考 http://www.answers.com/Marianne%20Faithfull


The Return of Marianne Faithful in "Irina Palm" (Bettina Peulecke)
As a young woman, Marianne Faithfull was a Chart's hit singer, had a heated affair with Mick Jagger and lived a life of sex drugs and rock and roll. She was considered one of the most talented of her generation - landing hits both in the box office and on the music charts. Now, at the ripe age of 60, Faithful has returned to the spotlight as leading lady in the film "Irina Palm", opening in theatres this week. Marianne plays Maggie, the "wanking widow" who is so desperately in need of money she takes a job that is a bit more than she bargained for.

2007第九屆台北電影節/ 2007 Taipei Film Festival

50歲的麥姬住在倫敦郊區,生活悠閒自在。她的孫子突因急症住院,需籌錢赴澳洲治病,為了解決困難,她四處找工作卻都因年紀不輕而屢遭碰壁,直到得 知情色區的「慾望世界」正急徵「新手」,走投無路的她瞞著家人跑去應徵,開始透過隔間上的圓洞用雙手為客人「服務」,她溫柔又實在的服務闖出鼎盛的口碑, 「慾望世界」門庭若市,此時麥姬終於鼓起勇氣開口預借薪水…。《洞裡春光》在捧腹之餘,將帶給觀眾精彩、意外又溫暖的結局。

Middle-aged Maggie must find a way to get enough money for her grandson’s lifesaving medical treatment. When a “Hostess Wanted” sign catches her eye, Maggie naively stumbles into a city sex club. The true job description is quite a surprise for the respectable, middle-class widow, even if she isn’t a prude. Maggie accepts this job as her very last option, having already sold her own home to pay for little Olly’s hospital bills...

* 蕭乾編《英國版畫集》

英國版畫集. 作者:蕭乾; 濟南:山東畫報出版社 2000重印

蕭乾先生說:我是一個連圈子都畫不圓的人,然而那並不能阻止我對於繪畫的喜愛。

他在40年代所選的《英國版畫集》,1947年曾由上海晨光出版公司出版 (HC:情書中許多人名等專名 老闆趙家壁協助翻譯 ,有些小問題)文革期間,版畫原件亦遭毀壞。蕭乾先生生前即想重版此書。山東畫報出版社根據編者遺願,照原來的版本重印。除了獻辭改為獻給文潔若,繁體字改為簡體字,版權頁照現有情況排印外,版式、紙張、開本均跟原版一樣。這些文潔若在後記(蕭乾周年忌日)中都作了說明。

本書前面約略介紹了英國版畫的淵源與歷史,整本書選了102幅版畫作品,作者、名稱、刻法訊息一併俱全,是很好的參考書籍。《英國版畫集》的獨特魅力……

這些版畫細膩、精緻、富靈氣,代表了英國特定歷史時期的藝術精神,具有較高的欣賞和收藏價值。

應用:

(王辛笛 {手掌集} 封面--但這隻手的版畫,原作者卻是Gertrude Hermes(裘屈羅·赫密士)女士,該圖題為《花卉》(Flowers)就收在一本我們各自擁有的新版畫冊——蕭乾先生編選的《英國版畫集》中) .




cockerel

Gibbings, Robert (1889-1958), artist, book-designer, and travel writer. Born in Cork, he was educated at UCC and served at Gallipoli. He came under the influence of the artist Eric Gill, running the Golden Cockerel Press from 1924 to 1933. Besides a series of books on rivers including Sweet Thames Run Softly (1940) and Lovely is the Lee (1945), he wrote about the South Seas in Coconut Island (1936).

rish Literature Companion. The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature. Copyright © 1996, 2000, 2003 by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Read more
Wikipedia. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Robert Gibbings". Read more



Robert Gibbings (1889-1958) was an artist and author who was most noted for his work as a word carver and for his books on travel and natural history.

Of Irish parentage, he studied at the Slade School of Art and the Central School of Art.

Works

  • Coming Down the Seine
  • Sweet Thames Run Softly
  • Coming down the Wye
  • Till I End My Song



洛勃脫 蓋平斯
雕刻家 同時是自寫自插圖的著作家 初年是在愛爾蘭過Cork的 在倫敦 Slade和 Central 藝專畢業後 就趕上了第一屆大戰 而且參加了幾乎全軍覆沒的 Gallipoli 一役
曾充英國專出版精本書金雞書店Golden Cockerel Press的編輯 教過書 是英國藝術家到海底寫生的第一人 所著自己的書不下半打 如 椰子島 Coconut Island 馨田甜的泰晤士河溫柔地流著
Sweet Thames Run Softly
這裡引用的木雕是出自他最近的著作
蕭乾編《英國版畫集》 頁111

這段介紹很了不起
我對翻譯要苛責一點
cockerel 是一歲以下的雄雞 我相信中文也有類似的稱呼


Cockerel

The Golden Cockerel Press was founded by Harold M. Taylor in 1920. In 1924, Robert Gibbings joined the press and further developed the aim of making finely produced books available to a wider public at a reasonable price. Eminent artists such as Eric Gill, Osbert Lancaster, Blair Hughes-Stanton and Gibbings were commissioned to illustrate the publications. In 1933, Christopher Sandford, along with Owen Rutter and Francis Newbury, acquired the press. Separate bibliographies of the press's output were issued. Pertelote covers the years 1936 to 1943 and features four books illustrated by JBW.




Robert Gibbings (British, 1889-1958)


Robert Gibbings was born in Cork, Ireland. He was educated locally and went on to study medicine for two years at University College, Cork. He later studied art, briefly at the Slade and also at the Central School of Art. He began to experiment with wood engraving, and while on active service in World War I made numerous drawings which he later engraved. After the war he was instrumental in setting up the Society of Wood Engravers. Between 1924 and 1933 Gibbings owned the Golden Cockerel Press at Waltham St Lawrence, near Reading. He directed all aspects of book printing and illustration, decorating many of the publications with wood engravings by himself and other leading artists including Eric Gill. During his time at Waltham he carved a small number of major pieces in stone. The economic slump forced him to sell the press in 1933 and he moved to Cornwall. In 1936 Gibbings became senior lecturer in typography, book production and engraving at Reading University. In 1938 he held a one-man exhibition at Reading Museum titled ‘Twenty Years of Engraving’. His long interest in natural history and his travels resulted in a number of books which he both wrote and illustrated:Sweet Thames Run Softly (1940) was a particular success. In 1955 Gibbings moved from London to Long Wittenham, a village on the banks of the upper Thames. His last book,Till I End My Song, published in 1957, is principally about this village.

Reference: Patience Empson (ed.), The Wood Engravings of Robert Gibbings (1959). Mary A Kirkus, Robert Gibbings: A Bibliography, ed. Patience Empson and John Harris (1962); Andrews, Martin, J. The Life and Work of Robert Gibbings, 2003.






Robert Gibbings. The Mill


The Mill
Wood engraving included in Twelve Wood engravings (privately published, 1921)
Wood engraving on paper, signed by the artist
1918
108 x 70mm.

References: recorded in Empson, Patience, The Wood-engravings of Robert Gibbings, 1949: 11.

£420

A rare and early engraving by Gibbings from 1918.


Robert Gibbings. St. Pachome, Abbot of Taberne

St. Pachome, Abbot of Taberne
Wood engraving for Beasts and Saints by Helen Waddell (1934)
Wood engraving on paper, signed by the artist
1934
120 x 94mm.

References: recorded in Empson, Patience, The Wood-engravings of Robert Gibbings, 1949: 140; illustrated in Andrews, Martin, J. The Life and Work of Robert Gibbings, 2003: 185.



A striking wood engraving from 1934 to illustrate Helen Waddell’s book Beasts and Saints which was a collection of stories and folk tales on the theme of ‘the mutual charities between saints and beasts’ dating from the fourth to the twelfth centuries and translated from the Latin by Waddell. Gibbings was particularly satisfied with his work for the book, recalling ‘My engravings in these two books were the best that I had so far accomplished, and gradually the sadness I felt at losing my press was dissipated.’ (Robert Gibbings, Some Recollections, from Patience Empson, The Wood-engravings of Robert Gibbings, 1949: xlii).




more
http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=Gibbings%2C+Robert+&btnG=Search+Images&gbv=2

2007年11月20日 星期二

A Girl from Shanghai by Yu-Feng Hsu

臺大出版中心 也和一般出版業一樣
不懂得作"索引"
真是貽笑大方






題名: A Girl from Shanghai
編/著/譯者: 徐裕芬 Yu-Feng Hsu
出版機關: 國立臺灣大學
出版年月: 民國96年11月01日
價格別: 定價
價格: 300元
頁數: 288
語文別: 英文




本書介紹  
 

  「為了日後能完全獨立,我知道我必須先獲得良好教育。在我那個年代,女人有三種最好的出路——老師、護士或醫生。而我,選擇當醫生。」
在這本知名遺傳學家徐裕芬教授的自傳封面上,有這麼一段感性的獨白。出生於上海的她,歷經二次大戰與國共戰爭的劫難,在大陸顛沛流離,卻始終不忘奮發求學。之後她輾轉回到臺灣,在臺大醫學院實踐了她的夢想。畢業後轉赴美國謀職,更歷經了種種考驗與磨難……
本書以感性口吻述說了這位臺大校友波瀾壯闊的一生,當中更富含不屈不撓的努力與圓融的人生智慧,值得推薦給每位讀者

目次:

Chapter 1 My Birth and My Parents
Chapter 2 My Aunt Wanted to Adopt Me
Chapter 3 The Years before the Japanese Invasion
Chapter 4 The War Started
Chapter 5 Frequent Air Raids
Chapter 6 The Years in Sichuan: I Started Schooling
Chapter 7 The Years before the End of the War
Chapter 8 Japan Surrendered
Chapter 9 Out Trip Back to Shanghai
Chapter 10 A Critical Period of My life
Chapter 11 The remaining time in Shanghai
Chapter 12 The high school days in Taiwan
Chapter 13 The College Entrance Examination
Chapter 14 Pre-med Years: Dating a Classmate
Chapter 15 A Student Physician” for My Parents
Chapter 16 Training in Psychiatry and an Engagement
Chapter 17 My First Year in the U.S.
Chapter 18 The Second Stop in the U.S.: San Antonio
Chapter 19 Married Life: The Birth of Our First Child
Chapter 20 Our First Year in New York: The Taste of
      Poverty
Chapter 21 My Fellowship Years From Endocrinology
      to Cytogenetics
Chapter 22 Moments of Happiness and Moments of
      Sadness
Chapter 23 Dad`s Achievements after 70
Chapter 24 Climbing the Ladder: A Career in Academic
      Medicine
Chapter 25 My Family Life: Raising Three Children
Chapter 26 My Best Friend,Happy
Chapter 27 One Door Closed; Another Door Opened
Chapter 28 The Beginning of the New Endeavor
Chapter 29 The Emotional Trip to China in 1978
Chapter 30 Taste of Being Someone Important
Chapter 31 The Years That Dad Lived with Us
Chapter 32 Chromosome Mosaicism Became My
      Subspecialty
Chapter 33 Work Stress and Health
Chapter 34 Part of Me Died – Was It My Fault?
Chapter 35 Life after PDL: The First Three Years
Chapter 36 My Grace Is Sufficient for Thee
Chapter 37 Approaching the Golden Years

2007年11月19日 星期一

Reinhold Niebuhr; Candor in the Corridors of Power

Karl Paul Reinhold Niebuhr was an American theologian, ethicist, commentator on politics and public affairs, and professor at Union Theological Seminary for more than 30 years. Wikipedia
SpouseUrsula Niebuhr (m. 1931)

God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference.
Man's capacity for justice makes democracy possible, but man's inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.
Forgiveness is the final form of love.


Irony can turn into tragedy, and Reinhold Niebuhr addressed that possibility in the last sentence of The Irony of American History: ‘If we should perish, the ruthlessness of the foe would be only the secondary cause of the disaster. The primary cause would be that the strength of a giant nation was directed by eyes too blind to see all the hazards of the struggle; and the blindness would be induced not by some accident of nature or history but by hatred and vainglory.’

‘Nations,’ wrote Niebuhr, ‘will always find it more difficult than individuals to behold the beam that is in their own eye while they observe the mote that is in their brother’s eye; and individuals find it difficult enough.’
LRB.CO.UK




JOURNALS 1952-2000 by Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. 書介

分類:book review
2007/11/18 15:00

Books of The Times

Candor in the Corridors of Power


Published: October 1, 2007
In 1962 the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. was able to comment with equal assurance on both of the Monroes within his orbit: Marilyn (as in “Happy Birthday, Mr. President”) and James (as in Monroe Doctrine). What’s more, he made these unrelated remarks closely enough in time for them to appear on the same page of the 894-page new volume of his journals.
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Inger Elliot/Penguin Press
Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.

JOURNALS

1952-2000
By Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.
894 pp. Penguin Press. $40.

This arch, irresistibly revealing book manages to be both showstopping and doorstopping, what with its vast range of subject matter and unfettered private sniping. Mr. Schlesinger, who died on Feb. 28, appears to have spent almost five decades patiently squirreling away aphorisms, aperçus and other people’s back-channel conversations, confident that one day he would have a posthumous bombshell to his credit.
Although “Journals: 1952-2000” has been greatly and speedily pared down by his sons Andrew and Stephen Schlesinger, who took on this project less than a year ago and have cut the material to one-sixth of its original length, its ambitions seem clear. The author, who could be described as either a treasured historian or “the power-loving stablemate of statesmen” (his own sardonic phrase), did not intend this as a profound, analytical work or a deeply personal one.
Instead, candor and spontaneity are its highest priorities, even at the expense of consistency. Thus these journals place the author’s second wedding and the release of the Pentagon Papers on the same footing. They are lumped together, in the language of an overscheduled but determined diarist, as “two events of more than routine importance in recent weeks.”
The tone of the journals is sharply incisive, frequently scathing and unburdened by any need to emphasize moral balance. Mr. Schlesinger could sound equally moved by the Kennedy administration’s disastrous policy decisions and its glittering social spirit. On April 18, 1961, he recorded both these items: “I cannot banish from my mind the picture of these brave men, pathetically underequipped, dying on Cuban beaches before Soviet tanks” and “J.F.K. was in superb form at lunch.”
But at the expense of such deplorable juxtapositions, this book skitters freely through a huge variety of memorable topics. And the compression may be more a consequence of editing than of Mr. Schlesinger’s haste. In any case, “Journals: 1952-2000” presents the bird’s-eye view of a prescient Washington insider, busy gadfly and bon-mot artist extraordinaire. The Ford-Carter presidential election, he writes, sounds like the work of Sinclair Lewis: “Babbitt vs. Elmer Gantry.” The names of the Nixon courtiers Elmer Bobst, Jack Drown and Bebe Rebozo make him mindful of Evelyn Waugh. When carried away with flattery, Mr. Schlesinger could overplay his verbal skills to the point of rebutting claims of Al Gore’s woodenness this way: “They mean that he is as graceful as a willow, as handsome as a birch tree and as sturdy as an oak.”
The threads of friendship and enmity running through this book are long ones. They lend a novelistic sense of character to Mr. Schlesinger’s most enduring connections. His recollections of Henry Kissinger date back to 1960 and describe the wary but unbreakable link between two master manipulators. “I like Henry very much and respect him, though I cannot rid myself of the fear that he says one sort of thing to me and another sort of thing to, say, Bill Buckley,” he writes in 1969. Still, Mr. Schlesinger becomes (at least by his account) the confidant to whom Mr. Kissinger could confess all manner of scathing thoughts about presidents.
Mr. Kissinger on Nixon: “He really can’t remember whether he has read something in a newspaper or in an intelligence report.” Mr. Kissinger on Reagan: “He is the only president with whom I would rather have someone else in the room when I see him. If you talk to him alone, you can be sure that nothing will ever happen.” And on Dan Quayle: that Mr. Quayle is intelligent and underrated. “I take this to mean two things,” Mr. Schlesinger comments: “that Quayle listens reverently to Henry and that Henry thinks Quayle may be president some day.”
“Journals: 1952-2000” is comparably sharp on tensions between Adlai Stevenson and John F. Kennedy loyalists (Mr. Schlesinger, at his slipperiest, managed to be both); Lyndon B. Johnson’s legacy (in 1969 Mr. Schlesinger has “a horrible fear that five years from now he will be one of the most beloved men in America”); student radicals (Mr. Schlesinger has “the suspicion that 20 years from now most of the people in the room will be quiet insurance brokers or real estate men”) ; the Nixon-Humphrey election (“this is really the battle of the minnows”); Jimmy Carter (“smiling like a complacent basilisk”); and the composition of the Clinton cabinet. “Have you considered a sex change?” he says the new vice president, Al Gore, asked him, after telling Mr. Schlesinger, who had his own muted political ambitions, that Madeleine K. Albright had been appointed as ambassador to the United Nations.
In these recollections, Mr. Schlesinger described such a far-reaching circle of acquaintance that it ranged from Reinhold Niebuhr to Mick Jagger, from Gina Lollobrigida to the children of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt. (These children are variously described as “handsome and haggard,” “that wreck of a man of talent and potentiality,” “that charming cipher,” “a meaningless, aging man” and “a hopeless slob.”) Although Mr. Schlesinger can be scorching (of President Bill Clinton’s fund-raising methods in 1996 he writes, “this may have been legal, but it is aesthetically displeasing and historically disgusting”), his language more often affects Jane Austen’s sunny politesse. “Amiable” and “agreeable” are among his favorite modifiers; almost any host is found to be “in excellent form.” In trying to codify the groovy neologisms of hippies (“‘put on,’ meaning to kid”) he takes on an even more antiquated tone.
The lively, confiding voice of these journals is also dutiful, conscientious, ever aware of history, eager to record after-dinner conversations for posterity’s sake. There are times, as when the Rolling Stone publisher Jann Wenner says, in 1975, that recession “greatly contracts one’s scope for frivolity,” that Mr. Schlesinger seems to do something of which he accuses Ben Bradlee’s profanity-laced memoirs of John F. Kennedy: putting his own language into others’ mouths. But by and large, steadily allotting about 18 pages a year (1999 is unaccountably missing), this book creates a moving and monumental 48-year chronicle. And Mr. Schlesinger, who would have turned 90 on Oct. 15, was still throwing off sparks when, in 1998 during a preliminary hearing on the prospect of a Clinton impeachment, he told a subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee that “Gentlemen always lie about their sex lives.” He was pilloried for this and accused of flippancy.
“I have not enjoyed such a fusillade for a third of a century,” he noted happily. “It makes me feel young again.”


為你查字典
━━ n. 通廊, 廊下, (狭い)ルート; 限定された空路[ルート]; 回廊(地帯) (the Polish ~).
corridors of power 〔英〕 (the ~) 権力の回廊 ((重要な政治決定をするグループ)).

pol・i・tesse


n. (形式的な)礼儀正しさ.



fusillade
Show phonetics
noun [C]
a large number of bullets fired at the same time or one after another very quickly:
a fusillade of automatic fire
FORMAL FIGURATIVE A fusillade (= sudden large amount) of questions greeted the president at this afternoon's press conference.

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