2014年11月2日 星期日

從Paul Valéry《海濱墓園》說起

重要詩人的名篇,都深入到該文字和文化的深層。
2013年友人翻譯M. Weber的《韋伯方法論文集》,很訝異地發現作者引《浮士德》的一句,說明科學的認識論。
2014年的5月初,The Economist 有篇評台灣的抗議行動,引了一句名詩,當時我簡單解釋:
《經濟學人》好用典、玩文字。When the wind blows **是Paul  Valéry (1871-1945)最著名長詩 《海濱墓園》的末節起文,據卞之琳所譯和注解:
起風了*-----只有試著活下去一條路!
........
*"起風"也象徵解放。 **
Oscar-winning Japanese director Hayao Miyazaki's 2013 film The Wind Rises takes its title from Valery's verse "Le vent se lève!... Il faut tenter de vivre!" ("The wind rises… We must try to live!") in the poem "Le Cimetière marin" (The Graveyard By The Sea).[6][7]
《海濱墓園》多次被名家引用,我們可以在舉沙特(或譯薩特Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) )的個案:他1948年發表在《現代》的一篇《考爾德的活動雕塑》 (《薩特論藝術》上海人民美術出版社,1989,頁76-9。)
瓦萊里說過,大海永遠是不斷更新的。考爾德的作品就像這大海一樣----有著相同的魅力,即不斷變化,永葆新奇。......
考爾德的活動雕塑指Alexander Calder ( 1898 – 1976) 的Mobile系列作品**。這句話出自《海濱墓園》,而卞氏的翻譯和注解,更讓我們受教:
大海,大海啊永遠在重新開始!*

*卞先生的注:......"波浪不斷起伏,像"永遠在重新開始"。原文用字,形聲處很多,顯出靜中有動。

**


Alexander Calder, "Untitled," 1976, aluminum and steel
****

La Jeune Parque[editLa Jeune Parque (1917)

This obscure, but sublimely musical, masterpiece, of 512 alexandrine lines in rhyming couplets, had taken him four years to complete, and it immediately secured his fame. With "Le Cimetière marin" and "L'Ebauche d'un serpent," it is often considered one of the greatest French poems of the twentieth century.

Valéry died in Paris in 1945. He is buried in the cemetery of his native town, Sète, the same cemetery celebrated in his famous poem, le Cimetière marin.


The Graveyard By The Sea poem



What Is Literature (1949)
https://archive.org/stream/whatisliterature030271mbp/whatisliterature030271mbp_djvu.txt

Prose is first of all an attitude of mind. As Valery 
would say, there is prose when the word passes across our 
gaze as the glass across the sun. When one is in danger 
or in difficulty he grabs any instrument. When the dan- 
ger is past, he does not even remember whether it was a 
hammer or a stick; moreover, he never knew; all he 
needed was a prolongation of his body, a means of ex- 
tending his hand to the highest branch. It was a sixth 
finger, a third leg, ia short, a pure function which he 
assimilated.


5. It goes without saying that in all poetry a certain form of prose, that is, 
of success, is present; and, vice-versa, the driest prose always contains a bit 
of poetry, that is, a certain form of defeat; no prose-writer is quite capable 
of expressing what he wants to say; he says too much or not enough; each 
phrase is a wager, a risk assumed; the more cautious one is, the more atten- 
tion the word attracts; as Valery has shown, no one can understand a word to 
its very bottom. 


It is a holiday for him when contemporary authors do 
him the favor of dying. Their books, too raw, too living, 
too urgent, pass on to the other shore; they become less 
and less affecting and more and more beautiful. After a 
short stay in Purgatory they go on to people the intel- 
ligible heaven with new values. Bergotte, Swann, Sieg- 
fried and Bella, and Monsieur Teste are recent acquisi- 
tions. He is waiting for Nathanael and Menalque. As for 
the writers who persist in living, he asks them only not to 
move about too much, and to make an effort to resemble 
from now on the dead men they will be. Valery, who for 
twenty-five years had been publishing posthumous books, 
managed the matter very nicely. That is why, like some
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