Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 – August 9, 1919), also written von Haeckel, was an eminent German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularized Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the controversial recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarizes its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures (see: Kunstformen der Natur, "Art Forms of Nature"). As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträtsel (1895–1899, in English, The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel); and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution. In the United States, Mount Haeckel, a 13,418 ft (4,090 m) summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada, overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honor, as is another Mount Haeckel, a 2,941 m (9,649 ft) summit in New Zealand; and the asteroid 12323 Haeckel. Ernst Haeckel house ("Villa Medusa") in Jena, Germany contains a historic library.
恩斯特·海因里希·菲利普·奧古斯特·海克爾（Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel，1834年2月16日－1919年8月9日）生於波茨坦卒於耶拿，德國生物學家、博物學家、哲學家、藝術家，同時也是醫生、教授。海克爾將查爾斯·羅伯特·達爾文的進化論引入德國並在此基礎上繼續完善了人類的進化論理論。 海克爾本來的職務是醫生，後來任比較解剖學的教授。他是最早將心理學看作是生理學的一個分支的人之一。他引入了一些今天在生物學中非常普遍的術語如生態學、門等，他將政治學稱為是「應用生物學」。他的一些理論和主張後來被納粹理論家利用，成為其種族主義和社會達爾文主義的理由。海克爾也是優生學的先驅。 海克爾比較知名的文章主要是他的科普、嘲諷文章或者他的遊記，但他的學術文章今天依然可以提供新的啟發。比如他1866年的《形態學大綱》是世界上第一部達爾文的進化論的教科書，在他的1874年的《人類學》中他使用比較解剖學的方法來探討人從動物世界的進化和人的來源。他的三卷長的《系統發生學》至今很少有人讀，這是一部從1894年到1896年發表的巨著，其中海克爾描述了他對整個動物世界的進化和親屬關係的認識。
Visions of Nature: The Art and Science of Ernst Haeckel
OverviewThis first detailed survey of the remarkable work of the late nineteenth-century biologist and artist Ernst Haeckel conveys a vivid picture of a man for whom nature and art were inseparable.
The foremost proponent of evolutionary theory in 19th-century Europe, Ernst Haeckel was more famous in some circles at the time than Charles Darwin. Haeckel was also enormously influential in the art world, particularly the Art Noveau and Surrealist movements, and his elaborate and mesmerizing illustrations are the subject of continued interest from artists and designers. From his minutely detailed renderings of radiolarians to his vivid depictions of embryonic development to his softly colored landscapes of the Italian countryside, these vibrant reproductions of Haeckel's wondrous art demonstrate a profound appreciation for nature's intrinsic design that will continue to inspire artists for generations to come. Haeckel's revolutionary and often contentious theories on evolution, as well as his contributions as a scientist and explorer, are considered in thoughtful essays written by one of the foremost scholars on Haeckel's work. Fusing scientific thought with philosophy, molecular structure with design, this richly illustrated profile of a revolutionary thinker and brilliant artist will delight Haeckel's ever-growing audience.Olaf Breidbach is a biologist, art historian and head of the Ernst Haeckel Haus in Jena, Germany. He is the author of Art Forms in Nature: The Prints of Ernst Haeckel and Art Forms from the Ocean (both by Prestel).
The geometric shapes and natural forms, captured with exceptional precision in Ernst Haeckel's prints, still influence artists and designers to this day. This volume highlights the research and findings of this natural scientist. Powerful modern microscopes have confirmed the accuracy of Haeckel's prints, which even in their day, became world famous. Haeckel's portfolio, first published between 1899 and 1904 in separate installments, is described in the opening essays. The plates illustrate Haeckel's fundamental monistic notion of the "unity of all living things" and the wide variety of forms are executed with utmost delicacy. Incipient microscopic organisms are juxtaposed with highly developed plants and animals. The pages, ordered according to geometric and "constructive" aspects, document the oness of the world in its most diversified forms. This collection of plates was not only well-received by scientists, but by artists and architects as well. Rene Binet, a pioneer of glass and iron construct