2015年4月1日 星期三

Works of Octavio Paz / In Light of India 印度札记/

Though small in stature and well into his seventies, Octavio Paz, with his piercing eyes, gives the impression of being a much younger man. In his poetry and his prose works, which are both erudite and intensely political, he recurrently takes up such themes as the experience of Mexican history, especially as seen through its Indian past, and the overcoming of profound human loneliness through erotic love. Paz has long been considered, along with César Vallejo and Pablo Neruda, to be one of the great South American poets of the twentieth century; three days after this interview, which was conducted on Columbus Day 1990, he joined Neruda among the ranks of Nobel laureates in literature.
Paz was born in 1914 in Mexico City, the son of a lawyer and the grandson of a novelist. Both figures were important to the development of the young poet: he learned the value of social causes from his father, who served as counsel for the Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata, and was introduced to the world of letters by his grandfather. As a boy, Paz was allowed to roam freely through his grandfather’s expansive library, an experience that afforded him invaluable exposure to Spanish and Latin American literature. He studied literature at the University of Mexico, but moved on before earning a degree.
At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Paz sided immediately with the Republican cause and, in 1937, left for Spain. After his return to Mexicao, he helped found the literary reviews Taller (“Workshop”) and El Hijo Pródigo (“The Child Prodigy”) out of which a new generation of Mexican writers emerged. In 1943 Paz traveled extensively in the United States on a Guggenheim Fellowship before entering into the Mexican diplomatic service in 1945. From 1946 until 1951, Paz lived in Paris. The writings of Sartre, Breton, Camus, and other French thinkers whom he met at that same time were to be an important influence on his own work. In the early 1950s Paz’s diplomatic duties took him to Japan and India, where he first came into contact with the Buddhist and Taoist classics. He has said, “More than two thousand years away, Western poetry is essential to Buddhist teaching: that the self is an illusion, a sum of sensations, thoughts, and desire. In October 1968 Paz resigned his diplomatic post to protest the bloody repression of student demonstrations in Mexico City by the government.
His first book of poems, Savage Moon, appeared in 1933 when Paz was nineteen years old. Among his most highly acclaimed works are The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950), a prose study of the Mexican national character, and the book-length poem Sun Stone(1957), called by J. M. Cohen “one of the last important poems to be published in the Western world.” The poem has five hundred and eighty-four lines, representing the five hundred and eighty-four day cycle of the planet Venus. Other works include Eagle or Sun? (1950), Alternating Current (1956), The Bow and the Lyre (1956), Blanco (1967),The Monkey Grammarian (1971), A Draft of Shadows (1975), and A Tree Within(1957).
Paz lives in Mexico City with his wife Marie-José, who is an artist. He has been he recipient of numerous international prizes for poetry, including the International Grand Prix, the Jerusalem Prize (1977), the Neustadt Prize (1982), the Cervantes Prize (1981), and the Novel Prize.
During this interview, which took place in front of an overflow audience at the 92nd Street YM-YWHA in New York, under the auspices of the Poetry Center, Paz displayed the energy and power typical of him and of his poetry, which draws upon an eclectic sexual mysticism to bridge the gap between the individual and society. Appropriately, Paz seemed to welcome this opportunity to communicate with his audience.

In Light of India 印度札记/ Selected Works of Octavio Paz
作 家社版《帕斯選集》分上下兩卷,大致以時間為序,收錄了帕斯具有代表性的詩集、隨筆 集、訪談錄和雜文集共19部,包括《在你清晰的影子下》《災難與奇跡》、《狂暴的季節》、《太陽石》、《弓與琴》等,約116萬字。既標出了詩人一生創作 歷程的變化,又隱約襯出了求新求變的二十世紀文學創作的底色。
奧 克塔維奧·帕斯(Octavio Paz,1914-1998),二十世紀具有世界性影響的墨西哥偉大詩人、作家。生於墨西哥城的一個知識分子家庭,早年就讀于墨西哥大學哲學和法律專業; 三十年代初開始文學創作並創辦文學刊物,1938年在巴黎參加了超現實主義文學運動;1943年獲美國古根海姆獎學金,去舊金山和紐約學習美術,1944 年獲古本江獎學金,在美國研究拉美詩歌;1945年進入外交界,曾作為外交官出使、日本和印度等國;1968年為抗議墨西哥政府鎮壓學生運動憤而辭去駐印 度大使職務,去美國和英國的大學從事研究工作;1971年回國繼續從事文學活動直至去世;1972年被任命為美國文學藝術研究院院士;自1973年起,先 後被美國波士頓大學、哈佛大學、紐約大學授予名譽博士稱號。1990年獲諾貝爾文學獎,或獎理由為:“他的作品充滿激情,視野開闊,滲透著感悟的智慧並體 現了完美的人道主義。”
帕 斯一生著述甚豐。重要的詩集包括《在你清晰的影子下》、《預言下的自由》、《鷹還是 太陽》(散文詩)、《太陽石》、《狂暴的季節》、《東山坡》、《回歸》、《向內生長的樹》等;散文和詩論集包括《孤獨的迷宮》、《弓與琴》、《交流電》、 《仁慈的魔王》、《詩與世紀末》、《另一種聲音》等。帕斯的創作成功地將拉美大陸的史前文化、西班牙文化和現代西方文化融為一體。在他的詩歌世界裏,強烈 的瞬間經驗和複雜的歷史意識、個體的生命直覺和人類的文化傳統達成了高度統一,其後期作品更自覺地將東西方文化融于一爐。他還曾向西班牙與世界翻譯、介紹 國王維、李白、杜甫等中國古代詩歌大師的作品。
對 於帕斯文學創作的影響和價值,另兩位拉丁美洲作家在他1998年逝世時所作出的評語 可以參考。加西亞·馬爾克斯說:“對帕斯的榮譽來說,任何表彰都是膚淺的。他的死是一個美、思考和分析的涌流的無法修補的斷路。這一涌流貫穿了整個二十世 紀,而且會波及到今後很長的時間。”巴爾加斯·略薩說:“我認為當代文化一個最高大的形象和帕斯一起消失了。作為詩人、散文家、思想家和正義的覺悟,他留 下了一條很深的痕跡,它使得自己的崇敬者和反對者都深深為他的思想、他的美學意象以及他用智慧和激情捍衛的價值觀念所折服。”
(墨西哥)奧克塔維奧·帕斯 著 趙振江 等 譯 小16開 1160千字 ISBN 7-5063-3526-3 2006年7月第1版 98.00元


譯人故事(二十):Octavio Paz (奧克塔維奧‧帕斯,1914-98)2004/10/2


台 北有家新出版社,精美地編集繁體字《雙重火燄──愛情與欲望的幾何學》(LA LLAMA DOBLE, AMOR Y EROTISMO, 1993 - The Double Flame: Love and Eroticism)台北,2004;《雙重火燄:──愛與欲》蔣顯璟等譯,北京:東方出版社,1998

【標題常騙人,這本提到的現代經 典很不少,包括人工智能學的《心智的社會》,由於中文書都不肯作索引,一般人不了解這些知識份子--詩人的博學…….『它 燃起了情欲(eroticism)的紅色火焰, 而情欲繼之又燃起另一個搖曳不定的藍色火焰:愛情(love)的火焰。情欲與愛情:生命的雙重火焰。」「就像同心圓一樣,性欲就是這種情欲幾何的中心和樞 紐。」』】
鄭樹森在他得諾貝爾獎之前訪問他(《國際文壇十二家》(其中第一篇Octavio Paz, Juan Carlos Onetti),鄭樹森編,台北: 聯合文學,1992)。我們從中知道,Paz的世界和他的西班牙譯介漢詩,頗為拉丁文壇歡迎。Paz透過英文和法文的翻譯和介紹(包括程抱一的《中國詩 學》、《紅樓夢》、《史記》等等),轉譯中國古典詩(按:1993出版《莊子》)
「在《翻譯與消遣》(1973 Traduccion :literatura y literaridad, Tusquets, 1990)中,他翻譯了唐宋一些詩人的作品。帕斯的詩歌與散文具有融合歐美,貫通東西,博採眾長、獨樹一幟的特點。」(diversión f 1. (entretenimiento) entertainment 2. (pasatiempo) pastime 3. MIL diversion
(from Diccionario Cambridge Klett Compact) )
從甜蜜的辛苦: 譯詩雜記 http://www.hgjh.hlc.edu.tw/~chenli/ontranslation.htm 進入
帕斯詩選 陳黎‧張芬齡 譯
Octavio Paz Translations by Eliot Weinberger
http://www.geocities.com/poesiamsigloxx/paz/paz2.html<帕斯/博普羅夫斯基><在印度的微光中> (Vislumbres de la India 1995)﹐蔡憫生譯, 馬可孛羅, 城邦文化, 2000。

太陽石 (Piedra del sol)﹐朱景冬等譯﹐桂冠圖書﹐1993。 【這是三百來頁的選集】;《太陽石》 趙振江譯,廣州:花城出版社,1992(小本多的選集)。

帕斯詩選 陳黎譯,書林,1991。【帕斯詩選 陳黎‧張芬齡 譯】



Paz 主要詩作有《太陽石》(1957)、《假釋的自由》(1958)、 《火種》(1962)、《東山坡》(1969)、《清晰的過去》(1974)、《轉折》(1976)、《向下生長的樹》(1987)等。其中《太陽石》是 他的代表作,曾轟動國際詩壇。散文作品有《孤獨的迷官》(1950)、《EL ARCO Y LA LIRA, 1956 - The Bow and the Lyre;弓與琴;弓と竪琴》(1956)、《榆樹上的梨》(1957)、《交流》(1967)、《連接與分解》(1969)、《仁慈的妖 魔》(1974)、《索爾 •胡安娜•伊內斯或信仰的陷附》(1982)、《人在他的世紀中》(1984)、《印度紀行》(1995)等。在《翻譯與消遣》(1973)中,他翻譯了 唐宋一些詩人的作品。
Octavio Paz日文詩之翻譯:
RENGA, 1972 (with others)
In the countryside one night, years ago, as I contemplated the stars in the cloudless sky, I heard the metallic sound of the elytra of a cricket. There was a strange correspondence between the reverberation of the firmament at night and the music of the tiny insect. I wrote these lines:

The sky's big.
Up there, worlds scatter.
unfazed by so much night,
a cricket: brace and bit.

Stars, hills, clouds, trees, birds, crickets, men: each has its world, each is a world, and yet all of these worlds correspond. We can only defend life if we experience a revival of this feeling of solidarity with nature. It is not impossible: fraternity is a word that belongs to the traditions of Liberalism and Socialism, of science and religion.
-- Octavio Paz – Banquet Speech

Paz draws strength from the original Indian poetry of his country in his striving for the "sensuous intelligence" indicated by the prize citation. "Reason is incarnated at last," as he says in a poem from 1948. By welding together thinking and sensuousness Paz can give an immediate palpability to his continuous reflection on poetry, both when he participates in the mission of "spelling" the world, giving it a name and thereby a visibility, and when, as a reader, he finds himself watched from the whispering "foliage of the letters" (Pasado en claro清晰的過去). With such a method he can depict time in all its obtrusive ominousness, and give love power to surmount it.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.

Paz, Octavio (oktä´vy päs´) (KEY) , 1914–98, Mexican poet and critic. A diplomat, he lived abroad many years. Paz’s books—revealing depth of insight, elegance, and erudition—place him among his generation’s ablest writers. His works include the poetry collections La estación violenta (1956), Piedra de sol (1957), Alternating Current (tr. 1973), Configurations (tr. 1971), Early Poems: 1935–1955 (tr. 1974), and Collected Poems, 1957–1987 (1987); the volumes of essays The Labyrinth of Solitude (tr. 1963), The Other Mexico (tr. 1972); and El arco y la lira (1956; tr. The Bow and the Lyre, 1973); criticism; and studies of Claude Lévi-Strauss and Marcel Duchamp (both, tr. 1970). In 1971–72 Paz delivered the Charles Eliot Norton lectures at Harvard; they are collected in Children of the Mire: Modern Poetry from Romanticism to the Avant-Garde (1974). In 1990 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. 1
See I. Ivask, ed., The Perpetual Present (1974).
Octavio Paz 嘉言

Art is an invention of aesthetics, which in turn is an invention of philosophers... What we call art is a game.

If we are a metaphor of the universe, the human couple is the metaphor par excellence, the point of intersection of all forces and the seed of all forms. The couple is time recaptured, the return to the time before time.

Literature is the expression of a feeling of deprivation, a recourse against a sense of something missing. But the contrary is also true: language is what makes us human. It is a recourse against the meaningless noise and silence of nature and history.

Man does not speak because he thinks; he thinks because he speaks. Or rather, speaking is no different than thinking: to speak is to think.

Social criticism begins with grammar and the re-establishing of meanings.

Solitude is the profoundest fact of the human condition. Man is the only being who knows he is alone.

What distinguishes modern art from the art of other ages is criticism.

Wisdom lies neither in fixity nor in change, but in the dialectic between the two.

In Light of India~ Octavio Paz
(Author) "In 1951 I was living in Paris..." (more)



译者: 蔡悯生
作者: (墨)奥克塔维奥·帕斯
ISBN: 9787305061523
页数: 240
定价: 20.00元
出版社: 南京大学出版社
装帧: 平装
出版年: 2009年5月

简介 · · · · · ·

   奥克塔维奥·帕斯做过六年墨西哥驻印度大使。他在那里的经历改变了他的生活。现在,在帕斯迄今最具个人性的这部散文作品中,他把诗意的洞察力与丰富的知 识瞄准了一个不同寻常的巨大主题:印度的文化、风景与本质,一个已经回响了数千年的大陆与文化。帕斯以令人叹服的明晰性,唤起了孟买的声与光;呈现了对于 印度光彩夺目的历史与多语种社会的一种令人信服的观察与诊断;并探究了印度的艺术、音乐与社会。其结果必定会把读者深深地拽进一个充满了令人惊奇的美与力 量的世界。
  ——Washington Post Book World
  ——Agha Ali,《洛杉矶时报》
  这部颇富雄心的书中的篇章当然不是众多的“一瞥”;它们是长期的体验与研究的... (展开全部)

作者简介 · · · · · ·

   奥克塔维奥·帕斯(Octavio Paz,1914—1998),二十世纪具有世界性影响的墨西哥伟大诗人、作家、文学艺术批评家、社会活动家和外交家,一生博览群书,常识渊博,天赋超 群,才华横溢,在当代拉美和世界文坛享有盛誉。以杰出的文学成就获诺贝尔文学奖、塞万提斯文学将、国家文学奖和法国文学艺术最高勋章等国内外二十多个重要 奖项。

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