2009年2月28日 星期六

(美)苏珊·桑塔格 同时 (At the Same Time)

(美)苏珊·桑塔格 同时 (At the Same Time) 黄灿然译 上海译文出版社 2009


中文雖然晚英文數年 不過它內容很充實 篇篇可讀

同时(随笔与演说苏珊·桑塔格文集)(精)


出版社:上海译文出版社
·页码:244 页
·出版日期:2009年



内容简介

《同时》的书名取自苏珊·桑塔格最后一次演说的标题,之所以以此为书名,是为了纪念《同时(随笔与演说苏珊·桑塔格文集)(精)》多种声音的性质,纪念她的文学活动与政治活动、美学思考与伦理思考、内心生活与外部生活的不可分割性。
《同 时(随笔与演说苏珊·桑塔格文集)(精)》内容分为三部分,第一部分是介绍作者一些甚少发表、不为人知的杰作。第二部分是时事评论。由于桑塔格写作这些评 论文章的期间,正是美国外交政策急转弯和世界局势动荡的时期。作者当时对局势的尖锐评估和对布什政府的猛烈抨击现在回顾起来是极具预见性的,而对阿布格莱 布监狱虐囚事件的犀利剖析并不只是局限于事件本身,而是秉承作者两部有关摄影专著(《论摄影》和《疾病的隐喻》)的洞察力,对美国暴力文化提出严厉的批 判。但更重要的还是她在恶劣环境中坚守知识分子的独立性。
第三部分是演说稿。这些讲稿是桑塔格一生写作与行动的融通,是随笔家、小说家、公共知识 分子、行动主义者这些她从一开始就具备,但常常经渭分明的角色的重叠、浸透和深化。可以说,她一生在理论上赞扬的,在实践中都做到了:她以自己“内省的能 量、热情的求知、自我牺牲的准则和巨大的希望”、“从一生深刻而漫长地接触美学所获得的智慧”、“勇气与抵抗”、“道德考量”,而最终成为了“自己的仰慕 者”。

目录



前言
关于美的辩论
一九二六年——帕斯捷尔纳克、茨维塔耶娃、里尔克
爱陀思妥耶夫斯基
双重命运:论安娜·班蒂的《阿尔泰米西娅》
不灭:为维克托·塞尔日辩护
稀奇古怪:论哈尔多尔·拉克斯内斯的《在冰川下》
9.11.01
数周后
一年后
摄影小结
关于对他人的酷刑
文字的良心
世界作为印度
论勇气和抵抗
文学就是自由
同时:小说家与道德考量
说明
译后记
……




作者简介

苏珊·桑塔格,1933年生于美国纽约,毕业于芝加哥大学。1993年当选为美国文学艺术学院院士。她是美国声名卓著的“新知识分子”,与西蒙娜·波伏 瓦、汉娜·阿伦特并称为西方当代最重要的女知识分子,被誉为“美国公众的良心”。2000年获美国国家图书奖,2001年获耶路撒冷国际文学奖,2003 年获德国图书大奖——德国书业和平奖。2004年12月28日病逝于纽约。
苏珊·桑塔格文集
论著
《反对阐释》
Against Interpretation
《激进意志的样式》
Styles of Radical Will
《论摄影》
On Photography
《疾病的隐喻》
Illness As Metaphor &AIDS and Its Metaphors
《在土星的标志下》
Under the Sign of Saturn
《重点所在》
Where the Stress Falls
《关于他人的痛苦》
Regarding the Pain of Others
《同时》
At the Same Time
文学
《床上的爱丽斯》
Alice in Bed
《恩主》
The Benefactor
《死亡匣子》
Death Kit
《火山情人》
The Volcano Lover
《我,及其他》
I.etcetera







文摘
关于美的辩论
二○○二年四月,教皇约翰一保罗二世终于对数不清的掩盖色魔神父的事件被揭露所制造的丑闻作出反应,他对被召去梵蒂冈的美国红衣主教们说:“一件伟大的艺术作品也许会有瑕疵,但它的美依然保存着;这是任何理智上诚实的批评家都能分辨的真理。”

教 皇把天主教会与一件伟大的——即是说,美的——艺术作品相提并论,是不是太怪了?也许不是,因为这种空洞的比较使他可以把令人憎厌的恶行变成好像是默片拷 贝上的刮痕,或覆盖在一幅古典大画家的油画表层上的龟裂缝,也就是我们下意识地略去或掠过的瑕疵。教皇喜欢神圣庄严的理念。而作为一个表示(像健康)某种 无可争辩的优点的术语,美一直是作出应急的评价的永久资源。

然而,永久并不是美的较明显的属性之一;对美的沉思,如果是经验丰富的话,也许会充满 感染力,莎士比亚在很多十四行诗中便很懂得发挥这种戏剧效果。日本传统上对美的颂扬,例如年度观赏樱花盛开的仪式,是深含哀伤的;最激动人心的美是最短暂 的。要使美在某种程度上不消亡,就需要在观念上做很多修补和改变,但不消亡的这个想法实在太诱人、太强烈,根本不应该用称赞更高级的美的化身来糟蹋它。于 是扩充美的概念,顾及各种美,带形容词的美,安排在一个由递升的价值和不受腐蚀所构成的天平上,使用各种隐喻(“心智美”、“精神美”),这些隐喻都优于 被普通语言颂扬为美的东西——感官愉悦。

脸孔和身体这种较不“高洁”的美,依然是最常被访问的美的场所。但我们怎么也想不到教皇在为几代神职人员 性侵犯儿童和为保护性侵犯者而寻找借口时,竟会唤起那种美感。更重要的——对他重要一是“更高级”的艺术之美。不管艺术对感官而言在多少程度上是一个表面 的问题和接受的问题,它一般都在“内在”(相对于“外在”)美的领域获授予荣誉公民称号。美似乎是不可变的,至少当它体现——固定——在艺术形式中的时 候,这是因为美作为一个理念、一个永恒的理念,是在艺术中获得最佳体现的。美(如果你选择以那种方式使用这个词)是深刻的,而不是表面的;有时是隐藏的, 而不是明显的;安慰人的,而不是扰乱人的;不可摧毁的,例如在艺术中,而不是转瞬即逝的,例如在自然中。美,那种约定性的高洁的美,是永存的。

美的最好的理论,是其历史。思考美的历史意味着聚焦于美在特定社群手中的运用。
把美当作无可挑剔的表扬和安慰来使用,不啻是提供某种保障,而按其领导人的意思致力于铲除被视为有害的纷至沓来的创新观点的社群,是不会对修改这保障感兴趣的。难怪约翰—保罗二世——以及他所代表的那个受保护受维护的机构——谈起美这个理念就像谈起好人这个理念一样自在。


同 样似乎不可避免的是,在差不多一百年前,当那些与美术有关的最具威望的社群献身于激烈的创新计划的时候,美便在那些被诋毁的概念中首当其冲。美在创新者和 标新者眼中只能是一种保守标准;格特鲁德·斯泰因说,把一件艺术作品称作美,意味着它已死。美的意思已变成“无非”是美罢了:再没有更乏味或市侩的恭维 了。

在其他领域,美依然是主宰,不可抑制。(又怎能不是呢?)当臭名昭著的爱美者奥斯卡·王尔德在《谎言的衰朽》中宣布“如今,没有任何真正有文 化的人……会谈论落日之美。落日已很落伍了”时,落日在这痛击下顿时晕头转向,然后又稳住了。当艺术也同样被召唤去赶时髦时,却没有稳住。作为一个艺术标 准的美被缩减,远非表示美的权威的衰落。反而是见证了对还存在一种叫做艺术的东西的信仰的衰落。


即使当美是艺术中一个无可置疑的价值标准时,它也是通过求助于某一别的特质而被从侧面来定义的,这特质被假设为某一美的事物的精髓或必要条件。定义美,无非是颂扬美。例如,当莱辛把美等同于和谐时,他是在就卓绝或令人倾倒的事物提供另一个总看法。
由于缺乏一个严格意义上的定义,人们便假设有一种衡量艺术中的美(也即价值)的器官或能力,叫做“品味”,以及有一批由有品味的人鉴定的正典作品,这些人是更精妙深奥的满足的追求者,是鉴赏的行家。因为与生活中的美不同,艺术中的美被假设不一定要明显、昭然、易见。


品 味的问题在于,不管品味在多大程度上是各个时期的艺术爱好者社群内大范围的共识的结果,它都是源自对艺术作出的私人性质的、即时的、可撤回的反应。而那种 共识,不管多么坚定,也无非是局部的。为了纠正这个缺陷,康德——一位虔诚的普遍化者——提出一种以通用而持久的可辨识的原则作出“判断”的独特能力;被 这种判断能力合法化的品味如果得到恰当反映,应为人人所共有。但是,“判断”并不具备它意图达至的提高“品味”或在一定程度上使“品味”更民主化的效力。 首先,作为有原则的判断的品味是很难实施的,因为与易变的、经验式的品味标准不同,判断与被认为是无可争辩地伟大或美的实际艺术作品有着最含糊的联系。况 且,如今品味是一个比在十八世纪末期远为脆弱、更容易受攻击的概念。谁的品味?或更无礼些,谁说了算?


随着文化问题中的相对主义立场对旧有的评估施加的压力愈来愈大,美的定义——对美的精髓的描述——也变得愈来愈空洞。美再也不可能是像和谐那样正面的东西。对瓦莱里来说,美的本质是它不能被定义;美恰恰是“不可言喻的”。



美 的概念之难以确定,反映了判断本身——作为某种可以设想为不偏不倚或客观的、并非总是自我服务或自我指认的东西——的威望之受损。它还反映了艺术中二元话 语的信誉之受损。美把自己定义为丑的对立面。显然,如果你不愿意说某东西是丑的,你就不能说某东西是美的。但是,把某东西——任何东西——称为丑,已有愈 来愈多的禁忌。(若需要解释,不妨首先不是去审视所谓的“政治正确”的崛起,而是去审视演进中的消费主义意识形态,然后才去审视这两者之间的共谋。)重要 的是在迄今一直未被视作美的东西中寻找美的东西(或:在丑中寻找美)。


同样地,对“好品味”这一理念的抗拒——抗拒好品味与坏品味二分法——亦愈 来愈强烈,除了若干场合,例如庆祝势利眼的失败和一度被鄙视为坏品味的东西的胜利。今天,好品味似乎是一个比美更倒退的概念。严肃、困难的“现代主义”艺 术和文学似乎已经过时了,似乎只是势利眼者的阴谋而已。现在,创新是放松;今天的“容易艺术”向一切开绿灯。在宠爱近年那些较“用家友善”的艺术的这种文 化气氛中,美似乎如果不是明显的,也是虚夸的。美在我们荒谬的所谓文化战争中继续受打击。


认为美适用于某些事物而不适用于另一些事物,认为美是识别力的一个原则——这曾经是美的力量也是美的魅力。美一度属于那种建立等级制的概念家族,很适合对身份、阶级、等级和排他性一点也不感到歉疚的社会秩序。


美 这个概念,以前是一个优点,如今变成缺点。一度因为其太笼统、松散、多漏洞而显得脆弱不堪的美,竞被发现是一恰恰相反——排斥太多事物。识别力一度是一种 正面的能力(意味着精纯的判断、高标准、严谨),如今变成负面:它意味着以偏见、狭窄、视而不见的态度对待那些有别于我们自己认同的事物的优点。

针对美的最强烈、最成功的举动是在艺术中:美——以及对美的关心——是会带来限制的;用现时的习语来说,是精英主义的。人们觉得,如果我们不说某东西美而说它“有趣”,则我们的欣赏范围就可以包容得多。

当然,当人们说一件艺术作品有趣,并不一定意味着他们喜欢它——更别说他们认为它美了。它通常无非意昧着他们认为他们应喜欢它。或他们有几分喜欢它,尽管它不美。

或 他们形容某东西有趣,可能是为了避免把它称作美这种陈腐说法。摄影是“有趣”最先以及很早就获胜的领域:新的、摄影式的观看方式提议把一切当作相机的潜在 题材。美催生的题材实在太广泛了;而且没多久,美作为一种判断也显得不够酷了。对一张关于落日的照片,关于一个美丽的落日的照片,任何一个有起码的驾驭精 致语言的能力的人也许宁愿说:“确实,这张照片蛮有趣。”

什么是有趣的呢?主要是以前不被认为是美(或好)的东西。病人是有趣的,一如尼采指出 的。恶人也是有趣的。把某东西说成有趣,是暗示挑战旧的赞美秩序;这样一些判断渴望被视为傲慢,或至少被视为单纯。“有趣”——其反义词是“沉闷”——的 鉴赏家欣赏碰撞而不是和谐。自由主义是沉闷的,卡尔。施米特在写于一九三二年的《政治的概念》一书中如此说。(翌年,他加入纳粹。)奉行自由主义原则的政 治缺乏戏剧性、特色、冲突,而强大的寡头政治——和战争——则是有趣的。

2009年2月26日 星期四

許靖華 孤獨與追尋

孤獨與追尋 : 地質學大師許靖華的成長故事 Aloneness and Search
作者:許靖華 Kenneth J. Hsu 唐清蓉譯 台北: 天下文化出版社:1997年

孤獨與追尋--我的青年時代

孤獨與追尋--我的青年時代,許靖華,網上購物,網上買書
收藏 作者許靖華 唐清蓉 出版社三聯書店 ISBN書號7108018853 出版時間2004-04-01


  • 偉大的科學家 拜PW BRIDGMAN為師 學高壓之實驗
    頁195 PW BRIDGMAN 拼錯
    頁216 的"讓我了解一個人必須確實知道他自己所說的每一個字 否則便言之無物"


     曾榮獲地質學界相當於諾貝爾獎的烏拉斯坦勳章的許靖華,在走遍群山、深探古海後,以年屆七十之齡,探索了自己的生命根源。他的人生三分之一在中 國、三分之一在美國、三分之一在瑞士,許靖華結合科學專業、文學素養與廣闊閱歷,以小說手法鋪陳,寫下自己的故事。在許靖華孤傲的身影下,滿是豐富曲折的 經歷,以及他成為地質學大師的源頭活水。

      透過追尋,他回溯了家族歷史,證明自己是神農氏的後代,因為孤獨,他探原內在的感情,渴望被愛與了解。身為國際人-人生三分之一在中國、三分之一在美國、三分之一在瑞士,許靖華結合科學專業、文學素養與廣闊閱歷,以小說手法鋪陳、歷史般的陳述,寫下自己的故事。 

      全書坦白無隱,美醜善惡、悲歡離合,具呈其中。在許靖華孤傲的身影下,滿是豐富曲折的故事,以及他成為地質學大師的源頭活水。



    中文版式序言
    作者序 追尋 許靖華
    譯者序 無心插柳成蔭 唐清蓉
    第一部 中國(1929-1948)
    第一章 烹愛妾、殺童僕、以餉軍人
    第二章 販夫這妾及其子女
    第三章 “馬扣子呀!將來不要唸書,念不出頭來,苦死了!”
    第四章 “告訴母親和先生:我做錯了,對不起!”
    第五章 “二旭姑娘呀!天亮了,要起來啦!”
    第六章 “你給嗣詩20塊錢了沒有?”
    第七章 “如果又是個女兒,我們就得送她回娘家”
    第八章 “我明一去找你”
    第九章 和平與戰爭
    第十章 “他像瘋狗一樣亂咬人”
    第十一章 “鐵門在我們身後拉上,我感覺自己又要坐牢了“
    第十二章“第二天我向母新宣佈:我已經看完837頁了“
    第十三章“房子被子擊中了嗎?我聞到燒焦味“
    第十四章“吾媽,我要到南開去“
    第十五章 少年情史
    第十六章如果你現在轉係,就不可能在為最年經的畢業生了“
    第十七章“J.R.有朋友了“
    第二部 美國(1948-1964)
    第十八章 漂洋過海
    第十九章 更有大志,也是小人
    第二十章 “我們沒有合適的職位可以雇用您“
    第二一章 打在巨蟲身上的爛蘋果


    2009年2月24日 星期二

    The Power of Place

    February 1997
    316 pp., 112 illus.
    $28.00/£20.95 (PAPER)
    Short

    The Power of Place
    Urban Landscapes as Public History
    Dolores Hayden

    Based on her extensive experience in the urban communities of Los Angeles, historian and architect Dolores Hayden proposes new perspectives on gender, race, and ethnicity to broaden the practice of public history and public art, enlarge urban preservation, and reorient the writing of urban history to spatial struggles.

    In the first part of The Power of Place, Hayden outlines the elements of a social history of urban space to connect people's lives and livelihoods to the urban landscape as it changes over time. She then explores how communities and professionals can tap the power of historic urban landscapes to nurture public memory.

    The second part documents a decade of research and practice by The Power of Place, a nonprofit organization Hayden founded in downtown Los Angeles. Through public meetings, walking tours, artists's books, and permanent public sculpture, as well as architectural preservation, teams of historians, designers, planners, and artists worked together to understand, preserve, and commemorate urban landscape history as African American, Latina, and Asian American families have experienced it.

    One project celebrates the urban homestead of Biddy Mason, an African American ex-slave and midwife active betwen 1856 and 1891. Another reinterprets the Embassy Theater where Rose Pesotta, Luisa Moreno, and Josefina Fierro de Bright organized Latina dressmakers and cannery workers in the 1930s and 1940s. A third chapter tells the story of a historic district where Japanese American family businesses flourished from the 1890s to the 1940s. Each project deals with bitter memories—slavery, repatriation, internment—but shows how citizens survived and persevered to build an urban life for themselves, their families, and their communities.

    Drawing on many similar efforts around the United States, from New York to Charleston, Seattle to Cincinnati, Hayden finds a broad new movement across urban preservation, public history, and public art to accept American diversity at the heart of the vernacular urban landscape. She provides dozens of models for creative urban history projects in cities and towns across the country.


    Endorsements

    The Power of Place is a well-timed, well-reasoned call for fusing history and the environment to create a more democratic and inclusive interpretation of the places in which most of us live and work. Ms. Hayden greatly strengthens preservation with arguments that give the historic environment a critical dimension beyond beauty and rarity."
    The New York Times Book Review



    Awards

    Winner, 1995, category of Archeology and Anthropology, Professional/Scholarly Publishing Annual Awards Competition presented by the Association of American Publishers, Inc.





    Power of Place:
    Media Technology, Youth, and City Design and Development

    MIT 4.285J/11.948J
    Spring 2001, Wednesdays 2-5
    Room 2-131
    TAs: Katrina Simon, Zachariah Kramer

    This workshop provides an introduction to urban environmental design and explores the potential of information technology and the Internet to transform public education, city design, and community development in inner-city neighborhoods. Integration of comprehensive ("top-down") and grassroots ("bottom-up") approaches to design and planning is a major theme.

    Students will work in a real neighborhood with real people on a real project, putting theory into practice and reflecting on insights gained in the process. With teachers and students at a middle school in West Philadelphia, we will study environmental and community history and devise designs for vacant land near the school within the context of planning for the larger community and watershed.

    The course is associated with the West Philadelphia Landscape Project (WPLP), a program that has integrated research, teaching, and community service since 1987. The WPLP (www.upenn.edu/wplp; MIT version will be on line soon) has received millions of hits since 1996. A new WPLP website will be the principle locus of our collaboration with the school and community.

    Place
    The Mill Creek watershed and neighborhood in West Philadelphia, particularly the area around Sulzberger Middle School. The school is located next to a buried river, and many vacant lands near the school are located on or around the sewer, in the old floodplain of the buried creek.

    People
    Students and teachers at Sulzberger Middle School, neighborhood residents, staff of the Philadelphia Water Department.

    Project
    Develop a new, community-based, environmental curriculum for Sulzberger Middle School where students engage in the process of community development. Since the first Power of Place class in 1996–7, seventh and eighth graders have studied the natural and social history of their neighborhood, produced outstanding academic work, inspired pride in their community and visions for its future. The school's principal and teachers are very excited about the prospect of expanding this program to include MIT students working with Sulzberger students via the Internet.

    There will be two field trips to Philadelphia during the semester.

    For background on the project see the WPLP website, especially the section on Sulzberger Middle School (www.upenn.edu/wplp/sms) and summary of the Mill Creek Project (www.upenn.edu/wplp/sms/millc.htm).

    A knowledge of web-authoring and geographic information systems (GIS) is not a prerequisite this year, but is highly desirable.

    Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change

    Amazon.com: Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political ...

    - [ 翻譯此頁 ]Amazon.com: Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change: Harold Isaacs, Lucian W. Pye: Books.

    Editorial Reviews

    Review
    A compact and forthright enumeration of childish allegiances to group identities. The essential motive for clutching at any view of self based on a group narrower than the human species, Isaacs suggests, is the infantile fear of aloneness. And the lack of other sources of self-esteem in this society drives people to soothe and protect themselves with ethnic Linus blankets. A puerile emphasis on bodily features is found not only in the imposition of "skin" concepts on black people, but in most nationalist and ethnic group-think. The magic of names and language, reflected in the term "mother tongue," is grounded in the baby's reliance on his parents to control the world for him by unknown but powerful means. Religious magic is more complicated, Isaacs continues, but often boils down to the same "warming comforters"; and national adherence depends on "powerful primordial associations." Having so concisely dissected these limitations on an individual's ability to think rationally about the world as a whole, one expects Isaacs - author of The Failure of the Chinese Revolution - widely considered one of the best studies ever done of the early days of Maoist movement - to offer a firmer conclusion than his parting hope that perhaps someday we will see a pacific, wholesome pluralism of groups. Two other major gaps occur in his prefatory historical discussions - he writes as if the post-colonial Balkanization of Asian and African regions just "happened" without Western involvement; and, though he discusses various kinds of Jewish "tribal" identity at length, he omits to mention the way the Nazis played on "group identity," for example in occupied Belgium and Czechoslovakia, not to mention Germany. The divide-and-rule principle of power politics is here ignored in favor of "primordial" instincts; a dear survey of half the picture. (Kirkus Reviews)

    About the Author
    Lucian Pye is Ford Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the author of Mao Tse-Tung: The Man in the Leader.



    page 28 …open spaces in which neocortex types, unlike limbic-b…



    這本書名idols of the tribe 是著名的 F Bacon之名言。意思為1. [logic] 由於種族關係或一般人性而產生的謬見;中文版翻譯為群氓之族
    译者: 邓伯宸
    作者: [美]哈罗德·伊罗生
    副标题: 群体认同与政治变迁
    ISBN: 9787563374816
    页数: 286
    定价: 28.0
    出版社: 广西师范大学出版社
    装帧: 平装
    出版年: 2008.05

    简介 · · · · · ·

      本书是一本社会学的经典之作, 从文化人类学基础——部落偶像、身体、名字、语言、宗教、民族、历史起源、新多元主义——来探讨群体认同与政治变迁。书稿完成于1975年,说的却是今天 的事。所谓的现代人,其实对于自己的部落归属依旧充满眷恋,甚至可以说,越是自以为现代,就越容易心里孤独,原乡情怀越会持续酝酿,从而产生的新的族群认 同,撼动世界政治。作者在30多年前已经看到今天的世界。对于民族主义方兴未艾、终将改变世界的政治面貌,早已率先发出预告。 阅读连载@凤凰网读书

    作者简介 · · · · · ·

       作者哈罗德·伊罗生(Harold R.Isaacs,1910-1986),30年代活跃于中国,曾任职《大陆报》,后主办《中国论坛》杂志。1933年参加中国民权保障同盟,任执行委 员,与鲁迅等人关系密切。1953-1965年任麻省理工学院国际研究中心副研究员,1965年以后任政治学教授。1980年曾到中国访问,拜访宋庆龄、 丁玲与茅盾等人。28岁即写成探索1925-1927年中国革命的经典作品《中国革命的悲剧》,其间曾赴挪威访问托洛茨基。此外著有《亚洲殊无和平》、 《心影录——美国人心目中的中国和印度形象》、《以色列的美国犹太人》等。

    Sir Francis Bacon's Idols

    - [ 翻譯此頁 ]18 Jan 2002 ... Idols of the tribe - "The idols of the tribe are inherent in human nature and the very tribe or race of man; for man's sense is falsely ...

    群氓之族

    群氓之族:群体认同与政治变迁

    本 书从部落偶像、身体、名字、语言、宗教、民族、历史起源、新多元主义8种角度,探讨群体认同在政治变迁压力下的自我塑造,对于民族主义方兴未艾,终将改变 世界的政治面貌,率先发出警讯。作者返回源头,从人性的基本面,考察群体认同的各种因素,如何以不同的方式、在不同的环境,纠缠扭结,以致我们以各自的形 态变成今天这副模样。
    作 者:哈罗德·伊罗生
    性 质 :免费阅读
    电子书定价:免费
    授权连载 不得转载

    本书每0天更新0个章节
    1第一部分
    为 撰写本书,我进行了一系列的调查工作,在小石城待了一段时间。当时,联邦军队进驻该城,9名黑人学生,每天上学都遭到一群愤怒的白人追打,美国社会正要进 入一个新的历史时期。时间是1957年的10月。这个星期,1974年10月,有关基本群体认同的研究,我刚好告一个段落,波士顿街头爆发了暴民与警察、 黑人与白人的冲突,引爆点是种族隔离学校解禁,以巴士载送学生上学的计划正式上路。
    2第二部分
    族 群认同正在帝国的废墟上抽芽滋衍,在各种新文化与新政治的墙缝中探头,使理想主义者与理性主义者忧心不已,因为他们始终相信,这条道路之外,一定还有更好 的途径让人类的故事继续发展下去。群氓之族Idols Of The Tribe第一章姆庇之家今天的世界,无数的族群groups,一般译为群体或团体,但作者在本书中用到group时,有时是中文里狭义的团体,有时则指 广义的群体,但更多的时候是指"基本群体"(basic group),亦即族群(ethnic)。
    3第三部分
    弗 洛伊德视双亲的超我为"传统与终生价值的载体,它本身就是这样一代接一代……从过去、从种族与民族的传统,一路传下来的"。个人心理学同时也就是群体心理 学。"因此",群体心理学"所关心的还是个人,只不过这个个人是一个种族、一个国家、一个阶级、一个行业、一个机构或一群群众的成员,这个个人是在某一特 定的时间,为了某种目的而被纳入群体的组织之中"。

    2009年2月21日 星期六

    二程集

    二程集 北京中華 1981/2004

    包括遺書二十五卷、外書十二卷、文集十二卷、遺文一卷、周易傳四卷、經說八卷、粹言二卷

    明刻本语录/(宋)朱熹辑.-清同治重刻

    二程
    北宋理學家程顥1032-85 明道先生、程頤 伊川先生 引1033-1107兄弟的合稱。

    二程全書
    書名。北宋程顥、程頤著作的合編。包括遺書二十五卷、附錄一卷、外書十二卷、文集十二卷、遺文一卷、周易傳四卷、經說八卷、粹言二卷。由後人合定而成,為理學的重要著述。


    二程遺書
    書名。北宋程顥、程頤著,南宋朱熹編定,二十五卷,附錄一卷。以二程子門人所記師說,採撮編次而成。

    ******

    "近世儒學對仁與樂(「樂」含「音樂」與「怡樂」二義)的關係非常重視,如果我們從程頤提出「顏子所好何學論」算起,至今已逾千年;"

    *****
    "吉田松陰(Yoshida Shoyin, 1830~59)本姓杉,生於伊藤博文家附近松本村護國山麓的團子岩一間陋室裡。他的父親杉百合之助是個沒有封地(俸祿60石以下)的下級武士,年俸才26石,貧無立錐之地,卻一面種田,不忘讀書,每次帶大兒子梅太郎和大次郎(松陰)去種田時,總不忘教他們唸詩。松陰回憶說:「夜深時與家兄共眠,共朗二程(中國宋代理學家程顥、程頤)的詩,家嚴亦和之,既而不曾入眠。」" 明治維新風雲錄 楊碧川編著

    *****

    程頤1033年-1107年),字正叔北宋洛陽伊川(今屬河南省)人,世稱伊川先生北宋理學家,教育家,歷官汝州團練推官、西京國子監教授。與其胞兄程顥共創「洛學」,為理學奠定了基礎。

    目錄

    [隱藏]

    [編輯] 生平

    其祖父任黃陂縣令,卒於該縣。父程珦年幼無力返鄉,遂居於黃陂,後來還做了縣尉。二程就是在其父任黃陂縣尉時所生[1]。程頤幼承家學熏陶,24歲時曾在京師(今河南開封繁塔之左)授徒講學。宋神宗熙寧五年(1072年)偕兄于嵩陽講學。元豐元年(1078年)知扶溝縣,「設庠序,聚邑人子以教之」。元豐五年,文彥博將其鳴皋鎮(今河南洛陽伊川縣境)之莊園贈給程氏,乃自建伊皋書院,講學其中幾達20年。元祐元年(1086年)除秘書省校書郎,授崇政殿說書。

    [編輯] 思想

    程頤政治思想頗受父程的影響,推舉其父反對王安石新法乃「獨公一人」,又說其兄程顥對王安石之說,「意多不合,事出必論列」,極加稱許。與其兄程顥不但學術思想相同,而且教育思想基本一致。

    程頤同程顥一樣,主張教育目的在於培養聖人,「聖人之志,止欲老者安之,朋友信之,少者懷之」,聖人以天地為心,「一切涵容復載,但處之有道」,因 此,教育必須以培養聖人為職志。在教育內容上,主張以倫理道德為其根本,「學者須先識仁。仁者藹然與物同體,義、智、信,皆仁也。」

    宋史》稱他「學本于誠,以《大學》、《論語》、《孟子》,《中庸》 為指南,而達于『六經』」。教育以德育為重,強調自我修養,其途徑為致知、格物、窮理。「致知則智識當自漸明」,致知乃在窮理,即盡天理。致知的辦法是 「格物」。「格,至也」,「格」是內感於物而識其理。「耳目能視聽而不能遠者,氣有限耳,心則無遠近也」,因此認識事物的關鍵乃在「心」。心「與天地合其 德,與日月合其明,非在外也」,故致知重「內感」而不重外面事物。在學習方法上,強調求其意,「凡看文字,先須曉其文義,然後可求其意,未有文義不曉而見 意者也」。另外,主張讀書要思考,「不深思則不能造其學」。或曰:「學者亦有無思而得其乎?」其教育主張和思想對後世教育影響極大。

    大程活潑自然,但小程嚴肅剛正,神聖不可侵犯,甚至不通人情,實為後世所見的「道學臉孔」。在婦女貞操方面,程頤認為:「……凡取以配身也,若取失 節者以配身,是己失節也。」有人問程頤先生曰:「寡婦貧苦無依,能不能再嫁乎哉?」,程頤則提出「絕對不能,有些人怕凍死餓死,才用饑寒作為藉口,要知 道,餓死事小,失節事大。」[2],作為衡量賢媛淑女的標準。朱熹(1130—1200)在〈與陳師中書〉也同意這樣的說法:「昔伊川先生嘗論此事,以為餓死事小,失節事大。自世俗觀之,誠為迂闊;然自知經識理之君子觀之,當有以知其不可易也。」主張婦女「從一而終」、壓抑「人慾」。

    後人曾在他講學之地設書院以為紀念,如河南嵩陽書院伊川書院等。另外,全國各地亦有紀念他之書院,意在追蹤繼軌,以示其思想綿長。其著作被後人輯錄為《河南二程全書》、《程頤文集》、《易傳》和《經說》。

    [編輯] 軼聞

    司馬光過世了,剛結束明堂祭祀大典的群臣欲往弔喪,但程頤認為不合孔子「於是日,哭則不歌」的規矩,阻止群臣去弔喪。蘇軾嘲笑程頤說:「這是枉死市上叔孫通制訂的禮。」(意指程頤是腐儒)由此事起,蘇軾、程頤兩人結怨。[3]

    蘇軾覺得程頤迂腐,常常開他玩笑,一次國家忌日,程頤要求群臣喫素,蘇軾不但不願意,還要求秦觀黃庭堅等人一起喫肉,完全不給程頤面子。[4]

    [編輯] 注釋

    1. ^ (简体中文)二程夫子與黃陂.黃陂區政府網站.於2008年12月1日查閱.
    2. ^ 《程氏遺書》卷二十二
    3. ^ 《皇宋治跡統類》:明堂降赦,臣僚稱賀訖,兩省官欲往奠司馬光。程頤言:「子於是日,哭則不歌。豈可賀赦才了,即往弔喪?」坐客有難之曰:「孔子言哭則不歌,即不言歌則不哭。」蘇軾遂戲程曰:「此乃枉死市叔孫通所制禮也。」眾皆大笑。結怨之端,蓋自此始。」
    4. ^ 《程子微言》:他日國忌,禱於相國寺,伊川令供素饌,子瞻詰之曰:「正叔不好佛,胡為食素?」正叔曰:「禮,居喪不飲酒食肉,忌日,喪之餘也。」子瞻令具肉食,曰:「為劉氏者左袒。」於是范淳夫輩食素,秦、黃輩食肉。

    The bride of science : romance, reason, and Byron’s daughter

    The Bride of Science: Romance, Reason, and Byron's Daughter

    From Library Journal
    First published in the United Kingdom in 1999, this is an entertaining biography of Augusta Ada Byron Lovelace, daughter of the renowned poet Lord Byron. Separated from Lord Byron shortly after Ada's birth, Lady Bryon raised her daughter in a strange and thoroughly controlled manner, limiting her access to both people and intellectual pursuits in order to keep Ada from developing any of the shortcomings she might have inherited from her father. As a result, Ada, who suffered from a variety of legitimate health problems, also developed serious psychological problems. As directed by her mother, Ada's educational focus was on science, and her relationship with Charles Babbage and the work she did in explaining and interpreting his Analytical Engine and Difference Machine, a precursor of the computer, were the culmination of her mathematical and technical studies. A fine study of Ada, this book is as much about her mother, Annabella, a woman who would not be crossed and who dominated her daughter's life right up to Ada's death at age 37. There is much controversy associated with Ada's life, and Woolley (Virtual Worlds) deals with it openly and philosophically. Some of his interpretations will surely be questioned, but for a biography filled with "sex, drugs, and mathematics" this is to be expected. Readers who enjoyed Dava Sobel's Galileo's Daughter will find this interesting.

    Hilary Burton, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, CA

    Copyright 2001 Cahners Business Information, Inc.



    Review
    "This book is a natural for handselling, not only to the literati interested in all things Byronic, but to cyberfolk, many of whom will be aware of Ada's early work in computers."



    科學的新娘:浪漫、理性和拜倫的女兒

    科學的新娘:浪漫、理性和拜倫的女兒 The bride of science : romance, reason, and Byron’s daughter


    • 作者:班哲明.伍列/著原文作者:Benjamin Woolley譯者:席玉蘋出版社:台灣商務出版日期:2003年03月01日


      一樁悲慘婚姻構成了愛達短暫而璀璨的一生。同時承襲著詩人父親拜倫的浪漫狂野,和母親安娜貝拉的嚴謹自制,愛達努力折衷這兩股對立力量,不但創 出「詩一般的科學」,也闖出維多利亞時代最不凡的生涯之一。她的合作對象包括一位據稱是真實生活裡的「科學怪人」,以及「會思考的機器」的發明人查爾斯˙ 巴畢基,這個機械鐘錶預告了一百多年後問世的電腦。美國國防部將它所採用的軍武系統標準程式語言命名為「ADA」。本書大量採用愛達的第一手資料,對她不 凡的一生不但有精采的檢視,對浪漫主義之死和機械時代的誕生也有引人入勝的分析。

    作者簡介
    班哲明.伍列 Benjamin Woolley
      英國著名作家及BBC節目主持人,著有Savage Kingdom, The Herbalist, 《皇后的魔術師》(The Queen’s Conjurer: The Life and Magic of Dr. Dee)、《虛擬世界》(Virtual Worlds: A Journey in Hype and Hyperreality)等風格特異的科學史及傳記。現居倫敦。

    Benjamin Woolley is an award-winning writer and broadcaster. He is the author of the best-selling The Queen's Conjuror: The Life and Magic of Dr. John Dee and Heal Thyself: Nicholas Culpeper and the Civil War for the Heart of Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England. His first book, Virtual Worlds, was short-listed for the Rhône-Poulenc Prize and has been translated into eight languages. His second work, The Bride of Science, examined the life of Ada Lovelace, Lord Byron's daughter. He has written and presented documentaries for the BBC on subjects ranging from the fight for liberty during the English Civil War to the end of the Space Age. He has won the...

    Byrons Tochter by Benjamin Woolley (Perfect Paperback - Jan 1, 2005)

    The Queen's Conjurer: The Science and Magic of Dr. John Dee, Adviser to Queen Elizabeth I by Benjamin Woolley (Paperback - Feb 1, 2002)

    Heal Thyself: Nicholas Culpeper and the Seventeenth-Century Struggle to Bring Medicine to the People by Benjamin Woolley (Hardcover - Jun 29, 2004)

    The Herbalist: Nicholas Culpeper and the Fight for Medical Freedom by Benjamin Woolley (Paperback - Feb 7, 2005)





    譯者簡介
    席玉蘋
      筆名平郁,國立政治大學國貿系畢業,美國德州理工大學企管碩士。曾三度獲得文建會梁實秋文學獎之譯詩、譯文獎,現居高雄,專事譯作、寫作。譯作有《贏家通吃的社會》(智庫)、《21世紀三事》(商務)等二十餘部。

    ***

    English

    奧古斯塔·愛達·金,勒芙蕾絲伯爵夫人Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace1815年12月10日1852年11月27日),原名奧古斯塔·愛達·拜倫(Augusta Ada Byron),通稱愛達·勒芙蕾絲Ada Lovelace),是著名英國詩人拜倫之女,最著名的事蹟為翻譯義大利查爾斯·巴貝奇早期的計算機設計書《分析機概論》(analytical engine)。

    目錄

    [隱藏]

    [編輯] 生平

    愛達是她詩人父親—拜倫與母親安妮·伊莎貝拉·米爾班奇Anne Isabella Milbanke)唯一的合法子嗣。她的名字取自拜倫的異母的姊妹奧古斯塔·李Augusta Leigh)。拜倫與安妮貝拉的婚事是在奧古斯塔為了避免醜聞,而慫恿拜倫與安妮貝拉結合的產物。然而,在1816年1月16日,安妮貝拉還是離開拜倫,帶著一個月大的愛達離開。同年4月21日,拜倫簽下了分居協議,並離開英國。

    愛達從未見過她同父異母的妹妹阿拉格·拜倫Allegra Byron),阿拉格是拜倫與克萊爾·克萊蒙Claire Clairmont)所出,但於1822年死去,得年5歲。至於愛達的另一位親戚伊麗莎白·梅朵拉·李Elizabeth Medora Leigh,是奧古斯塔·李之女)則有與她照過面,並由愛達的母親告知愛達與梅朵拉彼此的身世。

    [編輯] 教育

    愛達與她的母親同住。她與父親有許多相似的天份,年輕的拜倫小姐對數學感到極高的興趣(其父稱她為the princess of parallelograms,即平行四邊行公主),數學佔有她人生的絕大部份,即使結婚之後也是如此。而愛達的母親讓她年輕時就學習數學一事,卻總是被認為是受到其父拜倫的影響。愛達的數學與科學課程是由家庭教師威廉·福萊德William Frend)、威廉·金William King)與瑪麗·索麥維en:Mary Somerville)所指導,後來更接受奧古斯都·德·摩根的教導。愛達也是一位活躍於倫敦社交圈的女士,這位女士曾在年輕時是女學究Blue Stockings Society)的會員。

    她的老師瑪麗·索麥維是一位著名的19世紀科學家,並由這位學者於1833年6月5日介紹給查爾斯·巴貝奇。著名的大衛·布魯斯特爵士Sir David Brewster)、查爾斯·衛斯頓Charles Wheatstone)、查爾斯·狄更斯麥可·法拉第也認識她。

    愛達·勒芙蕾絲
    倫敦科學館分析機複製品,本質上可以說是第一台電腦,雖然從未被真正製造

    [編輯] 家庭

    1835年,愛達嫁給了威廉·金(後來晉封為第一代勒芙蕾絲伯爵)。他們總共生下三個孩子:

    勒芙蕾絲一家住在瑟瑞(Surrey)的奧坎(Ockham)。而自婚後,她的頭銜則變成奧古斯塔·愛達,勒芙蕾絲伯爵夫人閣下The Right Honourable Augusta Ada, Countess of Lovelace),不過較簡單的愛達·勒芙蕾絲和婚前名稱愛達·拜倫,是在今天是更廣為人知的名稱。

    [編輯] 成就

    1842年1843年其間,愛達花了9個月的時間翻譯義大利數學家路易吉·米那比亞對巴貝奇最新的計算機設計書(即分析機概論)所留下的備忘錄。在這部譯文裡,她附加許多註記,內容詳細說明用計算機進行伯努利數的運算方式,而被認為是世界上第一個電腦程式;因此,愛達也被認為是世界上第一位程式設計師。不過,傳記作者也因為部份的程式是由巴貝奇本人所撰,而質疑愛達在電腦程式上的原創性。巴貝奇在他所著的《經過哲學家人生》(Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, 1846)[1]裡留有下面的述敘:

    我認為她為米那比亞的備忘錄增加許多註記,並加入了一些想法。雖然這些想法是由我們一起討論出來的,但是最後被寫進註記裡的想法確確實實是她自己的 構想。我將許多代數運算的問題交給她處理,這些工作也與伯努利數的運算相關。在她所送回給我的文件,更修正了我先前在程序裡的重大錯誤。

    愛達的文章創造出許多巴貝奇也未曾提到的新構想,比如愛達曾經預言道:『這個機器未來可以用來排版、編曲或是各種更複雜的用途。』。

    [編輯] 逝世

    1852年,愛達為了治療子宮頸癌,卻因此死於失血過多,得年36歲。很諷刺的,她與她父親拜倫死於相同年齡,一樣死於治療中的失血過多。她留下了兩個兒子與一位女兒—安妮·布蘭特貴女

    依她的遺言,愛達葬於諾丁漢哈克諾聖 瑪麗亞·抹大拉教堂,長眠在父親的身旁。

    [編輯] 影響

    她死後一百年,於1953年,愛達之前對查爾斯·巴貝奇的《分析機概論》所留下的筆記被重新公佈,並被認為對現代計算機與軟體工程造成了重大影響。

    [編輯] 相關影響

    [編輯] 計算機科學

    [編輯] 大眾文化

    • 在第203集的數謎(math-mystery)動畫—《數位追逐》裡,就有她的身影出現,其配音由的珍·科廷擔當。
    • 愛達是布魯斯·斯特林威廉·吉布森合著的小說《差分解析儀》(The Difference Engine)的主角。在故事中,她所提出的新構想加速了計算機時代的來臨。
    • 約翰·克羅利在他的小說《拜倫的故事》(Lord Byron's Novel)中,拜倫寫下了自己的故事,卻因亡故而未能完成,之後由其女愛達將故事補齊。
    • 愛達是1997年電影《孕育愛達》裡被飾演的主角。
    • 在史考特·衛斯特菲爾德的系列作《Midnighters》裡,其中一名女性主角的崇拜對象正是愛達,更影響了其中三本系列作的內容。

    [編輯] 出版

    • Woolley, Benjamin(2002年February月).The Bride of Science: Romance, Reason, and Byron's Daughter
    • Toole, Betty Alexandra Toole Ed.D, Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers, A Selection from the Letters of Ada Lovelace, and her Description of the First Computer (1992)
    • Toole, Betty Alexandra Toole Ed.D., Ada, The Enchantress of Numbers, Prophet of the Computer Age, 1998
    • Kim, Eugene and Toole, Betty Alexandra T, Ada and the First Computer, Scientific American, May, 1999

    [編輯] 參照

    [編輯] 引用

    1. ^ (可於《透視計算機科學革命》(Perspectives on the Computer Revolution, 1970年著)找到。作者:芝諾·皮利希恩

    [編輯] 外部連結



    關於台灣翻譯本的一些看法。
    這本書引了不少詩。
    這多有比較好的翻譯本可參考,
    不過都為譯者所忽略。
    我舉[序言]引的
    Don Juan: CANTO THE FOURTEENTH

    CI

    'T is strange -- but true; for truth is always strange;
    Stranger than fiction; if it could be told,
    多奇怪! 但千真萬確; 因為現實
    總是很離奇的,荒誕甚於小說。


    Byron 的長詩 Don Juan 唐璜

    Don Juan: CANTO THE FOURTEENTH

    2009年2月20日 星期五

    The Tanner Lectures, Tanner Lecture Library

    About the Tanner Lectures

    The Tanner Lectures are a distinguished multi-university scholarly lecture series on the subject of human values.

    The Tanner lectures are presented annually at each of nine universities including Cambridge, Harvard, Michigan, Oxford, Princeton, Stanford, Utah, Yale, and the University of California, Berkeley.
    Appointment as a Tanner lecturer is recognition for uncommon achievement and outstanding abilities in the field of human values. The lecturers may be elicited from philosophy, religion, the humanities, the sciences, the creative arts, and learned professions, or from leadership in public or private affairs. The lectureships are international and intercultural and transcend ethnic, national, religious, and ideological distinctions.
    The purpose of the Tanner Lectures is to advance and reflect upon the scholarly and scientific learning related to human values. This intention embraces the entire range of values pertinent to the human condition, interest, behavior, and aspiration. The lectures delivered at all nine universities are published in an annual volume. In addition, a series of books based on the Berkeley Tanner Lectures is published by the Oxford University Press.
    American scholar, industrialist, and philanthropist Obert Clark Tanner founded the Tanner Lectures in 1978. In creating the lectureships, Professor Tanner said: "I hope these lectures will contribute to the intellectual and moral life of mankind. I see them simply as a search for a better understanding of human behavior and human values. This understanding may be pursued for its own intrinsic worth, but it may also eventually have practical consequences for the quality of personal and social life."

    The Tanner Lectures Committee at the University of California, Berkeley

    Chair



    Visit The Tanner Foundation to learn more.


    Tanner Lecture Library

    Welcome to the Tanner Lecture library. To access individual lectures, click on the author's last name.
    For easy viewing and printing, each lecture has been saved as a PDF (Portable Documet File). If your browser does not have the Adobe Reader, it is free and available for download from the Adobe website.

    A

    Allison, Dorothy Lecture I. Mean Stories and Stubborn Girls
    Lecture II. What It Means to Be Free
    Stanford 2001-01
    Appiah, K. Anthony Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood
    Connections
    UC San Diego 1993-94 Harvard University
    Appiah, K. Anthony The State and the Shaping of Identity Cambridge 2000-01 Harvard University
    Arias Sanchez, Dr. Oscar Poverty: The New International Enemy UC Berkeley 1993-94 Former President, Costa Rica
    Aron, Raymond Arms Control and Peace Research Cambridge 1979-80 College De France
    Ash, Timothy Garton The Direction of European History Prague 1997-98 Oxford University
    Ashby, Lord
    The Search for an Environmental Ethic Utah 1978-79 Cambridge University

    B

    Baier, Annette Trust Princeton 1990-91 University of Pittsburgh
    Baltimore, David On Doing Science in the Modern World Cambridge 1991-92 Rockefeller University
    Barber, Benjamin R. Democratic Alternatives to the Mullahs and the Malls Utah 2002 University of Maryland
    Barry, Brian M. Do Countries Have Moral Obligations?
    The Case of World Poverty
    Harvard 1980-81 University of Chicago
    Bellow, Saul A Writer from Chicago Oxford 1980-81 University of Chicago
    Benhabib, Sylvia Reclaiming Universalism: Negotiating Republican Self-Determinism and Cosmopolitan Norms BERKELEY 2004 Yale University
    Bennett, Jonathan Morality and Consequences Oxford 1979-80 University of British Columbia
    Bildt, Carl Peace After War: Our Experience Cambridge 2005 Former Prime Minister, Sweden
    Blom-Cooper, Louis The Penalty of Imprisonment Cambridge 1987-88 Queens College, London
    Bloom, Harold I. Shakespeare and the Value of Personality
    I I . Shakespeare and the Value of Love
    Princeton 1995-96 Yale University
    Brewster, Kingman The Voluntary Society Cambridge 1981-82 President Emeritus, Yale University
    Breyer, Stephen Active Liberty: Interpreting Our Democratic Constitution Harvard 2004 Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court
    Brown, Donald D. The Impact of Modern Genetics Oxford 1983-84 Carnegie Institute of Washington
    Brown, Peter Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman World Cambridge 1993-94 Princeton University
    Brown, Peter The End of the Ancient Other World: Death and Afterlife between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages Yale 1995-96 Princeton University
    Bruntland, Dr. Gro Harlem Environmental Challenges of the 1990s Our Responsibility to ward Future Generations Cambridge 1990-91 Norwegian Storting
    Bulger, Roger On Hippocrates, Thomas Jefferson the Bureaucratic, Technologic Imperatives and the Future of the Healing Tradition in a Voluntary Society and Max Weber Cambridge 1986-87 Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
    Burkert, Walter Revealing Nature amidst Multiple Cultures: A Discourse with Ancient Greeks Michigan 1998-99 University of Zurich
    Burnyeat, Myles
    Culture and Society in Plato’s Republic Harvard 1997-98 All Souls College, Oxford

    C

    Cavell, Stanley The Uncanniness of the Ordinary Stanford 1985-86 Harvard University
    Cheney, Dorothy Why Animals Don’t Have Language Cambridge 1996-97 University of Pennsylvania
    Clark, T. J. Painting and Ground Level Princeton 2002 University of California, Berkeley
    Coetzee, John M. The Lives of Animals Princeton 1997-98 University of Cape Town, So. Africa
    Cohen, Gerald Incentives, Inequality, and Community Stanford 1990-91 All Souls College, Oxford
    Coles, Robert
    Children as Moral Observers Michigan 1979-80 Harvard University

    D

    Dahl, Robert A. The Pseudodemocratization of the American Presidency Harvard 1987-88 Yale University
    Damasio, Antonio Exploring the Minded Brain Michigan 1997-98 University of Iowa
    Daston, Lorraine I. The Morality of Natural Orders
    II. Nature's Customs vs. Nature's Laws
    Harvard 2002 Max Planck Institute and Humboldt University, Berlin
    Davies, Robertson Reading and Writing Yale 1990-91 Canada
    Davis, David Brion Exiles, Exodus, and Promised Lands Stanford 2006 Yale University
    Dawkins, Richard I. The Science of Religion
    II. The Religion of Science
    Harvard 2003 University of Oxford
    Dasgupta,Partha Michigan 2000-01
    deBary, William Theodore The Trouble with Confucianism California 1987-88 Columbia University
    Dennett, Daniel The Moral First Aid Manual Michigan 1986-87 Tufts University
    de Waal, Frans B.M. Morality and the Social Instincts Princeton 2003 Emory University
    Diamond, Jared The Broadest Pattern of Human History Utah 1991-92 UCLA
    Diamond, Jared
    Ecological Collapses of Pre-industrial Societies Stanford 1999-00 UCLA

    E

    Eco, Umberto Interpretation and Overinterpretation: World, History, Texts Cambridge 1989-90
    Edelman, Marian Wright Standing for Children UC San Franscisco 1996-97 Founder & President of Children's Defense Fund
    Eisenstadt, S. N. Cultural Tradition, Historical Experience,
    and Social Change: The Limits of Convergence
    California 1988-89 Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Elster, Jon
    Taming Chance: Randomization in Individual
    and Social Decisions
    Oxford 1986-87 University of Oslo

    F




    Farmer, Paul Never Again? Reflections on Human Values and Human Rights Utah 2005 Founding Director, Partners in Health charity, Harvard Medical School
    Fei, Xiaotong Plurality and Unity in the Configuration of the Chinese People Chinese Univeristy 1988-89 Peking University
    Feinberg, Joel Voluntary Euthanasia and the Inalienable Right to Life Michigan 1976-77 University of Arizona
    Foucault, Michel Omnes et Singulatim: Towards a Criticism
    of ‘Political Reason’
    Stanford 1979-80 College de France
    Frankfurt, Harry I. Taking Ourselves Seriously
    II. Getting it Right
    Stanford 2004 Princeton University
    (Emeritus)
    Fraser, Nancy Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics:
    Redistribution, Recognition, and Participation
    Stanford 1995-96 New School for Social Research
    Freeman, Dyson Bombs and Poetry Oxford 1981-82 Institute for Advanced Study
    Fried, Charles Is Liberty Possible? Stanford 1980-81 Harvard University
    Fried, Michael Roger Fry's Formalism MICHIGAN 2001 Johns Hopkins University
    Fuentes, Carlos A Writer from Mexico Utah 1982-83 Princeton University
    Fukuyama, Francis
    Social Capital Oxford 1996-97 George Mason University

    G




    Gay, Peter The Living Enlightenment Toronto 1996-97
    Geertz, Clifford The Uses of Diversity Michigan 1985-86 Institute for Advanced Study
    Gellner, Ernest The Civil and the Sacred Harvard 1989-90
    Gibbard, Allan Thinking How to Live with Each Other UC Berkeley 2006 University of Michigan
    Gilligan, Carol Joining the Resistance:Psychology, Politics, Girls, and Women Michigan 1989-90 Harvard University
    Glover, Jonathan Towards Humanism in Psychiatry Princeton 2003 King's College, London
    Gordimer, Nadine The Essential Gesture: Writers and Responsibility Michigan 1984-85 South Africa
    Gould, Stephen J. Challenges to Neo- Darwinism and Their Meaning for a Revised View of Human Consciousness Stanford 1988-89 Harvard University
    Gauthier, David The Incompleat Egoist Stanford 1982-83 University of Pittsburgh
    Gutmann, Amy
    Responding to Racial Injustice Stanford 1994-95 Princeton University

    H




    Habermas, Jurgen Law and Morality Harvard 1986-87 Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, West Germany
    Hampshire, Stuart Justice Is Conflict: The Soul and the City Harvard 1996-97 Stanford University
    Hare, R. M. Moral Conflicts Utah State 1978-79 Oxford University
    Hartman, Geoffrey Text and Spirit Utah 1998-99 Yale University
    Herman, Barbara Moral Literacy Stanford 1996-97 Univ. of California, Los Angeles
    Hill Jr., Thomas E. Respect for Humanity Stanford 1993-94 University of North Carolina
    Hill, Christopher T h e Bible in Seventeenth-Century English Politics Michigan 1991-92 Oxford University
    Hill, Geoffrey Rhetorics of Value Oxford 1999-00 Boston University
    Hirschman, Albert Two Hundred Years of Reactionary Rhetoric: The Case of the Perverse Effect Michigan 1987-88 Institute of Advanced Study
    Hoffmann, Stanley The Nation, Nationalism, and After: The Case of France Princeton 1992-93 Harvard University
    Honneth, Axel Reification: A Recognition-Theoretica View UC Berkeley 2005 Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt, Germany
    Hourani, Albert Islam in European Thought Cambridge 1988-89 Oxford University
    Howard, A. E. Dick* Toward the Open Society in Central
    and Eastern Europe
    Utah 1993-94 University of Virginia
    Howe, Irving The Self and the State Princeton 1989-90
    Hrdy, Sarah The Past, Present, and Future of the Human Family Utah 2000-01 University of California, Davis
    Hudson, Liam
    The Life of the Mind Yale 1996-97 Balas Copartnership, United Kingdom
    I
    Ignatieff, Michael
    I. Human Rights as Politics
    II. Human Rights as Idolatry
    Princeton 1999-00 Free Lance Writer

    J




    K




    Keller, Evelyn Fox Rethinking the Meaning of Genetic Determinism Utah 1992-93 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Kennedy, David M. The Dilemma of Difference in Democratic Society Oxford 2003 Stanford University
    Kentridge, Sir Sydney QC Human Rights: A Sense of Proportion Oxford 2001-01 Britain
    Kermonde, Sir Frank Pleasure, Change, and the Canon UC Berkeley 2001 University College, London, Ret.
    Kleinman, Arthur Experience and Its Moral Modes: Culture, Human Conditions, and Disorder Stanford 1997-98 Harvard Medical School
    Kohl, Helmut UC Berkeley 1991-92 Germany
    Kolakowski, Leszek The Death of Utopia Reconsidered Australian National University 1981-82 Oxford University
    Kornai, János I. Market Socialism Revisited
    I I. The Soviet Union’s Road to a Free Economy: Comments of an Outside Observer
    Stanford 1989-90 Harvard University
    Korsgaard, Christine The Sources of Normativity Cambridge 1992-93 Harvard University
    Korsgaard, Christine
    Fellow Creatures: Kantian Ethics and Our Duties to Animals Michigan 2004 Harvard University

    L




    Landon, H. C. Robbins Haydn and Eighteenth-Century Patronage in Austria and Hungary Cambridge 1982-83 University College Cardiff
    Lear, Jonathan Happiness Cambridge 1999-00 University of Chicago
    Lepenies, Wolf The End of “German Culture” Harvard 1999-00 Olden Lane
    Lewis, Bernard Europe and Islam Oxford 1989-90 Princeton University
    Lewontin, Richard Biological Determinism Utah 1981-82 Harvard University
    Luttwak, Edward Nicolare
    Strategy: A New Era? Yale 1989-90 Georgetown University

    M




    MacIntyre, Alasdair Truthfulness, Lies, and Moral Philosophers: What Can We Learn from Mill and Kant? Princeton 1994-95 Duke University
    Maguire, Mairead Corrigan Peacemaking from the Grassroots in a World of Ethnic Conflict UC Riverside 1995-96 Belfast, Northern Ireland
    Margalit, Avishai I. Indecent Compromise II. Decent Peace Stanford 2005 Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Marshall, Margaret H. Tension and Intentions: The American Constitutions and the Shaping of Democracies Abroad Utah 2006 Chief Justice, Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts
    Meyer, Leonard B. Music and Ideology in the Nineteenth Century Stanford 1983-84 University of Pennsylvania
    Montgomery, David N. Citizenship and Justice in the Lives and Thoughts of Nineteenth-Century American Workers Oxford 1990-91 Yale University
    Moore, Barrington Authority and Inequality under Capitalism and Socialism Oxford 1984-85 Harvard University
    Morrison, Toni Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature Michigan 1988-89 State University of New York, Albany
    Muguerza, Javier
    The Alternative of Dissent Madrid 1987-88 Inst. of Philosophy of the Superior Council of Scientific Investigations, Madrid

    N

    Nagel, Thomas The Limits of Objectivity Stanford 1977-78 Princeton University
    Nehamas, Alexander A Promise of Happiness: The Place of Beauty in a World of Art Yale 2000-01 Princeton University
    Nozick, Robert Decisions of Principle, Principles of Decision Princeton 1991-92 Harvard University
    Nussbaum, Martha C.
    Beyond the Social Contract: Toward Global Justice Cambridge 2003 University of Chicago

    O




    O'Neill, Onora
    Kant on Reason and Religion Harvard 1995-96 Newham College, Cambridge

    P




    Pagels, Elaine The Origin of Satan in Christian Tradition Utah 1996-97 Princeton University
    Parfit, Derek What We Could Rationally Will UC Berkeley 2002 All Souls College, Oxford
    Passmore, John A. The Representative Arts as a Source of Truth Cambridge 1980-81 Australian National University
    Paz, Octavio Poetry and Modernity Utah 1989-90 Mexico City
    Penrose, Sir Roger Space-time and Cosmology Cambridge 1994-95 Oxford Mathematics Institute
    Pinker, Stephen The Blank Slate, the Noble Savage, and the Ghost in the Machine Yale 1998-99 MIT
    Pinsky, Robert American Culture and the Voice of Poetry Princeton 2000-01 Boston University
    Pocock, John G. A. Edward Gibbon in History: Aspects of the Text in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Yale 1988-89 Johns Hopkins University
    Popper, Sir Karl Three Worlds Michigan 1977-78 University of London
    Posner, Richard Euthanasia and Health Care: Two Essays on the Policy Dilemmas of Aging and Old Age Yale 1994-95 United States Court of Appeals
    Prigogine, Ilya
    Only an Illusion Jawaharlal Nehru University 1982-83 University of Brussels

    Q




    Quinton, Lord
    The Varieties of Value Warshaw 1987-88 London

    R

    Rawls, John The Basic Liberties and Their Priority Oxford 1977-78 Harvard University
    Raz, Joseph The Practice of Value UC Berkeley 2000-01 Oxford University
    Reichl, Ruth Why Food Matters Yale 2005 Editor in Chief, Gourmet Magazine
    Relman, Arnold S. Medicine as a Profession and a Business Utah 1985-86 New England Journal of Medicine
    Richardson, William C. Reconceiving Health Care to Improve Quality UC Santa Barbara 1999-00 W. K. Kellogg Foundation (postponed to 2001)
    Robinson, Joan The Arms Race Utah 1980-81 Cambridge University
    Robinson, Mary I. Human Rights and Ethical Globalization
    II. The Challenge of Human Rights Protection in Africa
    Stanford 2003 United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
    Rorty, Richard Feminism and Pragmatism Michigan 1990-91 University of Virginia
    Rosen, Charles Tradition without Convention:
    The Impossible Nineteenth-Century Project
    Utah 1999-00
    Rushdie, Salman
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