建築之夢—Frank Lloyd Wright賴特著述精選
|弗蘭克‧勞埃德‧賴特（Frank Lloyd Wright，1867—1959），舉世公認的20世紀偉大的建築師、藝術家和思想家，現代建築的 創始人，和勒‧柯布西耶、密斯‧凡‧德‧羅、格羅皮烏斯並列為世界四大建築師，被譽為是當代建築界的先驅之一。 可以毫不誇張地說，在他之後，美國還沒有別的建築師可以與他相比。路易士‧康、埃羅‧沙裏寧、凱文‧羅歇、貝聿銘、菲利 浦‧詹森都不能與他相比，即使上述這些人加在一起，他們在建築藝術上所具有的影響，也比不過賴特不尋常的七十二個年頭的建 築職業生涯所造成的巨大影響。|
|建築之夢：弗蘭克‧勞埃德‧賴特著述精選》由弗蘭克‧勞埃德‧賴特編著。 有關弗蘭克‧勞埃德‧賴特的書籍浩如煙海，其中很多都是他所做文章和演講稿的選本——從作品全集，到有關某些主題的文集 和選集，前者讓人望而卻步，後者則關注範圍較窄，或者選材較泛。《建築之夢：弗蘭克‧勞埃德‧賴特著述精選》所選十五篇文章 來自賴特最有影響力、最發人深省、最具持久魅力——更不必說具有可讀性了——的著作，它們是賴特於1900年至20世紀30年代所寫 的文章，就像他當時的建築作品一樣，在歐洲和美國產生了巨大的反響，影響了現代運動的發展歷程。 賴特是20世紀建築界的浪漫主義者和田園詩人。他的草原風格成為20世紀美國住宅建築設計的基礎。他設計的作品以對本質的深 刻理解和以形式與細節的相互烘托為主旨。他看到自然界的結構存在著類似的關係，而將他的作品稱為“有機建築”。 他不同於歐洲的那三位建築大師——他們忽略空間的中心作用和人的參與欲望，而賴特則在空間中充分考慮到人的存在，考慮建 築與環境的有機結合。他提倡建築形式多樣化，較早地否定了風行世界的國際式方盒子建築形式，給後來的美國建築思潮和世界各國 的建築發展以深刻的藝術上的啟發。|
Architecture & Design
It’s hardly surprising, of course, that six decades after his death, Wright (1867 – 1959) remains America’s, and perhaps the world’s, most recognizable architect. Aside from the unassailable brilliance of his creations (the breathtaking Fallingwater and the Guggenheim Museum alone would have assured his legend) and the almost unimaginably scandalous life he led (open infidelity; abandonment of his wife and six children; outrageous cost overruns on projects; public conflicts with his patrons),Wright himself was, physically and stylistically, a memorable man. With his white mane of hair and his consciously striking sartorial flair, he hardly sought to avoid attention.
Wright was a genius, and like most geniuses, he wanted the world to notice him and his works. Here, on the anniversary of his landmark Guggenheim Museum in New York opening to the public for the very first time (Oct. 21, 1959), LIFE.com does just that — we pay attention to the man and celebrate some of his signature creations.
For its part, LIFE magazine paid tribute to Wright and to his eye-popping 5th Avenue museum this way, in its Nov. 2, 1959, issue:
Last week, six months after he died, the spirit of Frank Lloyd Wright came triumphantly to life again in New York City. The revolutionary art museum he designed for Solomon R. Guggenheim was finally opened to the public. While it was under construction, the museum was the constant butt of jokes. Its cylindrical exterior was likened to everything from a washing machine to a marshmallow.
The inside of the new Guggenheim Museum proved to be far more sensational than the outside. To the visitors who streamed through, it seemed like the inside of a giant snail shell … The museum was greeted with a barrage of praise and protest. Architects hailed the “fantastic structure,” museum directors complained of the slanting floors and walls. An art critic called it “America’s most beautiful building,” a newspaper labeled it a ‘joyous monstrosity.” Everyone agreed on one thing — the building was definitely dizzying. This physical reaction would have pleased Wright who predicted, “When it is finished and you go into it, you will feel the building. You will feel it as a curving wave that never breaks.”A curving wave that never breaks. Coming from a man who was inspired by the myriad forms and shapes found in nature for much of his protean career, that simple statement is perfectly apt — and still, all these years later, somehow comfortingly true.
Frank Lloyd Wright Homes with Haunted Histories
These four homes designed by the iconic American architect are all settings for tragedies, horror movies, and building projects gone wrong.
Frank Lloyd Wright left behind an architectural legacy appreciated around the world long after his death 55 years ago. Over the course of his seventy-year career, Wright designed over 1,000 projects and realized almost 500. Many of the houses he designed have become preserved monuments to that legacy—even after they have burned down, their eerie remains have served as a memorial to the architect. However, some of the works, and their inhabitants, have been less fortunate. Even Wright himself suffered great tragedy at his own home—and he was never the same.
The following houses have set the scenes for mass murders, sensationalized screenplays, and honest mistakes with huge fall-outs.
Taliesin, located on a 600-acre plot of land in Spring Green, Wis., became a safe haven for Wright and Martha “Mamah” Borthwick Cheney when headlines surfaced about their affair. After moving in during the winter of 1911, the couple and Cheney’s children, John and Martha, enjoyed a life filled intellectual hobbies such as Japanese art, and translating Swedish literature. Unfortunately, this came to a gruesome end in August 1914, when Julian Carlton, a 31-year-old man from Barbados who came to work for them as a chef and servant, lit the residential area of Taliesin on fire and then murdered Borthwick, her two children, and four others with an axe and lit some of the bodies on fire. One of the estate’s workers was able to save Wright’s studio by alerting neighbors and dousing the fire with a hose. Wright was away in Chicago completing the Midway Gardens. Devastated by the tragedy, Wright promised to rebuild Taliesin in the spirit of Mamah, but did not return for nearly a decade after completing the renovation. According to Robert Twombly, who wrote Wright's biography, the architect and his work were never the same.
Completed in 1924 in Los Feliz, Calif., for Charles Ennis, a men’s department store owner with an enthusiasm in Mayan art and architecture, the house is considered a perfect example of domestic Mayan Revival architecture and one of Wright’s masterpieces. The house has taken several beatings, first in the 1994 Northridge earthquake and then from torrential rains in 2004, and has since been bought by a private owner to maintain its costly structure. But before that, it was envisioned as the background for House on a Haunted Hill, a classic horror film made in 1959 directed by William Castle, notoriously regarded for his B-rated movies. The plot focuses on a sadistic millionaire, played by Vincent Price, who lures five guests to spend the night in his haunted house with a large cash prize if they survive a night. The Ennis House earned additional film credits when its exterior was set as a mansion occupied by evil vampires in the TV series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and again when its interior was used as the apartment of decidedly-less-evil Rick Deckard (Harrison Ford) in Blade Runner.
Susan Lawrence Dana was an admired, independent woman in Springfield, Ill., who inherited a large fortune from her father, a military goods salesman during the Civil War. Although Susan’s life may have seemed complete to an outsider, her personal life was stricken with the deaths of two infant children, her first and second husbands, and a cousin with whom she lived. However, in 1902 she focused her energies onbuilding a large home for entertaining with the help of Wright, then a young architect who was starting to make a name for himself. A strong believer in aesthetics enhancing one’s personal life, she gave Wright the opportunity to design both her home and the furniture with a blank check in the form of endless funds inherited from her family fortune. But her lavish spending ended up being her demise: Unable to maintain her lifestyle, she allegedly spoke to the occult and hosted séances to seek advice on how to handle her money. Eventually, Dana’s personal belongings had to be sold to cover her debts, and she was forced to live in a cabin behind the house. When it came to the house and furniture, no one was interested because people considered them “too odd and uncomfortable.” However, Charles Thomas, a publisher, purchased the house and its contents in 1944 and used it for offices of his company. Dana spent her last years hospitalized for insanity, and died in 1946. The state of Illinois bought the house from Thomas in 1981, restored it to its former glory with all of its original contents, and renamed it the Dana-Thomas house to honor both the owners.
Rose Pauson commissioned this Phoenix home, completed in 1940, from Wright as a winter getaway from her native San Francisco. However, Rose and her sister Gertrude only lived in the two-story home for a season, because it burned to the ground when an ember blew into a curtain in 1942. The remains of the house were left untouched for nearly thirty years, making it a hangout spot for youth and garnering the name “Ship Rock,” because the eerie remains of the chimney resembled a ship’s mast. What was left of the house was documented in a Historic Americans Building Survey, and the chimney was moved south to the entry of the Alta Vista subdivision as a landmark. In 2012, the chimney crumbled, leaving no remains of the Pauson House.