2016年7月25日 星期一

Meet the Romans with Mary Beard :Roman Art 《羅馬人》/《羅馬藝術鑑賞》 Treasures of Ancient Rome/ The Age of Constantine the Great: Jacob Burckhardt《君士坦丁大帝 時代》,

 Roger Hanoune /John Scheid 《羅馬人》台北:時報,1999
R. H. Barrow《羅馬人》上海:人民,2000
 M. 科利奇《羅馬藝術鑑賞》北京:北京大學,1988 
雷文炳和張秀亞《西洋藝術史綱羅馬的藝術》第5冊  台北:光啟,1969

 《羅馬藝術》桂林:廣西師範大學出版社2002Roman Art [Paperback]
Nancy H. Ramage , Andrew Ramage
  • Paperback: 384 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 5th edition (February 7, 2008)
  • Language: English


Meet the Romans with Mary Beard is a 2012 documentary written and presented byMary Beard about the ordinary citizen of ancient Rome, the world's first metropolis.[1]

Episode one: All Roads Lead to Rome[edit]

Beard takes the Via Appia to Rome to show the lives of ordinary citizens in imperial times, those citizens who would be in the top seats of the Colosseum. She takes a boat to Rome's port Ostia,where imported goods come from all over the Mediterranean, and she takes us into the bowels of Monte Testaccio. She features extraordinary Romans such as Eurysaces, a baker who made a fortune in the grain trade and built his tomb in the shape of a giant bread oven; Pupius Amicus, the purple dye seller making imperial dye from shellfish imported from Tunisia; and Baricha, Zabda and Achiba, three prisoners of war who became Roman citizens.
UK viewing figures: 1.97 million [2]

Episode two: Street life[edit]

She goes into the streets to discover the dirt, crime, sex and slum conditions in the world's first high-rise city where the poorer you were the higher you lived with little space, light, or sanitation. Rooms that were only slept in forced the poor to go outdoors into the city streets to eat, wash, get water and go to the lavatory. She looks at the Forum as a place of gamblers, dentists, thieves, prostitutes and rent boys. A huge wall separated the rich from the poor in their wooden tenements that often caught fire with no proper fire service to put them out. At night the streets were a mugger's paradise with no police force. Politicians who tried to provide social services were murdered lest they become too popular.
UK viewing figures: 1.87 [2]

Episode three: Behind Closed Doors[edit]

To learn about their family life, Beard looks at the thousands of tombstones of ordinary Romans, their children and slaves. Unwanted babies were left outside to die. Of the children that were wanted, half died by the age of ten. Children were put to work at manual labour as soon as they were able, often from the age of five. Schooling for the few would be, boys only, learning to read and write, public speaking, and poetry. Many girls were married at the age of twelve. One tombstone belonged to a 16-year-old girl murdered by her husband. Childbirth was equally dangerous with the tools available at the time. Slaves were regarded as part of the family and used as sex slaves. Masters and mistresses often married their freed slaves; other slaves were buried in the same tomb as their masters.
UK viewing figures: 2.00 [2]

Jump up^ BBC official page
^ Jump up to:a b c "Weekly Viewing Summary (see relevant week)". BARB.
2012年BBC這3小時的古羅馬藝術寶藏之旅絕對會讓你大開眼界:BBC The Treasures of Ancient Rome 2 of 3 Pomp and Perversion 720p https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwXi1uyqgCM
BBC The Treasures of Ancient Rome 3of3 The Empire Strikes Back

Roger Hanoune /John Scheid 《羅馬人》頁100-101 有一羅馬市容模型
更精彩的在A Tour through Ancient Rome in 320 C.E. 


The Roman emperor Constantine the Great was born ‪#‎onthisday‬ in AD 272 (or maybe 273!) http://ow.ly/zzfOo

Constantine I

羅馬皇帝(280-337 306-337年在位)自此 ... 自屋大維時代開始不斷強化和神化的皇權,到了君士坦丁時代,終於達到了它的頂峰。


his coin, called a nummus, was struck in AD 332 and shows a personification of Constantinopolis

The Age of Constantine the Great: Jacob Burckhardt

君士坦丁大帝 時代

在本書中,作者打算描述從戴克里先即位到君士坦丁之死的半個世紀,將之作為一個與眾不同的過渡時期來寫。作者並不想寫君士坦丁生平與統治的歷史,也不想寫 一本百科全書記錄下那個時期值得書寫的所有信息。而是想寫當時那個世界重要而基本的種種特征,把它們勾勒、塑造成明白易懂的整體。

君士坦丁一直被視為上古晚期最重要的一個皇帝。他堅強有力的個性奠定了歐洲後古典文明的基石;在他統治期間,適逢多事之秋,極富戲劇性。他在米爾維橋的勝 利是世界歷史上最關鍵的時刻之一。 但是君士坦丁也是一個具有爭議性的人物,這些爭議從古代就已開始。叛教者尤里安指責君士坦丁貪婪浪費。異教史學家索西穆斯認為(西方)帝國的瓦解,君士坦 丁難辭其咎。從另一方面來說,基督徒拉克坦提烏斯和優西比烏斯認為他是上天挑選來造福人類的人。這種正面看法在整個中世紀都佔了上風。 君士坦丁實質上並不是一個虔誠的基督徒,這個人滿腦子都是野心和追求權力的欲望;更糟糕的是,他是一個“為了自己利益,不惜犧牲他人性命的人”,一個習慣 違背誓言的人。而且這個人在宗教方面,不但不一致,而且還“刻意毫無理性”。

中譯本序言/黃 洋
第一章 三世紀的皇權
第二章 戴克里先︰他的收養制度與統治
第三章 西部個別行省與鄰國
第四章 東部個別行省與鄰國
第五章 異教︰眾神混合
第六章 不朽及其秘儀︰異教的精靈化
第七章 古代生活及其文化之衰朽
第八章 迫害基督徒︰君士坦丁和皇位繼承
第九章 君士坦丁和教會
第十章 宮廷、政府與軍隊︰君士坦丁堡、羅馬、雅典與耶路撒冷

The Age of Constantine the Great


  • 出版社: Univ of California Pr (1983/05)
  • 言語 英語, 英語, 英語
  • ISBN-10: 0520046803
  • ISBN-13: 978-0520046801
  • 発売日: 1983/05
Edict of Milan:米蘭詔書:公元 313年(2月)羅馬皇帝君士坦丁所頒佈基督徒信仰自由之詔書,天主教歷經三個世紀艱苦奮鬥後,終能在羅馬帝國公開傳佈福音。

Constantine the Great is best remembered as the first Roman emperor to promote Christianity. The Edict of Milan he issued in 313 granted unqualified freedom to all cults, thereby bringing toleration to all Christian sects throughout the empire. In 325 he presided at the Council of Nicaea, whose chief purpose was to dispose of the Arian conflicts. In 330, he established a new capital in Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople.

Arianism:亞略主義;亞流主義:為基督學之異端,是三、四世紀亞略神父 Arius 所倡的學說,否認耶穌的天主性,325年被尼西亞大公會議(Council of Nicaea)處罰並放逐。

The Age of Constantine the Great by Jacob Burckhardt is a definitive biography of the emperor whose reign represented a remarkable change from pagan antiquity to the Christian Middle Ages. It is both informative and interesting.

The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Wikipedia
AddressVia di San Gregorio, Roma, Italy
Height21 m
Architectural styleCorinthian order

‪#‎Onthisday‬ in 315, the Arch of Constantine was dedicated to the Roman Emperor Constantine commemorating his victory over Maxentius at the battle of Milvian Bridge. The block above the arches displays sculpted panels, and an inscription which would have originally been inlaid with gilded bronze.