2014年12月20日 星期六

macrowikinomics/ Oxford University Press (OUP) SALES



A little known fact: Oxford University Press (OUP) publishes most of the Christmas carols the world knows and loves. In this latest blog post, they take a look at their top requested carols in 2014:http://blog.oup.com/2014/12/oxfords-top-10-carols-2014/




 2010.10

"We argue that collaborative innovation is not only transforming our economy but all of society and its many institutions. Now the onus is now on each of us to lead the transformation in our households, communities and workplaces. After all, the potential for new models of collaboration does not end with the production of software, media, entertainment and culture. Why not open source government, education, science, the production of energy, and even health care?"

http://www.macrowikinomics.com/about/

*****

網路吞沒報業?維基經濟時代來臨

作者:經濟學人  出處:Web Only 2010/10
相關關鍵字:經濟學人

Don Tapscott和Anthony Williams在他們2006年的著作中創造了「維基經濟學」(wikinomics)一詞。網路讓業餘人士得以使用通訊工具探入全球市場,讓一群沒見過面的人可以合作,讓革新變得極度快速。

現在兩人又寫了第二本書,書名有些難懂:《總體維基經濟學:替商業和世界重開機》。但這本書相當值得一看,理由有二。其一,四年對網路來說有如永恆,自《維基經濟學》出版後,網路已經變得更為強大;Youtube每天送出20億段影片,網路流量每年增加4成,更轉化為社交媒介。

第二個理由則是,網路的效應每天都變得更為廣泛。作者在《維基經濟學》裡探討網路對特定商業行為的衝擊,新書則是討論網路如何搖撼部分現代社會的核心機構:媒體、大學、政府等等。

維基經濟學的兩大受害者就是報紙和音樂工業,其他產業則剛開始轉型。汽車產業是垂直整合的模範,但部分企業家正計畫著除去整合,例如地方車商利用設計師網路和數十間微型工廠,為愛好者製造訂製汽車。

組織如何利用網路獲利,而非遭網路吞沒?Tapscott和Williams認同開放性和「共同創造」,但也比部分人更為實際,他們不但認同利潤和誘因的重要性,更認為金錢獎勵可以用來改善公部門和志工部門。

兩位作者對網路太過熱衷,有時會顯得有些過頭。偉大的革新者通常需要勇氣才能忽略群眾,偉大的組織需要時間才能想出改變世界的點子。但他們也說得沒錯,網路是我們這個時代最基進的力量,而且網路現在才剛要開始施展它的魔力。

Two cyber-gurus take a second look at how the internet is changing the world
The wiki way
AFTER Kenya's disputed election in 2007 Ory Okolloh, a local lawyer and blogger, kept hearing accounts of atrocities. State media were not interested. Private newspapers lacked the money and manpower to investigate properly. So Ms Okolloh set up a website that allowed anyone with a mobile phone or an internet connection to report outbreaks of violence. She posted eyewitness accounts online and even created maps that showed where the killings and beatings were taking place.

Ms Okolloh has since founded an organisation called Ushahidi, which puts her original idea into practice in various parts of the world. It has helped Palestinians to map the violence in Gaza and Haitians to track the impact of the earthquake that devastated their nation in January. It even helped Washingtonians cope with the "snowmaggedon"that brought their city to a halt this year. Ushahidi's success embodies the principles of wikinomics.

Don Tapscott and Anthony Williams coined the term "wikinomics"in their 2006 tome of that name. Their central insight was that collaboration is getting rapidly cheaper and easier. The web gives amateurs access to world-class communications tools and worldwide markets. It makes it easy for large groups of people who have never met to work together. And it super-charges innovation: crowds of people can develop new ideas faster than isolated geniuses and disseminate them even faster.

Mr Tapscott and Mr Williams have now written a follow-up to their bestseller. They solicited 150 suggestions online for a snappy title. The result, alas, was a bit dull: "Macrowikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World”. But the book is well worth reading, for two reasons.
The first is that four years is an eternity in internet time. The internet has become much more powerful since "Wikinomics"was published. YouTube serves up 2 billion videos a day.

Twitterers tweet 750 times a second. Internet traffic is growing by 40% a year. The internet has morphed into a social medium. People post 2.5 billion photos on Facebook every month. More than half of American teens say they are "content creators”. And it is not only people who log on to the internet these days. Appliances do, too. Nokia, for example, has produced a prototype of an "ecosensor"phone that can detect and report radiation and pollution.

The second reason is that the internet's effects are more widely felt every day. In "Wikinomics"the authors looked at its impact on particular businesses. In their new book they look at how it is shaking up some of the core institutions of modern society: the media, universities, government and so on. It is a Schumpeterian story of creative destruction.

Two of the most abject victims of wikinomics are the newspaper and music industries. Since 2000, 72 American newspapers have folded. Circulation has fallen by a quarter since 2007. By some measures the music industry is doing even worse: 95% of all music downloads are illegal and the industry that brought the world Elvis and the Beatles is reviled by the young. Why buy newspapers when you can get up-to-the-minute news on the web? Why buy the latest Eminem CD when you can watch him on YouTube for free? Or, as a teenager might put it: what's a CD?

Other industries are just beginning to be transformed by wikinomics. The car industry is a model of vertical integration; yet some entrepreneurs plot its disintegration. Local Motors produces bespoke cars for enthusiasts using a network of 4,500 designers (who compete to produce designs) and dozens of microfactories (which purchase parts on the open market and then assemble them). Universities are some of the most conservative institutions on the planet, but the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has now put all of its courses online. Such a threat to the old way of teaching has doubtless made professors everywhere spit sherry onto the common-room carpet. Yet more than 200 institutions have followed suit.
Wikinomics is even rejuvenating the fusty old state. The Estonian government approved a remarkable attempt to rid the country of unsightly junk: volunteers used GPS devices to locate over 10,000 illegal dumps and then unleashed an army of 50,000 people to clean them up. Other governments are beginning to listen to more entrepreneurial employees. Vivek Kundra, now Barack Obama's IT guru, designed various web-based public services for Washington, DC, when he worked for the mayor. Steve Ressler, another American, created a group of web-enthusiasts called Young Government Leaders and a website called GovLoop.

FixTheState.com
How can organisations profit from the power of the web rather than being gobbled up by it? Messrs Tapscott and Williams endorse the familiar wiki-mantras about openness and "co-creation”. But they are less starry-eyed than some. They not only recognise the importance of profits and incentives. They also argue that monetary rewards can be used to improve the public and voluntary sectors. NetSquared, a non-profit group, introduced prizes for the best ideas about social entrepreneurship. Public-sector entrepreneurs such as Mr Kundra are excited by the idea of creating "app stores"for the public sector.

Messrs Tapscott and Williams sometimes get carried away with their enthusiasm for the web. Great innovators often need the courage to ignore the crowd. (Henry Ford was fond of saying that if he had listened to his customers he would have produced a better horse and buggy.) Great organisations need time to cook up world-changing ideas. Hierarchies can be just as valuable to the process of creative destruction as networks. But the authors are nevertheless right to argue that the web is the most radical force of our time. And they are surely also right to predict that it has only just begun to work its magic.

 ****


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