The Scientist as Rebel By Freeman J. Dyson，New York Review Books (September 9, 2008)
Freeman Dyson (弗里曼·戴森)著《反叛的科學家》(The Scientist as Rebel) 蕭明波、楊光松譯 ，杭州：浙江大學出版社，2013，
From Publishers Weekly
Starred Review. In an eclectic but deeply satisfying collection, Dyson, a prize-winning physicist and prolific author (Weapons and Hope), presents 33 previously published book reviews, essays and speeches (15 from the New York Review of Books). Dyson expresses his precise thinking in prose of crystal clarity, and readers will be absolutely enthralled by his breadth, his almost uncanny ability to tie diverse topics together and his many provocative statements. In the title essay, Dyson writes, "Science is an alliance of free spirits in all cultures rebelling against" the tyranny of their local cultures. In a 2006 review of Daniel Dennett's book, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon, Dyson, himself a man of faith, takes issue with Dennett's quoting of physicist Stephen Weinberg that "for good people to do bad things—that takes religion." The converse is also true, says Dyson: "for bad people to do good things—that takes religion." Three of the best chapters (reprinted from Weapons and Hope) deal with the politics of the cold war. And his writings on Einstein, Teller, Newton, Oppenheimer, Norbert Wiener and Feynman will amuse while presenting deep insights into the nature of science and humanity. Virtually every chapter deserves to be savored. (Dec.)
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.
From BooklistDistinguished physicist Dyson is a clear and compelling writer, gifts highlighted in this collection of 33 previously published and frequently updated essays and reviews. Organized into sections on contemporary issues in science, war and peace, history of science and scientists, and personal and philosophical ruminations, these works demonstrate Dyson's far-ranging interests and skill in writing for educated and curious generalists, qualities that ensure this volume's wide appeal. Some readers may feel a thrill reading Dyson's comments on military strategy; others may prefer Dyson's thoughts on such physics-related people and issues as Isaac Newton, Edward Teller, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Richard Feynman, Norbert Wiener, and string theory. But whatever a reader's passion, Dyson's emphasis on rebels within science rather than upholders of the status quo makes the book especially satisfying. Steve Weinberg
Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.
反叛的科學家 [平裝]~ 弗里曼•戴森(Freeman Dyson) (作者), 肖明波(譯者), 楊光松(譯者)出版社: 浙江大學出版社; 第1版(2013年6月1日)叢書名: 啟真•科學平裝: 396頁語種： 簡體中文開本: 16
內容簡介：《反 叛的科學家》內容簡介：從伽利略到今天的業余天文觀測者，科學家們都有反叛精神，戴森如是說。在追求大自然真理時，他們受理性更受想象力的指引，他們最偉 大的理論就具有偉大藝術作品的獨特性與美感。戴森以生動優美的語言講述了科學家在工作中的故事，從牛頓專心致志于物理學、煉金術、神學和政治，到盧瑟福發 現原子結構，再到愛因斯坦固執地反對黑洞觀念。他還以切身經歷回憶了他的老師和朋友特勒與費曼等聰明絕頂的科學家。書里充滿了有趣的逸事和對人心的深刻體 察，反映了作者的懷疑精神。這組文章出自卓越的科學家同時也是文筆生動的作家之手，展現出對科學史的深刻洞察，以及當代人探討科學、倫理與信仰的新視角。
作者簡介：弗 里曼？戴森（Freeman Dyson，1923－），出生于英國。他早年追隨著名的數學家g. h. 哈代研究數學，二戰后去了美國，師從漢斯？貝特和理查德？費曼等人，開展物理學方面的研究工作。他證明了施溫格與朝永振一郎的變分法方法和費曼的路徑積分 法相互等價，為量子電動力學的建立作出了決定性的貢獻，是量子電動力學的第一代巨擘。后來，費曼、施溫格和朝永振一郎因為在量子電動力學方面的成就獲得了 1965年的諾貝爾物理獎，而戴森卻因獲獎人數的限制而與諾貝爾獎失之交臂。
1 反叛的科學家 13
2 科學可以合乎道德嗎？ 31
3 現代異教徒 46
4 未來需要我們 53
5 好一個大千世界！ 68
6 一場悲劇的見證 83
7 炸彈與土豆 89
8 將軍 94
9 俄羅斯人 112
10 和平主義者 125
11 軍備競賽結束了 144
12 理性的力量 150
13 血戰到底 157
14 兩種歷史 177
15 愛德華 特勒的《回憶錄》 186
16 業餘科學家禮贊 192
17 老牛頓，新印象 205
18 時鐘的科學 219
19 弦上的世界 231
20 奧本海默：科學家、管理者與詩人 247
21 看到不可見的東西 263
22 一位天才人物的悲慘故事 276
23 智者 291
24 世界、肉體與魔鬼 309
25 實驗室里有上帝嗎？ 327
26 我的偶像崇拜 338
27 百萬分之一的可能性 344
28 眾多世界 35
《中國科學報》 (2013-06-21 第14版讀書)
There is no such thing as a unique scientific vision, any more than there is a unique poetic vision. Science is a mosaic of partial and conflicting visions. But there is one common element in these visions. The common element is rebellion against the restrictions imposed by the locally prevailing culture, Western or Eastern as the case may be. The vision of science is not specifically Western. It is no more Western than it is Arab or Indian or Japanese or Chinese. Arabs and Indians and Japanese and Chinese had a big share in the development of modern science. And two thousand years earlier, the beginnings of ancient science were as much Babylonian and Egyptian as Greek. One of the central facts about science is that it pays no attention to East and West and North and South and black and yellow and white. It belongs to everybody who is willing to make the effort to learn it. And what is true of science is also true of poetry. Poetry was not invented by Westerners. India has poetry older than Homer. Poetry runs as deep in Arab and Japanese culture as it does in Russian and English. Just because I quote poems in English, it does not follow that the vision of poetry has to be Western. Poetry and science are gifts given to all of humanity.
For the great Arab mathematician and astronomer Omar Khayyam, science was a rebellion against the intellectual constraints of Islam, a rebellion which he expressed more directly in his incomparable verses:
And that inverted Bowl they call the Sky,
Whereunder crawling cooped we live and die,
Lift not your hands to It for help,
As impotently rolls as you or I.
For the first generations of Japanese scientists in the nineteenth century, science was a rebellion against their traditional culture of feudalism. For the great Indian physicists of this century, Raman, Bose, and Saha, science was a double rebellion, first against English domination and second against the fatalistic ethic of Hinduism. And in the West, too, great scientists from Galileo to Einstein have been rebels. Here is how Einstein himself described the situation:
When I was in the seventh grade at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich, I was summoned by my home-room teacher who expressed the wish that I leave the school. To my remark that I had done nothing amiss, he replied only, “Your mere presence spoils the respect of the class for me.”
Einstein was glad to be helpful to the teacher. He followed the teacher’s advice and dropped out of school at the age of fifteen.
From these and many other examples we see that science is not governed by the rules of Western philosophy or Western methodology. Science is an alliance of free spirits in all cultures rebelling against the local tyranny that each culture imposes on its children. Insofar as I am a scientist, my vision of the universe is not reductionist or anti-reductionist. I have …
Dancing With the Stars
William E. Sauro/The New York Times
It was a pivotal moment in the history of physics. With their contrasting visions joined into a single theory, Feynman, Schwinger and the Japanese scientist Sin-Itiro Tomonaga were honored in 1965 with a Nobel Prize, one that some think Dyson deserved a piece of.
In “The Scientist as Rebel,” a new collection of essays (many of them reviews first published in The New York Review of Books), he sounds content with his role as a bridge builder. “Tomonaga and Schwinger had built solid foundations on one side of a river of ignorance,” he writes. “Feynman had built solid foundations on the other side, and my job was to design and build the cantilevers reaching out over the water until they met in the middle.”
Drawing on this instinct for unlikely connections, Dyson has become one of science’s most eloquent interpreters. From his perch at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he followed “Disturbing the Universe,” a remembrance of physics in the making, with “Infinite in All Directions,” his exuberant celebration of the universe, and other books like “Weapons and Hope,” “Imagined Worlds” and “The Sun, the Genome and the Internet” — speculations on how science and technology might one day ennoble humanity, eliminating war and poverty, if only we can avoid blowing ourselves up.
Science, Dyson says, is an inherently subversive act. Whether overturning a longstanding idea (Heisenberg upending causality with quantum mechanics, Gödel smashing the pure platonic notion of mathematical decidability) or marshaling the same disdain for received political wisdom (Galileo, Andrei Sakharov), the scientific ethic — stubbornly following your nose where it leads you — is a threat to establishments of all kinds. He quotes the biologist J. B. S. Haldane: “Let him beware of him in whom reason has become the greatest and most terrible of the passions.”
It’s debatable whether anyone’s book reviews — even those as thoughtfully discursive as Dyson’s — belong embalmed between covers, but “The Scientist as Rebel” can be perused for a sampling of his iconoclastic takes on a science that sometimes seems to be turning into an establishment of its own. So much has been written about the grand quest to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity into a theory of everything — “to reduce physics,” as Dyson puts it, “to a finite set of marks on paper” — that it’s bracing to consider his minority view: that the existence of a compact set of almighty equations may be a dogma in itself.
“As a conservative, I do not agree that a division of physics into separate theories for large and small is unacceptable,” he wrote in a review republished here of Brian Greene’s book “The Fabric of the Cosmos.” “I am happy with the situation in which we have lived for the last 80 years, with separate theories for the classical world of stars and planets and the quantum world of atoms and electrons.”
It’s jarring at first to hear the Scientist as Rebel describing himself as a conservative. But that’s Dyson: as resistant to categorization as the universe his colleagues are trying to mathematicize. “In the history of science,” he writes, “there is always a tension between revolutionaries and conservatives, between those who build grand castles in the air and those who prefer to lay one brick at a time on solid ground.”
Dyson, the brick layer, comes down on the side of Baconian science, built piecemeal from scraps rather than deduced through pure Cartesian thought, a science driven more by new tools — microscopes, particle accelerators, gene sequencers — than new ideas. In contrast to the science of Athens, as he drew the distinction in “Infinite in All Directions,” he prefers the science of Manchester, where Ernest Rutherford, cobbling together a picture of the nucleus, complained of theorists who “play games with their symbols” while “we turn out the real facts of Nature.”
In a science of unifiers, Dyson prides himself as a diversifier. “I gazed at the stars as a young boy,” he once wrote. “That’s what science means to me. It’s not theories about stars; it’s the actual stars that count.”
在提到Richard Tawney 是有問題的
Tawney, R. H. (1880-1962). Tawney made a significant impact in four interrelated roles, as Christian socialist, social philosopher, educationalist, and economic historian. In 1908 he became the first tutorial class teacher in an agreement between the Workers' Educational Association and Oxford University. The classes he took became renowned for their excellence. As a socialist, he wrote Secondary Education for All (1922), which informed Labour policy for a generation. His two most influential books, The Acquisitive Society (1921) and Equality (1931), exercised a profound influence on socialists in Britain and abroad and anticipated the welfare state. Tawney was also a professor of economic history from 1931, having made his reputation with Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (1926).
The Sun, the Genome,
and the Internet
and the Internet
|Title:||The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet|
|Availability:||The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet - US|
|.||The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet - UK|
|.||The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet - Canada|
|.||Le soleil, le génome et Internet - France|
|.||Die Sonne, das Genom und das Internet - Deutschland|
- Tools of Scientific Revolutions
- Based on Lectures given at the New York Public Library in 1997, and published in conjunction with the NYPL.
B : interesting ideas, well conveyed -- but far too little.
See our review for fuller assessment.
|New Scientist||A-||26/6/1999||Marcus Chown|
|Technology Review||A-||9-10/1999||Wade Roush|
From the Reviews:
- "You may not always agree with Dyson's view of the future, but this fascinating book by one of the great scientific visionaries of our time will certainly make you think" - Marcus Chown, New Scientist
- "Dyson's arguments are illuminating even if his strictures are sometimes less than just," - Walter Gratzer, Nature
- "It's been a long time since a respectable scientist voiced such grand aspirations in print, making Dyson's book refreshing and thought-provoking, if a bit farfetched." - Wade Roush, Technology Review
Please note that these ratings solely represent the complete review's biased interpretation and subjective opinion of the actual reviews and do not claim to accurately reflect or represent the views of the reviewers. Similarly the illustrative quotes chosen here are merely those the complete review subjectively believes represent the tenor and judgment of the review as a whole. We acknowledge (and remind and warn you) that they may, in fact, be entirely unrepresentative of the actual reviews by any other measure.
The complete review's Review:We have always admired Freeman Dyson highly. A talented scientist with many interests he has also managed to convey his interests and thoughts in his thoughtful and accessible writing. From the brilliant (and brilliantly titled) Disturbing the Universe to the present he has never failed to be provocative and insightful -- and to express himself well.
This small book, based on lectures given at the New York Public Library in 1997 again allow him to share his interesting thoughts with a wider audience. Meandering about through three chapters Dyson discusses the tools of scientific revolutions (so the subtitle of the book). Suggesting how science advances and could advance in the future, as well as the unexpected consequences of advancement, Dyson offers his broad and unusual perspective on significant questions facing the world.
Dyson's greatest asset as a scientist and thinker is his openness to all possibilities. He understands that the unexpected is often the most likely of outcomes, and he is prepared to entertain that and most other possibilities. Dyson does not insist on being right, as so many scientists do, or get bogged down in a single idea. He truly is interested in the big picture, and is more than willing to acknowledge when he strays down the wrong path (as he does here in cheerfully recounting his 1985 guesses as to the three most important technologies of the coming century).
Dyson is also a humanist in the broadest sense of the word. His writing always shows his humanist background (nowhere more clearly than in Disturbing the Universe, though it is also evident hear). In addition (though perhaps one should suggest that it is something that one should expect from a scientist, as well as a humanist) his great concern for the true betterment of the human condition comes to the fore here. For Dyson one of the marvels of science is that it can make life so much better for so many, and one of his goals is to help in that regard. In this small book he also gives some examples of what has been -- and what can and should be -- done to better the conditions of the world's population.
Dyson's thoughts are always intriguing, his examples well-chosen and fascinating. He is an admirable fellow, and this is an admirable book. Our one regret is that there is so little of it, that he breezes through these topics, touching on them but not going into great detail. Nevertheless, we can recommend it for anyone interested in the future, and the possibilities before us.
- Oxford University Press publicity page
- Index of Science and Technology books at the complete review
Freeman Dyson is Professor Emeritus of Physics at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University. Winner of the National Book Critics Circle Award, he has written numerous works. He is also the father of Esther, who gets a lot of press of her own. In 2000 he was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion -- a payday worth almost a million dollars.