2016年2月5日 星期五

《尼采的使命》《情遇尼采》Nietzsche - alive and well in the age of Twitter

Friedrich Nietzsche died in Weimar, Saxony, German Empire on this day in 1900 (aged 55).
"'Where the tree of knowledge stands, there is always paradise': thus speak the oldest and the youngest serpents."
— from "Beyond Good and Evil"

Photo of Nietzsche circa 1885


Nietzsche - alive and well in the age of Twitter

One of the latest Twitter phenomena is publishing posthumous tweets from famous personalities beyond the grave. So far, so good. But why exactly is the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche proving such a hit?
Google "Friedrich Nietzsche" and you might just end up at his Twitter account. Or one of them, anyway.
Nietzsche has around 100 active Twitter feeds - an impressive feat for a man who's been dead for 130 years. It's even more impressive when you consider the company he's in: William Shakespeare has a similar Twitter presence; Jesus Christ comes in just a bit higher than Fritz and the Bard combined.
Yet unlike his companions, Nietzsche's words are not the stuff of high-school curriculums or Sunday sermons. Most, if they have heard of the philosopher, did so in college or thereafter.
Perhaps dead German philosophers are in vogue? Immanuel Kant, the father of German enlightenment thought, whose "categorical imperative" is still discussed not only in 700-level philosophy courses at Cambridge, has 15 phantom accounts. Hegel, the brain behind the master-slave dialectic and the author of one of the densest texts in the history of philosophy, the Phenomenology of Spirit, has a paltry single account.
What, then, explains Nietzsche's Twitter magnetism?
Brevity is wit
In addition to being one of the most powerful minds in the history of thought, Nietzsche is known in scholarly circles today as a father of the aphorism - or philosopher speak for a tweet - a thought or saying packaged in a concise manner, oftentimes in a sentence or two.
"Without music, life would be a mistake."
"There are no moral phenomena at all, but only moral interpretations of phenomena."
"Talking much about oneself can also be a means to conceal oneself."
Arthur Schopenhauer - young Nietzsche's educator
These are three examples of classic Nietzsche "tweets," just three of thousands of aphorisms that filled Nietzsche's books throughout his career. Quite often, Nietzsche's books consisted of nothing else.
"Nietzsche writes in an engaging way, whereas Kant, for example, writes in dense philosophical prose," said Kirk Wetters, Associate Professor of German language and literature at Yale University. "He's widely perceived as a philosopher of radical (or even macho) individualism. It's ironic, perhaps, that a purportedly individualistic philosophy should end up producing 100 impersonators."
Arthur Schopenhauer, meanwhile, has just 10 phantom Twitter accounts. It was the directness of Schopenhauer's language and thought that impressed the young Nietzsche, something the latter thinker was unashamed to acknowledge.
He called Schopenhauer outright his educator, and he attempted to emulate the immediate and straightforward way in which Schopenhauer wrote.
"Whoever knows he is deep, strives for clarity."
"It is my ambition to say in ten sentences what other men say in whole books - what other men do not say in whole books."
Another two Tweets. And indeed, what Nietzsche didn't take from the long line of German philosophers that preceded him was their wordiness, their long-windedness, their veritable logorrhoea, their - well, let's let Hegel speak for himself ...
A case of 'tl;dr'
"The moral consciousness, qua simple knowledge and willing of pure duty, is brought, by the process of acting, into relation with an object opposed to that abstract simplicity, into relation with the manifold actuality which various cases present, and thereby assumes a moral attitude varied and manifold in character."
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - the philosopher's name alone is almost too much for Twitter
Come again? Such sentences - Nietzsche said it back in his day - are nothing other than a stumbling block on the path of knowledge. A discombubulated array of thoughts that few - philosophy PhD candidates included - could ever hope to comprehend.
And, they wouldn't even have a chance on Twitter. Hegel's sentence there clocks in at 259 characters, including spaces. Tweetable? Forget it - nearly double the 140 allowed. Little surprise, then, that Hegel's stuck at one phantom account.
But does this mean that thinkers today have changed the way they write across the board? Do thinkers have to be tweetable?
According to comments across the web, yes. Comments columns are peppered with the collection of letters and numbers known as "tl;dr." They stand for "Too long; didn't read."
While Kant and Hegel seem to have that problem, Nietzsche's Tweetable aphorisms don't. And in fact, his writing should remain free of "tl;dr" comments for quite some time.
The great philosopher claimed his work would only be understood 200 years after his death - giving us 70 more years to enjoy him.


作  者: (美)朗佩特 著,李致远李小均 译
出 版 社: 华夏出版社
  • 出版时间: 2009-1-1
  • 字  数: 350000
  • 版  次: 1
  • 页  数: 385
  • 印刷时间: 2009-1-1
  • 开  本: 大32开


尼采当时的使命是什么?就是哲学的使命:获得一个全面的、堪称正确的视角,以观察世界和人对世界的安排。……尼采的两部主要著作《拉图斯特拉是说》和《善 恶的彼岸》表明,他已经获得了全面的视角;随之而来的是,另一项使命落在了尼采头上,即政治哲学的使命:在人类文化的生活世界中,为这种全面视角挣得一席 之地;或在人对万物的安排中,公正地对待万物。然而,鉴于非理性视角的淫威,要想在非理性视角的包围中为更理性的视角挣得一席之地,就必须具备巧妙的战略 手腕;对一位既了解读者、又知道如何勾引读者的高明作家来说,这是一项使命。




第一章 论哲学家们的偏见
第二章 自由精神
第三章 宗教性的本质
第四章 警句与插曲
第五章 论道德的自然史
第六章 我们学者们
第七章 我们的美德
第八章 民族与祖国
第九章 何为高贵?

"To die proudly when it is no longer possible to live proudly. Death of one's own free choice, death at the proper time, with a clear head and with joyfulness, consummated in the midst of children and witnesses: so that an actual leave-taking is possible while he who is leaving is still there." -- Friedrich Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols



作者: 露·莎乐美
译者: 王书祥 / 杨祖群
ISBN: 9787801496034
页数: 239
出版社: 社会科学文献出版社
定价: 17.0
装帧: 平装
出版年: 2002-2-1

前 言 1882年4月,作為保羅·瑞的朋友,露·馮·莎樂美在羅馬認識了年長她17歲的弗裏德里希·尼采,當時她21歲。瑞比尼采年青5歲。而當她33歲時,作 為露·安德烈亞斯—莎樂美夫人,作為自由女作家即將第一次赴巴黎旅行之前在柏林寫下了這本名為《情遇尼采》的書。 《情遇尼采》這一書名清楚表明,人們不應將這本書僅僅看成是對其著作的詮釋,而是表明瞭作者同尼采的私人關係和在各種不同類型文件中以及尼采給她和給保 羅·瑞的書信中的個別段落中表示出來的同樣的構想:要將仿佛隱藏在作品中的尼采的思想認識發展過程更準確地表達出來。 這種說法使人難以想像,構成本書前提的是尼采與露,馮·莎樂美的相遇只能被理解為是兩種生活道路和思想道路在一個完全固定的時間的相交,——並且,這本書 的原稿也只有在露·安德烈亞斯—莎樂美生命中的一段固定的時間內才有強調:“在奧爾塔,我當時就已計劃,將您逐步引向我的哲學觀點——我認為您是第一個能 做到這點的人。”——“在這期間我們曾共同建造了我們的臨時宿營地,比如,在上義大利湖邊的奧爾塔,旁邊的蒙特薩卡羅似乎曾很吸引我們:由於我母親突然得 了一場病,為了等她,尼采和我在蒙特薩卡羅停留很長時間,而這些引起了照顧她的保羅·瑞的特別反感。”(《生活回顧》——根據露·馮·莎樂美在陶滕堡寫的 日記。)而尼采在《回顧我們在義大利的時光》中溫情地寫道:當我們“沿著狹窄的山徑向上走時”,“蒙特薩卡羅,是我生命中最令人喜悅的夢想,我感謝你”。 關於“在盧塞恩的日子”:1882年5月,尼采同露·馮·莎樂美“在盧塞恩的獅子花園邊”進行了一次“私密的”傾談,“因為,保羅·瑞向她轉達求婚的意思 顯得不夠明確”,“但是,尼采同時也請求三人一起合影,儘管保羅·瑞表示極不情願,這種不情願使他的面部終生挂著一種病態的厭惡”(《生活回顧》)。從盧 塞恩出發,尼采與露·馮·莎樂美一起到了特利普森,“在這裡他曾同瓦格納度過了令人難忘的時光……”。(見116頁及以下幾頁。) 陶滕堡(門)這個名字代表著尼采與露·馮·莎樂美之間思想觀點交流的高潮和交點,可這個詞並未出現在給保羅·瑞的信中,露·馮·莎樂艾在她的日記中寫到瑞 叫,則通過下面的話表達了同尼采關係的終結:“我們的共同之處是我們有相同的天生的宗教信仰,而恰恰因此在我們中間爆發出如此強烈的不同,因為,從某種特 殊的意義上講,我們都是自由意志者。” 9月中旬,尼采從萊比錫寫信給弗蘭茨·奧韋爾貝克:“我同露的談話是這個夏天我做的最重要的事情。我們的理性和品味都發生了最深刻的轉變——另一方面,我 們彼此之間如此之多的矛盾都成了觀察研究對方最有效的人口。我還從未認識過這種懂得從他人的實踐經驗中獲取如此多的主觀觀點的人,從未認識過這種懂得從一 切有豐富實踐纖驗者那裏吸取如此多經驗的人。”“陶滕堡給了露一個目標。” 讀了這封信,還是難以猜想尼采當時還有一些看起來要修正的東西。更何況在偶然的、有意的和無意的事情上,對尼采不要有太多的指望,沒有什麼東西會驅使他一 再做出反應,直到無法忍受為止。 12月25日,也就是露·馮·莎樂美給保羅·瑞寫上述所引用的信前幾天,尼采就曾寫信給奧韋爾貝克:“昨天我也中斷了與我母親的書信往來,這在過去是無法 忍受的,也許這樣更好,我大概很早就不能冉忍受這些了。” “我與露的關係一直存在於最痛苦思緒之中:至少我今天相信是這樣,未來的,——如果有未來的話——,我也想對此說一個字,同情,我親愛的朋友,這是一種苦 難的深淵——這也就是叔本華的信徒們所喜歡說的。” ……


第一章 他的本質
第二章 他的轉變
第三章 尼采體系