2017年8月1日 星期二

聖依納爵 St. Ignatius Loyola / 耶穌會Society of Jesus

Jesuits :耶穌會士。詳見 Society of Jesus

Society of Jesus :耶穌會:由聖納爵.羅耀拉 St. Ignatius de Loyola 1540 年所創立,從事教育文化、外方傳教、大眾傳播、社會等工作。俗稱 Jesuits

'Father Jorge' Rose From Modest Roots 豪爾赫神父 今日羅馬教皇...

Jesuits Had Past Struggles With Popes

Jorge Mario Bergoglio's election as Pope Francis brings new attention to his religious order, the powerful and controversial Society of Jesus, better know as the Jesuits.
Dr. Terrence Tilley of Fordham University discusses the issues that Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio and the Catholic Church face as he becomes Pope Francis. Photo: Getty Images.

Bergoglio: A Man for the Church

Review key events in his life and career.

If one thing defines the Jesuits, it is their reputation for rigorous intellectual discussion and their lack of dogmatism. "They are very innovative and tied to reality," says Elio Masferrer, an anthropologist and expert on religion at Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History.

An Argentine Pope

When Pope Francis was 'Father Jorge'
The new pontiff, second from left in back row, in an undated photo with his family.

The Jesuits are the largest single order in the Catholic Church. Throughout their history, they have wielded power as advisors to monarch and prince alike. They have also produced notable scientists, educators, and missionaries and have also been at the forefront of social movements.
They were founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola, a wounded Basque soldier who had a vision in 1521 as he was recuperating after his leg was shattered by a French cannonball. The order was organized on military lines of soldier-priests uniquely at the Pope's orders. Throughout their history, the Jesuits have enjoyed a reputation for their intellectual acuity and have played a leading role in Catholic education. Today, they run more than 100 colleges around the world.
The Jesuits also have a reputation for bold missionary activities. They evangelized much of Asia in the 16th century, acting as emissaries to the Emperor of China, among other kingdoms.
In that sense, Francis, the name taken by Cardinal Bergoglio, is symbolic. It could refer either to Saint Francis of Assisi or the well-known Jesuit, Saint Francis Xavier, both missionaries, said Terrence Tilley, chair of the Department of Theology at Fordham University in New York.
But Mr. Tilley said the new pope is not known for radical theology. "Expect no significant changes in attitude and no change in doctrine," he said.
Through their almost five hundred years of history, the Jesuits have at times had difficult relations with the papacy, which saw them as rivals.
The Society of Jesus was even dissolved by the Papacy in 1773. But the Jesuits managed to survive in Russia and Prussia, whose rulers refused to obey the papal bull which was eventually rescinded in 1814.

The Changing Church

The population of Catholics around the world has grown dramatically and shifted southward, while the cardinals who elect the pope remain mostly European.
More recently, the Jesuits had a particularly strained relationship with the late Pope John Paul II during the turbulent decades when some in the Church took a leftward turn and Latin America was a front in the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
In some parts of the region, some Jesuits took up arms on the side of leftist guerrillas. In places like El Salvador, wracked by bloody civil war, they were seen by the local establishment as the enemy. For instance, six Jesuits, including the rector of the Catholic University of El Salvador, and two house maids were gunned down by Salvadoran troops in one of the worst atrocities of the Salvadoran civil war in 1989.
Earlier in Mexico, Jesuits were expelled from the conservative business capital of Monterrey by the local bishop who thought they were too close to leftist students. In Mexico at the time, the Jesuits who had traditionally educated the sons of Latin America's elite, closed down their leading school in the capital to devote their energies to teaching the poor.
The Jesuits derive their tough intellectual standards from the experience of their founder. Convalescing from his wound, Saint Ignatius read the only thing available to him, religious books, and wrote down his experiences in a famous spiritual treatise known as the Spiritual Exercises.
Saint Ignatius studied at the University of Paris. It was there, with a half-dozen friends, he founded the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits dedicated themselves to the service of the Pope and were officially recognized by Pope Paul III in 1540.

Theologian and founder the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) St. Ignatius of Loyola died in Rome, Papal States on this day in 1556 (aged 64).

"The safest and most suitable form of penance seems to be that which causes pain in the flesh but does not penetrate to the bones, that is, which causes suffering but not sickness. So the best way seems to be to scourge oneself with thin cords which hurt superficially, rather than to use some other means which might produce serious internal injury."
-- St. Ignatius of Loyola
The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola is the core work of religious formation for members of the Society of Jesus, the single largest religious order within the Roman Catholic Church. For four and a half centuries in many thousands of editions in all languages, The Exercises have embodied fundamental spiritual principles essential to authentic Christian living. The mystical insight informing Ignatius’s own relationship with God—which he distilled in The Exercises—is that the divine love of God is providentially present in all the details of our existence. Here Ignatius shows how the faithful can be joined to God in all things, according to the Jesuit motto, Ad majorem Dei gloriam, “For the greater glory of God.”

"聖依納爵 神操" (The Spiritual Excercises of St. Ignatitus) 台北:光啟文化事業 1978/2003 三版 (熊維強先生贈書)

煉路 明路 合路
始修者 進修者 成全者

如此 "戴明修煉"似乎應改成"戴明煉修全"

聖依納爵書信選集 (聖依納爵專輯) Selected Letters of St. Ignatius Loyola

  聖依納爵雖然誕生在公元一四九一年 , 但堪當稱得上是一位現代聖人。他創立的耶穌會至今仍站在教會的最前線,做她的前鋒與哨兵;他的靈修方法透過著名的「神操」至今在全教會仍有深刻廣遠的影 響。他為耶穌會士所寫的會憲對後期的修會發展奠下了重要的基石。可以說即使在今天,他還很活躍地生活在教會中。一般人都曉得聖依納爵出身軍人,文學根柢有 限,晚年體弱多病,對會務又異常忙碌,講的道理固然不少,著作料想不會很多。殊不知他寫的東西實在不少;除了「神操」、「會憲」以及呈遞教宗請求批准耶穌 會的「會典綱要」等重要文獻外;尚有留傳至今的書信六千八百一十三封之多,失落者尚不知凡幾。
  那麼,這些信都是他親筆寫的嗎?有些 是他親筆寫的,大部分則是假手祕書寫的。不過讀者不要誤會,所謂由祕書寫,也是經聖祖口授;或者至少授以大意,寫後又必須交他審閱,仔細修改,然後才請人 繕寫寄出。十分慎重,絕不馬虎,每封信幾乎都由他親筆簽字,所以真正都算是他寫的信。
  至於書信往還的對象,可說各階層的人都有;上至教 宗、國王、樞機、主教,下至修士、修女以及普通教友,不過大多數則是耶穌會會士。自一五二四至一五四 0 年只有三十來封信。但自耶穌會奠定之後,發展極速,事務自然日繁,來往的書信也就更多了;這裡建立會院,那邊辦學校,或要求派遣會士去印度等地傳教等事 宜,幾乎每日有書信來往,可說是應接不暇。此外,最使他關心的是選擇適當的會士擔任省長、院長、初學神師及學校教職員,用心栽培熱心而堅強的會士,因此大 部分書信旨在解決困難,指示方針、安慰憂苦、責備怠惰者、節制狂熱者;總之一句,答覆問題的信佔大多數。
   這些書信無論是指引正途、解釋問題、糾正錯誤、鼓勵精神 ...... 都是為天主的「 愈大光榮」。天主首先是「我們的造主和救主」,全能全知,至公至義 ...... 這都是公教傳統的信條;但在依納爵的筆下,卻按所談問題的不同,常顯示不同的意味和反響。對氣餒的傳教士,他便強調天主是「萬善的根源」;對患病者,他便 稱天主是「健康和生命,富於仁慈,緩於發怒」;總之一句:他堅固弱者,安慰憂者,開敢愚蒙,隨機應變,一切都是為了使人更加愛慕侍奉天主。所以書信雖然是 針對個人、各個不同問題而寫,雖然已事過境遷,但為現在的讀者仍具有同樣的益處。
聖依納爵(St. Ignatius of Loyola)
   1491年生於西班牙羅耀拉,出身貴族,先後充當朝臣,然後從軍。1521年在邦布羅納對抗法國軍隊戰役中受傷,臥床療養期間,經歷了深度的皈依,熱切 期望追隨基督芳表,退隱茫萊撒,生活於神修體驗中,感受靈性與神秘的恩寵,並將其中精華部分加以記錄,就是《神操》的初稿。前往聖地朝聖,及先後在西班牙 及巴黎潛心讀書時,召集初期同伴,特別在巴黎研讀神學,奠定耶穌會的第一塊基石。1537年在威尼斯晉鐸;同年前往羅馬,1540年與同伴創立耶穌 會,1541年被選為第一任總會長。為重整十六世紀的天主教會,為革新教會福傳活動,在各種使徒工作中,提供了大力的援助,1556年在羅馬逝世。 1622年與聖方濟?沙勿略(薩威)同被列入聖人行列。依納爵以他對教會的忠誠與革新,福傳工作的推動,對社會邊緣者的牧民關懷,教育上的投入,及獻身於 「愈顯主榮」,受人景仰。

Ignace De Loyola

光啟編輯部 (Miguel Berzosa ) 編譯

1991 年 6 月 初版

書號 20765

定價 90 元 / 48 頁 / 平裝 / 16 開 / ISBN:957-546-029-4