2016年3月2日 星期三

Victor Hugo: A Biography ( Graham Robb)《雨果傳》; "Les Misérables" (1862) 雨果傳,Baudelaire dismissed Victor Hugo,

這則值得重複貼一次。
Le suprême bonheur de la vie, c’est la conviction qu’on est aimé.
--Les Misérables (1862)




"The supreme happiness of life is the conviction that we are loved."
--from "Les Misérables" (1862) by Victor Hugo

It has been said that Victor Hugo has a street named after him in virtually every town in France. A major reason for the singular celebrity of this most popular and versatile of the great French writers is Les Misérables (1862). In this story of the trials of the peasant Jean Valjean—a man unjustly imprisoned, baffled by destiny, and hounded by his nemesis, the magnificently realized, ambiguously malevolent police detective Javert—Hugo achieves the sort of rare imaginative resonance that allows a work of art to transcend its genre. Les Misérables is at once a tense thriller that contains one of the most compelling chase scenes in all literature, an epic portrayal of the nineteenth-century French citizenry, and a vital drama—highly particularized and poetic in its rendition but universal in its implications—of the redemption of one human being. READ an excerpt here: http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/240071/les-miserables/






“Spira, spera. (breathe, hope)”
― Victor Hugo, "Notre-Dame de Paris"
La vie est une fleur dont l’amour est le miel.
"Life is a flower of which love is the honey."
--Victor Hugo


"A writer is a world trapped in a person."
— Victor Hugo
*****



 雨果出生於法國東部緊挨瑞士的杜省貝桑松,他的父親是拿破崙手下的一位將軍,兒時的雨果隨父在西班牙駐軍,10歲回巴黎上學,中學畢業入法學院學習,但他的興趣在於寫作,15歲時在法蘭西學院的詩歌競賽會得獎,17歲在「百花詩賽」得第一名,20歲出版詩集《頌詩集》,因歌頌波旁王朝復辟,獲路易十八賞賜,在這之後他寫了大量異國情調的詩歌。而後,他對波旁王朝和七月王朝都感到失望,成為共和主義者,他還寫過許多詩劇和劇本,幾部具有鮮明特色並貫徹其主張的小說。

1841年被選為法蘭西學院院士,1845年任上院議員,1848年二月革命後,任共和國議會代表,1851年拿破崙三世稱帝,雨果奮起反對而被迫流亡國外,流亡期間寫下一部政治諷刺詩《懲罰集》,每章配有拿破崙三世的一則施政綱領條文,並加以諷刺,還用拿破崙一世的功績和拿破崙三世的恥辱對比。

1870年法國不流血革命推翻拿破崙三世後,雨果返回巴黎。雨果一生著作等身,幾乎涉及文學所有領域,評論家認為,他的創作思想和現代思想最為接近。1881年2月,在雨果的79歲生日之際,巴黎舉行了盛大的慶祝活動。盛大的遊行隊伍從他家所在的街道經過,並直到香榭麗舍大街。他所居住的大街被也改以他的名字命名。

1882?年2月26日,雨果80歲生日那天,有60萬他的仰慕者走過他巴黎寓所的窗前,為這位偉大的作家慶祝壽辰。
1881 ?年 2 月 26 日,是雨果八十歲誕辰。全法國的人們將這一大作為國家的盛大節日予以慶祝。所有的中小學都放了假,並取消了對學生的處分。在埃洛大街的雨果寓所 ...

1885年5月22日,83歲的雨果死於肺炎。在他去世前兩年在他的遺囑中加上了一條修改附錄:「我送給窮人們五萬法郎,我希望能用他們的柩車把我送往墓地。我拒絕任何教堂為我做禱告,我請求所有的靈魂為我祈禱。我相信上帝」。6月1日,法蘭西共和國為他舉行了國葬,舉國致哀,超過兩百萬人參加了他的從凱旋門到先賢祠葬禮遊行。他的遺體由窮人的靈車拉着緩緩地被運送到了香榭麗舍盡頭的凱旋門之下,棺上覆蓋着黑紗,被安放在凱旋門下由巴黎歌劇院的設計者夏赫勒·咖赫涅(Charles Garnier)建造的巨大的停靈台上停靈一夜。之後被安葬在聚集法國名人紀念牌的「先賢祠」。

雨果最為人津津樂道的浪漫事跡。他於30歲時邂逅26歲的女演員朱麗葉·德魯埃,並墮入愛河。以後不管他們在一起或分開,她每天都要給雨果寫情書,直到她75歲去世,將近50年來從未間斷,情書近兩萬封。(好像有書信選1001篇。朱麗葉生前希望選首雨果給她的詩當墓誌銘,不果, 等她去世之後有"後援會",才得以刻上: 
             我化成死灰時,
             向陽而閉上疲憊雙眼,
             如果對我的思念依舊自己可要說出
                         世界得到他的思、想。
                         我則得到他的愛、情。
   

  雨果一生中欠朱麗葉的太多,對不起她的地方也不少。朱麗葉救過雨果的命,救過包括《悲慘世界》在內的一大箱手稿。朱麗葉追隨了雨果五十年,生活在天才的陰影下。就在朱麗葉逝世的那年,雨果為了紀念他們的相識相愛50年特送給她一張自己的照片,背面寫著這樣一句話——“五十載的相愛,是最美麗的婚姻。”沒有任何一句話比這句蓋棺論定更中肯,更讓人喟嘆的了。
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_543c51000100a6al.html


*****
我買《雨果傳》,是希望有機會與Grahan Robb的傳記 Victor Hugo: A Biography合讀:

莫洛亞 《雨果傳:奧林匹歐或雨果的一生》,杭州:浙江大學出版社,2014






*****
Baudelaire dismissed Victor Hugo as 'an idiot' in unseen letter
In contrast to public praise of Les Misérables author, correspondence reveals private contempt
Charles Baudelaire
Poisonous pen … detail from portrait of Charles Baudelaire by Gustave Courbet (1847). Photograph: De Agostini/Getty Images
Victor Hugo, revered author of Les Misérables and towering French literary giant, was also something of a nuisance – at least according to his contemporary and fellow poet Charles Baudelaire.
In a January 1860 letter to an unknown correspondent, Baudelaire bemoans how Hugo "keeps on sending me stupid letters", adding that Hugo's continuing missives have inspired him "to write an essay showing that, by a fatal law, a genius is always an idiot". The letter is being auctioned by Christie's in New York, alongside a first edition of Baudelaire's celebrated poetry collection Les Fleurs du Mal, containing the six poems that were deleted from the second edition. The set is expected to fetch up to $100,000 (£60,000), according to the auction house.
Baudelaire letterDetail from Baudelaire's letter, containing his private opinion of the 'stupid' Les Misérables author. Photograph: Christie's
Publication of the first edition of Les Fleurs du Mal in 1857 was followed by Baudelaire's prosecution for "offending public morals", with the judge ordering his publisher to remove six poems from the collection. Hugo supported Baudelaire after the prosecution in August 1857, telling him that "your Fleurs du mal shine and dazzle like stars", and, in 1859, that "you give us a new kind of shudder".
Baudelaire had, in his turn, dedicated three poems in Les Fleurs du Mal to Hugo, but the Pulitzer prize-winning poet CK Williams has written of how despite this, "Baudelaire secretly despised Hugo". Rosemary Lloyd, meanwhile, writes of the "corrosive envy" of Hugo revealed by Baudelaire in his letters, in her Cambridge Companion to Baudelaire.The author, while praising Les Misérables in public in an 1862 review in Le Boulevard, described it as "immonde et inepte" – vile and inept – in a letter to his mother, adding, "I have shown, on this subject, that I possessed the art of lying".
Les Fleurs du MalThe first edition of Les Fleurs du Mal, tooled in gold and silver, colored inlays of flowers and symbols of death and evil, similiarly tooled. Photograph: Christie's
"Baudelaire, to his chagrin and perhaps as a factor in his ultimate self-destruction, had to contend with Victor Hugo: poet, novelist, essayist, polemicist of unreal energy and fluency … literally the most famous man in the world, with his own admirable social and political projects, his own vast ego, his domination of poetry and culture," writes Williams.
Williams has it that while Hugo praised Baudelaire, he "surely underestimated the significance" of his fellow poet's work, "and never in his dreams would have imagined that for the future Baudelaire would define the aesthetics of the century that followed him, and that he, Hugo, as an influence, as a genius, would become more an item of nostalgia than a symbol of artistic power and significance".
The 1860 letter is largely about Edgar Allan Poe, whose work Baudelaire translated. The mention of Hugo – "Hugo continue a m'envoyer des lettres stupides" – is in a postscript. Christie's is auctioning the book and letter in New York, alongside an edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass, valued at up to $150,000 and printed for the author, and a $120,000 notebook of Robert Louis Stevenson's poetry and prose.





















































































































































此文真能讓人了解15年的環境   Hugo's Guernsey
他花了六年裝置的屋子真的是法國味十足

 



Victor Hugo and His World 台北:新潮文庫--=《休哥》法國著名記文學作家安德烈•莫洛亞(Andre Maurois,1885—1967)


{ 雨果傳 Victor Hugo…l'homme et l'oeuvre} 這譯本有意思:譯者送大家他珍藏的十來張雨果相關的紀念明信片。就憑這,就夠本。中國近來翻譯不少法國文、藝家的傳記,份量級驚人。
「雨果傳」,台灣和中國大陸都翻譯過 A Maurois Victor Hugo and His World,不過問題太多了。舉台灣新潮本的第 57頁末行,譯者其實要幫忙注解它舉的Rivoli Friedland ,都是拿破崙戰爭的著名戰場/ 地。
這種史地問題對我們造成很大的障礙:這在 {萊茵河 }等,更是困難太多啦!

---

約伯傳(思高聖經)

   "Tomorrow, if all literature was to be destroyed and it was left to
 me to retain one work only, I should save Job." (Victor Hugo)
有一個人問一位文學家,我記得是雨果罷,「如果世界上的書全需要燒掉,而只許留一本,應留什麼?」雨果毫不猶豫的說:「只留〈約伯記〉。」約伯是《聖經》裏面的介之推,富亦謝天,貧亦謝天,病亦謝天,苦亦謝天。 (陳之籓 《在春風裏 謝天》1961



陳之藩先生引 Hugo 的話固然沒錯
然而Hugo 是通人 他在誤導人的書名 《莎士比亞》一書中談了許多了不起的 無法比較的傑作作家.........

Victor Hugo: A Biography, pp. 403-04

Graham Robb
(Author)

In VICTOR HUGO Graham Robb examines two major aspects of Hugo’s life: his amorous adventures and his gradual transformation from a political conservative who supported the monarchy into a social activist who defended democratic values. Robb’s stress on the adulterous affairs of both Victor Hugo and his wife Adele is perhaps misplaced, but it does demonstrate that the Hugo family was quite dysfunctional. Juliette Drouet was Victor Hugo’s mistress from 1833 until 1883, but Victor and his wife maintained for decades the public facade of a loving and happy couple. Near the end of his life, Victor Hugo even published a very sentimental book about being a grandfather. Robb shows that he was a devoted grandfather only in this work of personal mythmaking.
Robb’s analysis of Victor Hugo’s political evolution is fascinating. Victor Hugo’s father had been a general in the army of Napoleon I. Perhaps as a reaction to his father’s abdication of his paternal responsibilities, Hugo rejected the First Empire and became a fervent supporter of the monarchy. By the end of the 1840’s, however, he changed his political beliefs and became the most eloquent voice of opposition to the dictatorship of Napoleon III during the 1850’s and 1860’s. During the almost two decades of his political exile, Hugo became a profound social critic and composed his masterpiece LES MISERABLES (1862).
This superb biography also includes a thirty-page bibliography to help readers discover for themselves the rich complexity of Victor Hugo’s life and works.


****
"In His Nightmare City" The New York Review of Books 54/11 (28 June 2007) : 52-54 [reviews Mario Vargas Llosa, The Temptation of the Impossible: Victor Hugo and Les Misérables, translated from the Spanish by John King]

----
歷史上的今天:Victor Hugo est mort! 1885年5月22日維克多雨果撒手人寰
以下摘自拙作《長眠在巴黎》《巴黎文學地圖》(我這兩本書還真好用,我說真的啦,對法國人文,舉凡文學、電影、藝術,對巴黎人文地景有興趣者,卡緊去買!你們不買的話,我的第三本、第四本、第五本...第N本就沒著落了啦!嗚嗚嗚~)
雨果Hugo, Victor(1802.2.26~1885.5.22)
浪漫主義文學家代表。《巴黎聖母院》、《悲慘世界》等作者,因肺栓塞而辭世。
C’est ici le combat du jour et de la nuit. Je vois de la lumière noire.
日與夜便是在此交戰。我看到黑色的光。 ~雨果
若是你問法國人「誰是法蘭西最偉大的文學家?」十個有九個都會說「維克多‧雨果!」
若是你問所有人「誰是法蘭西最偉大的文學家?」十個有九個都會說「維克多‧雨果」!
沒錯,雨果這位一代大文豪就是跟凡夫俗子不一樣。雨果就連死......都死得這麼文學。
遺囑的最後一段,雨果寫道:
我將閉上肉體的眼睛,但精神的眼睛會一直睜得比任何時候都大。
當他感到死神即將降臨時,雨果說:
歡迎她。
過世前晚,雨果說:
人活著,就是在奮鬥。最沉重的負擔就是雖然活著,卻行屍走肉。
雨果接著又說:
愛,就是行動。
就連彌留之際,留在人世的最後一句話也是那麼地富有詩意,雨果說:
日與夜在此戰鬥。我看到黑色的光。
雨果是法蘭西唯一一位生前便享有以其名命名街道殊榮的人物。紀念牌上寫道:「1881年2月26日,舉國歡慶雨果八十大壽,不久之後,雨果當時居住的avenue d'Eylau便改名為雨果大道,朋友寫信給他時紛紛寫道:『收件地址為維克多‧雨果先生大道』。
雨果於一八八五年五月二十二日下午一點二十七分過世(紅粉知己茱莉葉早雨果兩年過世),享年八十三歲。從雨果大道一二四號門前巴黎市政府所豎立的紀念牌上可以看到,「雨果逝世時風雨交加,雷電大作,草木同悲,天地共泣,法蘭西痛失偉人!」這令我們想起六十年後,當住在附近的詩人瓦雷里(Paul Valéry)於一九四五年過世時,也是風雲變色,狂風暴雨驟起,看樣子那一區的氣候不太好,大人物過世就狂飆暴風雨乃當地之傳統也。
六月一日盛大舉行國葬,超過兩百萬人走上街頭同聲哀悼,恭送雨果奉殮於先賢祠。而自一七八九年竣工以來,功能一直不明確(始終遊走於「教堂」和「埋葬法蘭西偉人」的陵墓之間)的先賢祠,正是因為雨果大殮於此,這才終於成為恭奉偉人靈柩的先賢祠,此後不再更動。
雨果病逝於雨果大道第124號(124, Avenue Victor Hugo, Victor Hugo)。
Il y a 130 ans, le 22 mai 1885, Victor Hugo était emporté par une congestion pulmonaire, à l’âge de 83 ans.
Ses funérailles nationales, le 1er juin 1885, furent suivies par près de 2 millions de personnes.....






"The supreme happiness of life is the conviction that we are loved."
--from "Les Misérables" (1862) by Victor Hugo
It has been said that Victor Hugo has a street named after him in virtually every town in France. A major reason for the singular celebrity of this most popular and versatile of the great French writers is Les Misérables (1862). In this story of the trials of the peasant Jean Valjean—a man unjustly imprisoned, baffled by destiny, and hounded by his nemesis, the magnificently realized, ambiguously malevolent police detective Javert—Hugo achieves the sort of rare imaginative resonance that allows a work of art to transcend its genre. Les Misérables is at once a tense thriller that contains one of the most compelling chase scenes in all literature, an epic portrayal of the nineteenth-century French citizenry, and a vital drama—highly particularized and poetic in its rendition but universal in its implications—of the redemption of one human being. READ an excerpt here:http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/240071/les-miserables/



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