公館站買The Big Issue 第五期 100元
《英國早期文學經典文本 》陳才宇編譯(浙江大學出版社) 2007
2013.6.19 因研究The Batle of Maldon
藝術價值與自然 Samuel Alexander 選集
The British philosopher Samuel Alexander (1859-1938) was a forceful exponent of metaphysics at a time when that subject had largely fallen into disrepute. His work shows a fine capacity for synthesis and system.Samuel Alexander was born in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, on Jan. 6, 1859. His early education was at Wesley College in Melbourne. He went to England in 1877 with a scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford, where he took the literae humaniores (humanities) degree, reading mathematics and philosophy. After graduation he stayed on at Oxford as a fellow of Lincoln College, where he taught philosophy. He was the first Jew to be a fellow at Oxford.
While at Oxford, Alexander was awarded the Green Moral Philosophy Prize for a dissertation in ethics, which formed the basis for his first publication, Moral Order and Progress (1889). This book secured Alexander a wide reputation and, in 1893, a chair of philosophy at the University of Manchester, which he held until his retirement in 1924. After retirement he continued to live in Manchester, where he was well known and well loved, a nearly legendary figure. The city and the university honored him in 1925 by erecting an impressive bust by the sculptor Jacob Epstein.
Alexander's major work came late in life with his Gifford Lectures, later published as a book, Space, Time and Deity(1920). The book is a complex metaphysics in the grand manner, portraying the world as an evolving hierarchy of emerging qualities: space-time, matter, life, mind, and finally deity. Each new quality depends on the lower ones but at the same time presents something genuinely novel.
In 1933 Alexander collected some of his papers on ethics and esthetics and issued them under the title Beauty and the Other Forms of Value. More of his papers were issued in book form after his death. Many of these pieces show ageniality and sense of fun quite different from his systematic works. Reading them, one comes to understand why a friend characterized him as "deep but gay."
In appearance Alexander was forceful and impressive. He looked every inch the philosopher, with a flowing beard, high forehead, and penetrating glance. A bachelor, he had a genius for friendship with persons of all ages and situations.
Further ReadingAlexander's Philosophical and Literary Pieces (1939), edited by his literary executor, John Laird, is prefaced by a long memoir which is a synthesis of information and anecdotes obtained from friends of Alexander. The volume also contains a complete bibliography. John W. McCarthy, The Naturalism of Samuel Alexander (1948), is a good critical work. For a contrary view see Milton R. Konvitz, On the Nature of Value: The Philosophy of Samuel Alexander (1946). Bernard Bosanquet, The Meeting of Extremes in Contemporary Philosophy (1921), contains valuable background material.
- Moral Order and Progress (1889)
- Locke (1908)
- Space, Time, and Deity (1920), Macmillan & Co., reprinted 1966 by Dover Publications, reprinted 2004 by Kessinger Publications: volume one: ISBN 0766187012 online version, volume two: ISBN 0766187020
- Spinoza and Time (1921)
- Art and the Material (1925)
- Beauty and Other Forms of Value (1933)
- Philosophical and Literary Pieces (1939), (posthumous)
- Gifford Lectures biography
- John Slater's Introduction to the Collected Works of Samuel Alexander has some biographical details on Alexander's life.
- Alexander papers archive at University Library of Manchester
- Article by recent occupier of Alexander's chair at the University of Manchester discussing the legacy of Whitehead and Alexander.
- "Samuel Alexander and Zionism"