2015年9月29日 星期二

關於John Keats... Ode on a Grecian Urn. "To Autumn"

濟慈1795-1821年輕的時代也翻譯拉丁文名詩,年表(Keats’s Life)1811年第2”Finish translating The Aeneid. (KEATS POETICAL WORKS, edited by H. W. Grrod, OUP, p.xxvii)

"To Autumn" by John Keats
Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;
To bend with apples the moss’d cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells
With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,
And still more, later flowers for the bees,
Until they think warm days will never cease,
For Summer has o’er-brimm’d their clammy cells.

"濟慈不僅是天才的詩人、見解卓絕的文論家,也是性格開朗、善解人意的普通人,《評傳》在向我們揭示濟慈驚人之詩才、不凡之詩論的同時,也讓我們看到了他對 親情、友情的看重,還有他的不甘示弱、慷慨大度……濟慈是傅修延的學術初戀,是其碩士論文的研究對象。如今,近三十年過去了,傅修延仍然對濟慈懷有一種 “朝聖者的靈魂”。為了撰寫此書,傅修延還利用在英國倫敦大學國王學院做訪問研究的機會,對濟慈一生的行蹤進行了系統的實地尋訪。正因為如此,《評傳》把 濟慈復原到了其生活的社會歷史和生存環境之中,讓我們看到了濟慈之所以為濟慈的根本原因。"2008-06-13 作者:楊莉

hc:此評傳無索引 所以無法追 Keats-Shelley 和 Rome,之故事 或名詩 詞如 negative capability等
注解中的倫敦大學等 可能有時代錯誤 p.77

關於"濟慈"的資料 英文相當完備 幾乎可以論月-日追蹤John Keats的發展 --哈佛大學出的Keats傳最值得參考:

John Keats — Walter Jackson Bate | Harvard University Press

Since most of Keats's early poetry has survived, his artistic development can be observed more closely than is possible with most writers; and there are times ...  1979年

精彩論文: 有漢譯
The Poet as Hero: Keats in His Letters (1951) , 收入The Moral Obligation to Be Intelligent: Selected Essays By Lionel Trilling,pp.224-

  E.E. Cummings,Norton Lectures 1952-53,   i: six nonlectures, Harvard University Press, 1981, 至少提2次Keats. 第3講說他在哈佛大學讀書時   收到的印象最深刻的禮物是: Keats的詩信合集

The life of Keats provides a unique opportunity for the study of literary greatness and of what permits or encourages its development. Its interest is deeply human and moral, in the most capacious sense of the words. In this authoritative biography—the first full-length life of Keats in almost forty years—the man and the poet are portrayed with rare insight and sympathy. In spite of a scarcity of factual data for his early years, the materials for Keats’s life are nevertheless unusually full. Since most of his early poetry has survived, his artistic development can be observed more closely than is possible with most writers; and there are times during the period of his greatest creativity when his personal as well as his artistic life can be followed week by week.
The development of Keats’s poetic craftsmanship proceeds simultaneously with the steady growth of qualities of mind and character. Walter Jackson Bate has been concerned to show the organic relationship between the poet’s art and his larger, more broadly humane development. Keats’s great personal appeal—his spontaneity, vigor, playfulness, and affection—are movingly recreated; at the same time, his valiant attempt to solve the problem faced by all modern poets when they attempt to achieve originality and amplitude in the presence of their great artistic heritage is perceptively presented.
In discussing this matter, Mr. Bate says, “The pressure of this anxiety and the variety of reactions to it constitute one of the great unexplored factors in the history of the arts since 1750. And in no major poet, near the beginning of the modern era, is this problem met more directly than it is in Keats. The way in which Keats was somehow able, after the age of twenty-two, to confront this dilemma, and to transcend it, has fascinated every major poet who has used the English language since Keats’s death and also every major critic since the Victorian era.”
Mr. Bate has availed himself of all new biographical materials, published and unpublished, and has used them selectively and without ostentation, concentrating on the things that were meaningful to Keats. Similarly, his discussions of the poetry are not buried beneath the controversies of previous critics. He approaches the poems freshly and directly, showing their relation to Keats’s experience and emotions, to premises and values already explored in the biographical narrative. The result is a book of many dimensions, not a restricted critical or biographical study but a fully integrated whole.

  • The First Years (1795–1810)
  • Abbey’s Wards (1810–1815)
  • Guy’s Hospital (1815–1816)
  • An Adventure in Hope (Summer 1816)
  • The Commitment to Poetry: Chapman’s Homer, Hunt, and Haydon (Autumn 1816)
  • Completing the First Volume (November and December, 1816)
  • The Laurel Crown and the Vision of Greatness (December 1816 to March 1817)
  • A Trial of Invention: Endymion
  • An Act of Will (June to December, 1817)
  • Negative Capability
  • Another Beginning (December and January, 1817–1818)
  • Devonshire and Isabella (February to April, 1818)
  • The Burden of the Mystery: the Emergence of a Modern Poet (Spring 1818)
  • The Departure of George Keats and the Scottish Tour (Summer 1818)
  • Reviews, the Writing of Hyperion, the Death of Tom Keats (Autumn 1818)
  • Hyperion and a New Level of Writing
  • Fanny Brawne; The Eve of St. Agnes (Winter 1818–1819)
  • A Period of Uncertainty (February to April, 1819)
  • The Odes of April and May, 1819
  • The Final Beginning: Lamia (May to July, 1819)
  • The Close of the Fertile Year: “To Autumn” and The Fall of Hyperion (July to September, 1819)
  • Illness (Autumn and Winter, 1819)
  • Adrift (January to August, 1820)
  • The Voyage to Italy (August to November, 1820)
  • Rome and the Last Months (November 1820 to February 1821)
  • Appendices
    • I. Family Origins
    • II. The Length of Keats’s Apprenticeship
    • III. The Keats Children’s Inheritance
  • Index

幾年前有一書 A Beautiful Mind,大陸先有翻譯本,取名<普林斯頓的幽靈>,有點「希區考克加上馬克斯」的聯想。然後有改編之電影,於是,再版改書名為<美麗心靈—納什傳>。台灣翻譯:<美麗境界>。 
香港翻譯最俗不可耐。解說這beautiful 可以成一文。不過我有自己獨到見解:或許作者心中所想的是John Keats(1795-1821) Ode on a Grecian Urn 的 " Beauty is Truth, Truth Beauty,"that is all…


Keat’s Ode on a Grecian Urn// Steps To An Ecology Of Mind

Keat’s Ode on a Grecian Urn 時,不斷追問:
” What is the whole poem about?”
“ What exactly has Keats seen ( or chosen to show us) depicted on the urn he is describing?”.
人類學:“What is the general form of their life?” “ What exactly are the vehicles in which that form is embodied?”
(一景是群眾狂歡; 二景是青年追逐一姑娘; 三景是群眾牽一牛在街上走,要去宰牛祭天。每一景都是monent of truth,對詩人而言,則是moment of beauty),『希臘古甕曲』是一種了解與解釋。
Clifford Geertz 1983)“From the Native’s Point of View: On the Nature of Anthropological Understanding in Local Knowledge : Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology , pp. 55-70, Basic Books 這本有簡體字中譯本『地方性知識』,北京:中央編譯出版社(2000)。可能是「過度詮釋」一例,本文譯成「文化持有者的內部眼界:論人類學理解的本質」。我這篇雜誌或許能協助讀者進入我的「過度詮釋」。
G. Bateson's1949 " Bali: The Value System of a Steady State" in Steps To An Ecology Of Mind1972,1987,Jason Aroson, Inc.
M. H. Abrams附錄
Keat’s Ode on a Grecian Urn(希臘古甕曲):【Clifford Geertz特別提到的Leo Spitzer的解釋Keat's Platoism,用 表示;我依Keat 傳記()研究,認為spirit應也是要素。】
Thou still unravish’d bride of quietness你是「平靜的」還未曾失身的新娘,
Thou foster-child of silence and slow time你是「沉默」和「悠久」抱養的女孩,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express 林野的史家,你賽過我們的詞章,
A flowery tale more sweetly than your rhyme: 講一篇花哨的故事這樣有風采;
What leaf-fring’d legend haunts about thy shape 枝葉邊緣的傳說纏繞你一身,
Of deities or mortals, or of both, 是講的TempeArcady山坳
In Tempe or the dale of Arcady? 一些神,還是人,還是神同人在一起?
What men or gods are these? What maidens loath? 這些是什麼人,什麼神,什麼樣小女人
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?不願意?怎麼樣猛追?怎麼樣脫逃?
What pipes and timbres? What wild ecstasy? 什麼笛?什麼鐃鈸?什麼樣狂喜?
Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard 聽見的樂調固然美,無從聽見的
Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on; 卻更美;柔和的笛管,繼續吹下去,
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear’d, 不對官能而更動人愛憐的
Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone對靈魂吹你們有調無聲的仙曲:
Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave 美少年,你在樹底下,你不能拋開
Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare; 你的唱歌,這些樹也永不光禿;
Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss, 勇敢的忠情漢,你永遠親不了嘴,
Though winning near the goal-yet, don’t grieve; 雖然離目標不遠了-也不用悲哀;
She cannot fade, though thou has not thy bliss, 她消失不了, 雖然你得不到豔福,
For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair! 你永遠會愛,她也會永遠嬌美。
Ah, happy, happy boughs! That cannot shed 阿,幸福的永遠枝條!永不會
Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu, 掉葉,也永遠都不會告別春天;
And happy melodist, unwearied, 幸福的樂師,永遠也不會覺得累,
For ever piping songs, for ever new; 永遠吹奏著曲調,又永遠新鮮;
More happy love! More happy, happy love! 更加幸福的,更加幸福的愛情!
Foe ever warm and still to be enjoy’d. 永遠的熱烈,永遠都可以享受
For ever panting, and for ever young; 永遠的喘氣,永遠的年富力強;
All blessing human passion far above, 遠遠的超出了人欲的糾纏不清,
That leaves a heart high-sorrowful and cloy’s, 並不叫一顆心充滿了饜足和憂愁,
A burning forehead, and a parching tongue. 並不叫額上發燒,舌頭上焦黃。
Who are these coming to the sacrifice? 這些前來祭祀的都是歇什麼人?
To what green altar, O mysterious priest, 神秘的祭師阿,上什麼青青的祭壇
Lead’st thou that heifer lowing at the skies, 牽去的這條牛,讓它對天空哀呻,
And all her silken flanks with garlands drest? 給她絲光的腰身都套了花環?
What little town by river or sea-shore, 那一座小城市,靠海的,或者靠的河,
Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel或者靠了山築起的太平的城堡,
Is emptied of its folk, this pious morn? 出空了這群人,虔誠趕清早去進香?
And, little town, thy streets for evermore小城市,你的街道會永遠沉默,
Will silent be; and not a soul to tell 也不再有一位生靈能回來講明了
Why thou are desolate, can e’er return.你可以從此轉成了這般荒涼。
O Attic shape, fair attitude! With brede 希臘的形狀;希臘的姿態!滿處
Of marble men and maiden overwrought, 飾滿了大理石的男男女女,
With forest branches and the trodden weed; 枝葉在搖曳青草在腳底下起伏;
Thou silent form! Dost tease us out of thought 靜默的形體,引我們越出了塵慮,
As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral像「永恆」引我們一樣:冰冷的牧歌!
When old age shall this generation waste 等老年斷送了我們一代的來路,
Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe 你還會存在,看人家受到另一些
Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say’st, 苦惱的時候,作為朋友來申說
“Beauty is Truth, Truth Beauty,”-that is all 「美即是真,真即是美」,-這就是
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know. 你們在地上所知和須知的一切。

John Keats was born ‪#‎onthisday‬ in 1795. This frieze inspired his poem Ode on a Grecian Urn http://ow.ly/DwToo