2010年12月31日 星期五

許壽裳臺灣時代文集

國立台灣大學的校歌有三版本
帝大的有青春活力 簡單有力
許壽裳先生作詞的 很好 他寫過一篇解釋的文章 很好 收入許壽裳臺灣時代文集
最令我驚訝的是末段 兩次提到企業 (企業有利等--憑記憶)
據校史館 1952-1968年該校無校歌
現在的 很白話 用玉山和淡水河當象徵:
http://www.ntu.edu.tw/about/song.htm
沈剛伯 作詞
趙元任 作曲
演奏曲 (Midi檔,13k) 合唱 (MP3檔,908k)
合唱(交響樂版) (MP3檔,2.64M) 合唱(鋼琴版) (MP3檔,2.88M)

*****


許壽裳臺灣時代文集
作者 : 許壽裳著 黃英哲主編
臺灣文學與文化研究叢書 文獻篇2
出版時間 : 99.11
出版單位 : 國立臺灣大學出版中心
裝訂 : 精裝
語言 : 中文


  許壽裳是戰後臺灣文化重建的「領航者」,也 是臺灣大學中文系首任系主任。早自一九○九年留日歸國起,他就深受當時教育總長蔡元培倚重,歷任教育界要職;一九四六年夏,他應好友陳儀之邀,赴臺灣主持 戰後臺灣的文化重建工作,無論是任職臺灣省編譯館,抑或臺灣大學中文系系主任,任內無不戮力興廢,成果有目共睹。本書收錄他在臺灣時期散見於各刊物的研究 與評論文字,以及《魯迅的思想與生活》和《怎樣學習國語和國文》兩部專著,完整呈現許壽裳在臺時期的思想理念與關懷議題。   

《德訓篇》Ecclesiasticus

"生活在19世紀末20世紀初那個特定的時代,吉卜林親身體驗了歐洲文明向全世界的兇猛擴張,也不可避免的經歷了隨之而來的第一次世界大戰。在此期間吉卜林遭受了他人生中最大的痛苦,他的大兒約翰(John)犧牲在1915年的盧斯之戰中,為此吉卜林自責地寫下了「如果有人問我們為什麼死,告訴他們,因為我們的父輩說了謊。」(If any question why we died/ Tell them, because our fathers lied),這句話的來由可能是因為吉卜林送兒子參軍時,為兒子很差的視力做了很多努力才獲得批准。為了彌補心中的創傷,吉卜林加入了費邊帝國戰爭治喪委員會(現為共和國戰爭治喪委員會),這個組織負責英國戰爭中犧牲人員的墓地建設,吉卜林對這個項目最大的貢獻是為這個項目挑選了一句聖經中的短句「Their Name Liveth For Evermore」,刻在了幾個較大的戰爭墓地的紀念碑上,同時他也記錄了他的兒子所在的愛爾蘭衛隊的歷史。"

English

---

Their Name Liveth For Evermore

他們的遺體必被人安葬,名譽必留於永世;

Sirach 44.14, KJV

《便西拉智訓》,天主教譯作《德訓篇》Ecclesiasticus

,是基督新教次經的一部份,成書期大約在公元前180年到前175年間。它屬於天主教和東正教《舊約聖經》的一部份,但不包括在新教的《舊約聖經》裡,在猶太人的重要經典《塔木德》及其他拉比文學裡,它被引用過幾次。這篇書在公元後與其他次經一同被收錄在希臘語的七十士譯本中,並被天主教及東正教接納為正典的一部份。不過,大多數新教教會都不接納本書篇為正典



***

Deming 博士的 Out of the Crisis10章標準與法規

引用它作為章訓



有的人不出聲,

是因為他不知所答;有的人不出聲,

因為他知道何時該說話。

明智人緘囗不言,

直等相宜的時候;自誇和愚昧的人,

卻不看時機。

多言的人,必招人厭惡。

德訓篇思高聖經 206-8


Rudyard Kipling《如果》(If—,1895年)

約瑟夫·魯德亞德·吉卜林Joseph Rudyard Kipling1865年12月30日1936年1月18日,又譯吉普林盧亞德·吉卜齡),生於印度孟買英國作家詩人。主要著作有兒童故事《叢林奇譚》(The Jungle Book1894年)、印度偵探小說基姆》(Kim1901年)、 詩集《營房謠》(Gunga Din1892年)、短詩《如果》(If—1895年以及許多膾炙人口的短篇小說。


這首名詩 Wikipedia 有條目


Edition of If by Doubleday Page and Company, Garden City, New York, 1910.
"If—" is a poem written in 1895[1] by British Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling. It was first published in the "Brother Square Toes" chapter of Rewards and Fairies, Kipling's 1910 collection of short stories and poems. Like William Ernest Henley's "Invictus", it is a memorable evocation of Victorian stoicism and the "stiff upper lip" that popular culture has made into a traditional British virtue. Its status is confirmed both by the number of parodies it has inspired, and by the widespread popularity it still enjoys amongst Britons. It is often voted Britain's favourite poem.[2][3] The poem's line, "If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster and treat those two imposters just the same" is written on the wall of the Centre Court players' entrance at the British tennis tournament, Wimbledon, and the entire poem was read in a promotional video for the Wimbledon 2008 gentleman's final by Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal.[4][5][6]
According to Kipling in his autobiography Something of Myself, posthumously published in 1937, the poem was inspired by Dr. Leander Starr Jameson, who in 1895 led a raid by British forces against the Boers in South Africa, subsequently called the Jameson Raid.[7] This defeat increased the tensions that ultimately led to the Second Boer War. The British press, however, portrayed Jameson as a hero in the middle of the disaster, and the actual defeat as a British victory.
The well-known Indian historian and writer Khushwant Singh claims that Kipling's If is "the essence of the message of The Gita in English.".[8] The text Singh refers to is the Bhagavad Gita, the ancient Indian scripture.
Contents [hide]

Poem

If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or, being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or, being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise;
If you can dream – and not make dreams your master;
If you can think – and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with triumph and disaster
And treat those two imposters just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to broken,
And stoop and build 'em up with wornout tools;
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: "Hold on";
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings – nor lose the common touch;
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds' worth of distance run –
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And – which is more – you'll be a Man my son!

Reaction

Kipling himself noted in Something of Myself that the poem had been "printed as cards to hang up in offices and bedrooms; illuminated text-wise and anthologized to weariness".[9]
T. S. Eliot in his essays on Kipling's work describes Kipling's verse as "great verse" that sometimes unintentionally changes into poetry. George Orwell—an ambivalent admirer of Kipling's work who hated the poet's politics—compared people who only knew "If—" "and some of his more sententious poems", to Colonel Blimp.[10]

Translations

"If—" has been translated into many languages. One worthy of note is a translation into Burmese language, the mother tongue of the country where the city of another of Kipling's masterpieces, "Mandalay", is located. It was translated by Nobel Peace Prize winner, Aung San Suu Kyi. Another Nobel laureate to translate "If—" was Yugoslav writer Ivo Andrić.
Some translations are:

References

External links


部分翻譯 :

吉卜林《如果》- 一首哲理的詩

2007年11月10日 ... 延伸閱讀:關於吉卜林(Rudyard Kipling,1865-1936)英國小說家、詩人。出生於印度孟買,父親曾是孟買藝術學校教師,後任拉合爾藝術學校校長和博物館 ...

2010年12月30日 星期四

畢珍麗的極短篇「寫作班」/由寫作班想起

畢珍麗的極短篇「寫作班」

三十多人的女性書寫班,他是唯一的男性,有模有樣的在桌上放著筆記本、原子筆。戴著老花眼鏡的他並不抄寫筆記,他在聽、在找、在想,妻子離世前走進的世界。


【2010/08/13 聯合報】


----


由寫作班想起

  • 2010-12-30
  • 中國時報
  • 【王鼎鈞】

 畢珍麗的極短篇「寫作班」,寫「女性書寫班」中有一個惟一的男生,聽講,做筆記,冥想他「去世的妻子生前的世界」。70個字反映了許多現實:

 第一,在諸般學習的活動中,女性的人數比男性多,尤其是文學藝術。

 第二,在日常生活中,丈夫和妻子常常各有天地,有某種程度的隔膜。

 歷來著名的「悼亡」之作,多半以私情感人,表達範圍如「半世春風無限恨,十年明月幾回圓」之類,能夠稍稍擴充的詩人,大概也就是做到「尚有舊情憐婢僕,也曾因夢送錢財」吧?畢珍麗的「寫作班」,涉及對女性世界的關懷,令人拭目。

 極短篇能夠「由少少中見多多」,堪稱上品,美中不足的是結尾缺少高潮。繼而一想,極短篇一詞出世,原是針對短篇小說而發,小說結尾需要急轉直下,出人不意,若是散文,當然不在此限,誰又規定極短篇非小說不可呢?像蘇東坡的「承天寺夜遊」那樣不是也很好嗎?

 希望副刊也提倡「極短篇散文」,或者可以稱之為「小小品」。

 由此聯想到我們這裡也有一個小小的寫作班,剛開始的時候,也只有一位男士,無形中成為八位女士的帶頭大哥。這位男士也專心聽講,沉默寡言,他事業成功,婚姻美滿,他「冥想」的又是甚麼呢?

 也許人人都有祕密,有一種人,你跟他見了面,馬上會猜測他的祕密,作家就是這種人。作家守口如瓶,但是他的瓶底有個漂亮的小孔,他的作品使他不能永遠保守祕密。

 在我們這個寫作班上,每個人的祕密就是他的生活經驗和意識型態。我認為意識型態是在生活經驗中形成的,意識型態是他對生活經驗的解釋,意識型態無可爭辯,但是它會因新的生活經驗而改變。

 後來這個小小的寫作班的成員增加到25人,論政治背景,左中右獨都有,還得加上一個「統」,論人生態度,儒釋道耶都有,還得加上一個 「無」,無神論。他們懷疑文學作品可以脫離這種屬性,其中有八大居士,根本就是為了用文字弘法而來。我和他們相處,自己不預設立場,我說寫作無非兩個問 題,一個寫甚麼,一個怎麼寫,我不管寫甚麼,只管怎麼寫,方法是中性的,你可以用它反統,也可以用它反獨,你可用它傳佛,也可以用它傳耶,當然你更可以傷 春悲秋,吟風弄月,更可以居高臨下,一覽眾山。寫不好,你反甚麼傳甚麼都是涸轍,寫得好,咱們咱們百川競流,最後都歸入文學的大海。

 不久發現這位惟一的男士有真誠的宗教信仰,關懷面無邊無際,對他而言,即便寫得像「紅樓夢」一樣長,也是一個極短篇。怎樣「納須彌於芥 子」,目前還講不到這一課,像畢珍麗的極短篇「寫作班」這樣的火侯,卻要及早展示,多多介紹。文學作品是一言難盡,更是萬言難盡,一言可以化為萬言,萬言 也可以還為一言,在這方面,我也要跟他們一同練習。

俞平伯年谱(1900-1990)


俞平伯年谱(1900-1990)
作 者:孙玉蓉
出 版 社:天津人民出版社 本社特价书
条 形 码:9787201035529 ; 978-7-201-03552-9
I S B N :9787201035529 出版时间:2006-10-1
开 本:32开 页 数:605
定 价:30元


俞平伯年谱(1900-1990) 内容简介

本书包括谱文和附录两部分。谱文则以记载俞平伯从1900年1月8日出生至1990年10月15日逝世为止 的正谱为主。从他逝世后到他百年诞辰的2000年1月这段日子里,每年都有他的著作或有关他的书籍出版。这是他生命的余液,也是社会对他的认可,这些都是 应该被载入史册的。因此,本书在正谱的后面,加入了《逝世以后》部分,使这本书的真正成为俞平伯先生的百年史。
本书尽量采用第一手资料,力求系统、全面、真实、准确,客观、公正地反映出其不意俞平伯的道德、学问、事业以及时性他坎坷的人生经历,使读者能够全方位地了解和认识俞平伯。

俞平伯年谱(1900-1990) 本书目录

1900年(清光绪二十六年 庚子)一岁
1902年(光绪言二十八年 壬寅)三岁
1903年(光绪言二十九年 癸卯)四岁
1904年(光绪三十年 甲辰)五岁
1905年(光绪三十一年 乙巳)六岁
1906年(光绪三十二年 丙午)七岁
1907年(光绪三十三年 丁未)八岁
1908年(光绪三十四年 戊申)九岁
1909年(清宣统元年 已酉)十岁
1910年(宣统二年 庚戌)十一岁
1911年(宣统三年 辛亥)十二岁
1912年(中华民国元年 壬子)十三岁
1913年(民国二年 癸丑)十四岁
1914年(民国三年 甲寅)十五岁
1915年(民国四年 乙卯)十六岁
1916年(民国五年 丙辰)十七岁
1917年(民国六年 丁巳)十八岁
1918年(民国七年 戊午)十九岁
1919年(民国八年 已未)二十岁
1920年(民国九年 庚申)二十一岁
1921年(民国十年 辛酉)二十二岁
1922年(民国十一年 壬戌)二十三岁
1923年(民国十二年 癸亥)二十四岁
1924年(民国十三年 甲子)二十五岁
1925年(民国十四年 乙丑)二十六岁
1926年(民国十五年 丙寅)二十七岁
1927年(民国十六年 丁卯)二十八岁
1928年(民国十七年 戊辰)二十九岁
1929年(民国十八年 已巳)三十岁
1930年(民国十九年 庚午)三十一岁
1931年(民国二十年 辛未)三十二岁
1932年(民国二十一年 壬申)三十三岁
1933年(民国二十二年 癸酉)三十四岁
1934年(民国二十三年 甲戌)三十五岁
1935年(民国二十四年 乙亥)三十六岁
1936年(民国二十五年 丙子)三十七岁
1937年(民国二十六年 丁丑)三十八岁
1938年(民国二十七年 戊寅)三十九岁
1939年(民国二十八年 已卯)四十岁
1940年(民国二十九年 庚辰)四十一岁
1941年(民国三十年 辛巳)四十二岁
1941年(民国三十一年 壬午)四十三岁
1942年(民国三十二年 癸未)四十四岁
1943年(民国三十三年 甲申)四十五岁
……
附录:主要人名索引
著作索引
主要参考书目
后记

Confession of a Literary Archaeologist

Confession of a Literary Archaeologist - Google 圖書結果

Carlton Lake - 1990 - Biography & Autobiography - 224 頁

本書11章 說作者到法國獵訪原稿的因緣奇遇





Rethinking the Forms of Visual Expression

Rethinking the Forms of Visual Expression - Google 圖書結果

Robert Sowers - 1990 - Architecture - 139 頁
Robert Sowers begins this book by questioning our conception of the visual arts--painting, sculpture, and architecture--as autonomous, archetypal entities that ...


Rethinking the Forms of Visual Expression The University of. California Press, 1990.

Rethinking the Forms of Visual Expression
Author: Robert Sowers
Robert Sowers begins this book by questioning our conception of the visual artspainting, sculpture, and architectureas autonomous, archetypal entities that can be defined independent of one another in terms of their materials and techniques. He cuts through the limits of categorization we have come to accept to lay the groundwork for a coherent theory of the relation between the visual arts. He proposes that we treat the pictorial, the sculptural, and the architectural not as palpable physical "things" but as activitiesthe basic forms of visual expression employed to create such distinct artifacts as paintings, statues, and buildings. By defining the expressive function of each art, Sowers helps us to understand what we mean when we speak of the sculptural qualities of architecture or the pictorial qualities of sculpture. The world of visual art then is a structured whole, a world in which the arts can meet, merge with, and mutually reinforce or swear at one another, often in unexpected yet compelling ways.

封面/書內有世界最著名的中世紀教堂 (法國) 的逼近路徑之景
作者為嵌玻璃專家 引了相當多論文和建築/裝飾實例

Rethinking the Forms of Visual Expression
?


Architecture Without Kings: The Rise of Puritan Classicism Under Cromwell

  1. Architecture without kings: the rise of Puritan classicism under ... - Google 圖書結果

    Tim Mowl, Brian Earnshaw - 1995 - Architecture - 240 頁
    books.google.com.tw/books?isbn=0719046793...
  2. Amazon.com: Architecture Without Kings: The Rise of Puritan ...

    - [ 翻譯此頁 ]
    Amazon.com: Architecture Without Kings: The Rise of Puritan Classicism Under Cromwell (9780719046797): Timothy Mowl, Brian Earnshaw: Books.

Sources of Architectural Form: A Critical History of Western Design Theory

Amazon.com: Sources of Architectural Form: A Critical History of ...

- [ 翻譯此頁 ]
Amazon.com: Sources of Architectural Form: A Critical History of Western Design Theory (9780719041297): Mark Gelerntner: Books.
www.amazon.com › BooksArts & Photography - 頁庫存檔 - 類似內容

Sources of architectural form: a critical history of western ... - Google 圖書結果

Mark Gelernter - 1995 - Art - 306 頁
This book describes the major design theories in eight chronological periods, conveying their flavour with contemporary quotations.

2010年12月29日 星期三

Making Architecture: The Getty Center

漢寶德先生數年前寫過The Getty Center 的游記
我讀這本敘事該館營造過程之書神游



Getty Center - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

- [ 翻譯此頁 ]
Making architecture: the Getty Center. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust. ISBN 978-0892364633. Brawne, Michael (1998). ...



Making Architecture
Making Architecture

Making Architecture

The Getty Center

Author: Preface by Harold M. Williams
Essays by Richard Meier, Stephen D. Rountree, and Ada Louise Huxtable
Year: 1997
Details: 176 pages, 10 x 10 inches
109 color, 149 duotone and 29 b/w illustrations, 1 color fold-out
paper
Publisher: Getty Publications
Imprint: J. Paul Getty Trust
Item# 978-0-89236-463-3
$55.00

"A winner for anyone fascinated with how these things take shape."
Buzz Weekly

"Winner, AIGA 50 Books/50 Covers of 1997"

"Honorable Mention, 1998 American Association of Museums, Museum Publications, Design Competition"

"Winner, 1998 Small Press, Book Awards"



This volume completes the documentation of the planning, design, and construction of the Getty Center begun in The Getty Center: Design Process. Designed by Richard Meier & Partners, the Getty Center sits atop a stunning 110-acre hilltop in west Los Angeles and is the new home for the Museum, the five Institutes, and the Grant Program that make up the J. Paul Getty Trust.

The book includes a series of essays by individuals who have had important roles throughout the course of the project. A chronology identifies the key dates and events in the design and construction process. Extensively illustrated with photographs by several accomplished photographers, site drawings from Richard Meier & Partners, and Robert Irwin's drawings of the Central Gardens, the book presents readers with an insider's view of the making of the Getty Center.

Harold Williams was the chief operating officer of the J. Paul Getty Trust during the planning, design, construction and opening of the Getty Center. Stephen D. Rountree is executive vice president and chief operating officer of the Trust. Richard Meier, the architect of the Getty Center, has received the Pritzker Prize for Architecture and, most recently, the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects. Several books have been published on his work. During her tenure as the architecture critic of The New York Times, Ada Louise Huxtable won a Pulitzer Prize for her criticism. Her most recent book is The Unreal America: Architecture and Illusion.

For sale in North America only.

周作人文選

周作人文選

《博客來導讀》周作人生於1885年,沒於1966年,是中國現代最偉大的散文大師之一。他的一生與中國新文學的成長關係密切,若就其散文格調的建立與視野的拓寬而言,同時代的作家無有出其右者;以此,稱之近代散文的第一人、似乎也當之無愧。
然而今天台灣的讀者只知有徐志摩、朱志清、林語堂諸位而不知周作人,這實在是十分可惜的事。追究起來,這大約與台灣制式化的教育方式有關;但在另一方面, 周作人個人的生涯是非廣受爭議或許也是重要的原因。他與魯迅兄弟之間感情的變化,以及他在大戰其間、日本據有華北之時仍然留在北平擔任「偽職」的事件,多 少也引起當代疑慮。以此觀之,周作人的一生確實是文化衝突與現實政治壓迫下的一個悲劇。
周作人一生的功過毀譽,至今仍難斷言。但是他直到晚年,猶對闡揚開明思想、譯述希臘與日本的文化投入極大心力;閱讀他的文章,處處可以感受到他思想的明亮 進步、以及他尊重傳統又能批判舊社會的惡習、追求民族的現代化同時出入西方典籍的博大。他要求男女平等、為文抨擊「纏足」,他提倡自由民主、對於當時軍閥 的暴橫不假辭色,更在文章中隱約流露深厚的同情心──然而他絕不濫情。他的散文鎔鑄了文言的典雅與外來語彙的新奇,創造了二十世紀以來白話語體的嶄新風 貌,博大謙沖、溫柔敦厚,更往往在冷肅之中透露令人莞爾忍俊不住的幽默。閱讀其文,最能夠感受到一個當代知識分子的理想典型──正如編者楊牧所說,周作人 是一個相當完整的知識分子,一個博大精深的「文藝復興人」。
本書的編者楊牧,是台灣當代最出色的散文大家與詩人之一;他追索周作人上下四十餘年的散文著作,精心輯為兩冊,體例完整、見解超卓,並且撰有序言一篇、收 錄於上冊卷首,析論大師的寫作旨趣、散文風格與影響,文字識見不亞於前輩大師,足為讀者認識周作人的重要導引。(文/林風沂)

周作人文選 II

  • 作者:楊牧編
  • 出版社:洪範
  • 出版日期:1983年07月01日
  • 語言:繁體中文 ISBN:9576740681
  • 裝訂:平裝
本書由楊牧就其散文創作數十種當中精心選輯,匯為一編,依年代秩序謄抄,上起《自己的園地》(一九二三),下迄《知堂回想錄》(一九六五),時間超越四十年,智者華藻,略無所遺。

風雨談
瓜豆集
秉燭談
藥味集
藥堂雜文
苦口甘口
書房一角
立春以前
魯迅的故家
過去的工作
知堂乙酉文編
知堂回想錄

周作人集外文(上、下册)

周作人集外文(上、下册)

作者: 周作人 著 / 陈子善 / 张铁荣 编
出版社: 海南国际新闻出版中心
出版年: 1995/9
页数: 804+674
定价: 78.00元
装帧: 精装
ISBN: 9787806091616


Books Birdviews 書海: 《周作人詩全編箋注》等

2008年7月24日 ...周作人詩全編箋注》不錯我似乎寫過幾篇現在先找到這 二柄:周作人《愚人/智人的 ... 據《周作人詩全編箋注》,周先生1920年發表《愚人的心算》, ...

知堂书话

台灣有台北百川書局1989年上下兩冊版


知堂书话  


作者: 周作人 / 钟叔河 编
出版社: 岳麓书社
出版年: 1986
页数: 932
定价: 3.2元
装帧: 软精装
统一书号: 10285-60


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知堂书话(上下)(全两册)

作  者:周作人 著文,钟叔河 编订 出 版 社:中国人民大学出版社 出版时间:2004-9-1

  • 版  次:1页  数:1042字  数:
  • 印刷时间:2004-9-1开  本:纸  张:胶版纸
  • 印  次:I S B N:9787300057903包  装:平装



编者序
第一辑 谈新书和旧小说
幼稚教育用书二种
读书论
《评<尝试集>》匡谬
《阿Q正传》
阿Q的旧
《沉沦》
介绍小诗集《湖畔》
读《野鸽的话》
情诗(谈《蕙的风》)
什么是不道德的文学(再谈《蕙的风》)
北京的外国书价
《镜花缘》
读《童谣大观》
读《各省童谣集》
儿童的书
关于儿童的书
教科书的批评
读《欲海回狂》
读《京华碧血录》
青年必读书十部
古书可读否的问题
《忆》的装订
关于《何典》
谈毛边书
读《性的崇拜》
《爱的艺术》之不良
介绍《正治工作大纲》
厂甸
厂甸之二
一九三四年我所爱读的书籍
《散文一集》编选感想
谈禁书
二十四年我的爱读书
《刘香女》
二十五年我的爱读书
印书纸
《儿女英雄传》
《品花宝鉴》
小说
《桥》
读书的经验
灯下读书论
佛经
《常言道》
《笑赞》
《呐喊》索隐
小人书
小人书二
……
第二辑 谈日本的书
第三辑 谈西洋的书
第四辑 谈古旧的书
-----

知堂與“書話”

◎止庵

周作人身後別人為他編的書中,影響最大的莫過于《知堂書話》和《知堂序跋》。我本人即受到 影響,此處卻無須多談。卻說《知堂書話》前後出過三種版本,編法有所不同,書名都是一個;編者在序裏說:“《知堂書話》的書名是我取的。”知堂自己的確不 曾用過“書話”這一說法。查《辭源》《辭海》《現代漢語詞典》,均無“書話”條目。據說此乃阿英首創;成就一種文體,則應歸功于唐弢。不過唐著甫面世時, 只題《書話》,似乎並無“為天下法”之意;嗣後別有類似之作,才改為《晦庵書話》。目下此類作品甚多,大多沿襲該書寫法。要而言之,不外乎唐氏所說,具備 “一點事實”,“一點掌故”,“一點觀點”和“一點抒情”。但是這卻不足以規范周作人。我曾稱其為“書話大家”,現在想來並不妥當。或者說,“書話”本有 廣義狹義之分,狹義即唐弢那類寫法,廣義則凡與書有關之作皆可稱為“書話”。周氏自謂:“我所說的話常常是關于一種書的。”(《夜讀抄‧後記》)如此,冠 以這一名目亦無不可。


對于此類文章,周氏另有說法。《書房一角‧原序》雲:“民國廿一年以後,只寫隨筆,或稱讀書錄,我則雲看書偶記,似更簡明的當。” 《夜讀抄》以後各集,大率如此。以前引唐說對照周文,往往限于“事實”與“觀點”,惟不止“一點”耳;所作別有文採,雖然正與“抒情”相反;至于“掌 故”,或為“書話”最重要之因素,在周文中分量並不算大。此即“看書偶記”與狹義的“書話”區別所在。周氏1928年作《閉戶讀書論》,其中有雲:“宜趁 現在不甚適宜于說話做事的時候,關起門來努力讀書,翻開故紙,與活人對照,死書就變成活書,可以得道,可以養生,豈不懿歟?”十六年後作《燈下讀書論》, 則歸結為:“蓋據我多年雜覽的經驗,從書裏看出來的結論只是這兩句話,好思想寫在書本上,一點兒都未實現過,壞事情在人世間全已做了,書本上記著一小部 分。”其間所撰大量“看書偶記”,乃是“吾道一以貫之”。凡此種種,求諸他人“書話”,幾不可得。彼此本非一路,是以毋置高下;然而此書雖冠名“書話”, 讀者還當別具只眼。以“閒適”論,“書話”多半有些閒適,知堂文章卻未必閒適也。

當然周氏所寫“看書偶記”,也可分為兩類。從前我寫文章說,周氏之作,表述思想者 固然很多,也有不少旨在單純介紹。其中涉及外國文學或思想時,所舉例子大都直接譯自原文;談到中國古代一些筆記,原著大家往往難得讀到,作者特為披沙揀 金,摘錄若幹。借用唐弢的話,或限于“事實”;或不限于“事實”,進而闡發“觀點”。相對而言,似以後者價值更大。遍讀這部《知堂書話》,即可知曉就中區 別。此外還要強調一點,雖然此書前勒口文字稱:“《知堂書話》將周氏三十多部文集和集外文、未刊稿中談書的文章全部採輯起來,”其實也還是個選本。因為周 氏畢生著作,與書相關者佔十之七八。正如其所說:“講一件事情,大抵多從讀什麼書引起,因此牽扯開去,似乎並不是先有一個主意要說,”(《立春以前‧〈風 雨後談〉序》)譬如本書未收之《案山子》即從胡適《四十自述》引起,而《結緣豆》從范寅《越諺》引起,《論小說教育》從吳永《庚子西狩叢談》引起,《無生 老母的消息》從劉玉書《常談》引起,似皆屬于“看書偶記”也。

《知堂序跋》是《知堂書話》的姊妹篇。正如作者所說,這也是“小品”而非“大 品”,而二者區別在于,其一“自己亂說”,其一“為聖賢立言”。蓋思想上非正統,寫法上不規矩,正是其當行本色。周氏從前曾自編《苦雨齋序跋文》一冊行 世;這本《知堂序跋》,屬于“擴而編之”。編者在序裏說:“周氏一生所寫的序跋文,在這一冊中,大約包羅無遺了。”該書初版于1987年;此後又有不少遺 作,陸續揭載。譬如“苦雨齋譯叢”之《歐裏庇得斯悲劇集》一書,收有周氏1952年4月20日所作《〈在奧利斯的伊菲革涅亞〉譯者序》,以及翻譯的辛蒙茲 與廷柏雷克《〈圓目巨人〉引言》、赫德《〈在奧利斯的伊菲革涅亞〉引言》;《希臘神話》一書,收有1958年5月12日所作《〈希臘神話〉引言》;此外影 印本《知堂遺存》兩種,收有1958年4月所作《〈紹興兒歌集〉小引》,以及1964年7月11日所作印譜題記,皆為此書所失收。又《知堂乙酉文編》中 《關于竹枝詞》和《關于近代散文》二文,係為當年編就但未能出版的《北京竹枝詞集》和《近代散文》寫的序或跋,似乎亦應闌入。周氏某些翻譯作品,先前出版 時曾被刪改,近年則據手稿恢復原貌,重予刊行。《知堂書話》所收《關于盧奇安》一文,周作本為《關于路吉阿諾斯》;該篇第一句話“路吉阿諾斯 (Loukianos)可以算是文苑中的一個奇異人物”,被改為“盧奇安(Loukianos),又譯琉善,可以算是文苑中的一個奇異人物”。在“苦雨齋 譯叢”之《路吉阿諾斯對話集》中,都已經改回來了。



“identity museums”/ 革命先烈先進傳

現在有"各自表述"的博物館

國民黨以前出版的 (千來頁) 的 革命先烈先進傳
許多人從缺
Critic’s Notebook

To Each His Own Museum, as Identity Goes on Display

From the President’s House in Philadelphia to a show of Islamic science in Queens, “identity museums” frame history to tell a neglected story, sometimes twisting history in the process.

《跨国公司在中国: 贏家和輸家》/《2008跨国公司中国报告》

跨国公司在中国: 贏家和輸家》北京: 新華出版社 2000
Multinational Companies in China: Winners and Losers, EIU, 1997

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《2008跨国公司中国报告》



2008年02月21日18:12


 商务部研究院跨国公司研究中心是专事跨国公司研究和咨询的机构。自2001年起,研究中心每年编辑出版《跨国公司在中国报告》年度报告,全面、系统地介绍跨国公司在中国的投资情况,为政府部门提供了及时有效的参考。

  2008年1月,由跨国公司研究中心主任王志乐主编的《2008跨国公司中国报告》由中国经济出版社正式出版。报告共有六个部分。

   第一部分总报告“沟通、示范、带动、激励——发挥跨国公司在可持续发展中的积极作用”,报告认为,跨国公司投资中国,起到了桥梁-沟通、标杆-示范、龙 头-带动和竞争-激励作用。跨国公司是中国经济社会持续发展的积极力量。报告分析了跨国公司发展新趋势以及全球公司在战略、管理、文化方面的变化和对世界 经济的影响;分析了跨国公司对中国经济可持续发展,特别是环保、创新、履行社会责任方面的作用;提出了如何进一步发挥跨国公司推动中国经济可持续发展积极 作用的建议。

  第二部分:跨国公司发展新趋势。选择了东芝公司、爱立信、富士胶片和通用汽车的案例。从中可以清楚地了解近几年跨国公司如何在向全球公司发展。

  第三部分:跨国公司与产业发展。选择了巴斯夫、肯德基、百事、斯必克、双汇集团的案例,说明了中国经济发展过程中,跨国公司对提升中国产业整体水平的贡献。本部分还选择了跨国公司研究中心何曼青博士的《产业集群发展与我国产业竞争力提升》论文。

  第四部分:跨国公司与自主创新。重点介绍了BP、微软、诺维信、GE用技术创新推动在中国的业务增长情况。本部分还选择了王志乐教授和中国产业发展促进会王晓红博士的两篇文章。

  第五部分:跨国公司与可持续发展。选择了诺基亚、西门子、玫琳凯、杜邦深圳工厂、宝洁、卡夫、戴尔、利乐、IBM公司在中国关注环境、关爱员工,开展优秀企业公民活动的情况。

  第六部分:附录。 “2007年跨国公司在华大事记”和“全球500大公司及其在华投资企业概览”是经过更新的材料。

   《2008跨国公司中国报告》最具特色的是,报告中的跨国公司在华情况,大部分是跨国公司研究中心的研究人员在亲自调研后,在第一手材料的基础上整理 的。报告内容翔实,材料丰富。可以帮助有关人员吸引外资打开思路;对跨国公司确定在中国发展的新目标提供参考;对中国企业在新的高度继续向跨国公司学习, 与跨国公司合作,同跨国公司竞争,形成自己可持续发展的竞争力,提供帮助;也为有关研究人员提供了一个新的研究方向。

独唱团绝唱


新闻报道 | 2010.12.28

独唱团绝唱

80后畅销作家、博客作者韩寒主办的文艺杂志《独唱团》发刊一期后则宣布停发。韩寒周二(12月28日)在博客里宣布这一消息,没有解释具体原因,但和读者粉丝说"后会有期"。

本周二,韩寒在其博客中证实,他所主办的文艺杂志《独唱团》现已无限期停止。韩寒在其博客文章中写道:"为了避免各种猜测,应该向大家有个 交代:事实是由于我能力有限,《独唱团》的第二期乃至未来各期在均无法出版,所以特此宣布独唱团之团队解散。"至此,读者一直担心的"独唱变绝唱"成为确 证事实。

Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift:

而在周日晚间,《独唱团》执行主编马一木就已经透露了《独唱团》编辑部解散的消息。他在其微博中发帖说:"今天不是愚人节,是润之老师诞辰。独唱团团队宣布解散。……那些久久等待支持我们的读者,谢谢你们,对不起。那些给我们撰稿的投稿的作者,也谢谢你们,对不起。"

而《南方都市报》援引马一木的消息称,编辑部本已经做好了三期杂志的内容,但"现在已经没有机会出版了";他"很希望杂志能出版,但看来几年内都不可能了"。

Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift:

据一些中国媒体人士推测,杂志无法出版已经不是某个出版社审查不通过的问题,很可能是所有出版社都统一了口径。而北京大学教授夏业良曾对媒体表示:"独唱党不喜欢独唱团。"

据了解,《独唱团》杂志是80后作家韩寒独立发行的第一本杂志,邀请中国知名作者提供专稿。杂志封面图片被审查后重新修改,内容上又做出了一些让步之后,才以丛书方式发行一期,即遭夭折。

综合报道:文山

责编:李鱼

Cadillac Records

半夜 看了半部HBO 電影 一記

Cadillac Records is a 2008 musical biopic written and directed by Darnell Martin. The film explores the musical era from the early 1940s to the late 1960s, chronicling the life of the influential Chicago-based record-company executive Leonard Chess, and the musicians who recorded for Chess Records.

The film stars Adrien Brody as Chess, Cedric the Entertainer as Willie Dixon, Mos Def as Chuck Berry, Columbus Short as Little Walter, Jeffrey Wright as Muddy Waters, Eamonn Walker as Howlin' Wolf, and Beyoncé Knowles as Etta James. The film was released in North America on December 5, 2008 by TriStar Pictures.

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Plot

Leonard Chess (Adrien Brody), a Polish immigrant of Jewish descent, becomes the founder of a record label, that opens the doors for African-American people to record music. This leads to Chuck Berry (Mos Def), Little Walter (Columbus Short), Etta James (Beyoncé Knowles), and Muddy Waters (Jeffrey Wright).




2010年12月28日 星期二

The Sidney Awards, Part II

Op-Ed Columnist

The Sidney Awards, Part II


The Sidney Awards go to some of the best magazine essays of the year. The one-man jury is biased against political essays, since politics already gets so much coverage. But the jury is biased in favor of pieces that illuminate the ideas and conditions undergirding political events.

Josh Haner/The New York Times

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For example, there’s been a lot of talk this year about trying to reduce corruption in Afghanistan, Iraq and across the Middle East. But in a piece in The American Interest called “Understanding Corruption,” Lawrence Rosen asks: What does corruption mean?

For Westerners, it means one set of things: bribery and nepotism, etc. But when Rosen asks people in the Middle East what corruption is, he gets variations on an entirely different meaning: “Corruption is the failure to share any largess you have received with those with whom you have formed ties of dependence.”

Our view of corruption makes sense in a nation of laws and impersonal institutions. But, Rosen explains, “Theirs is a world in which the defining feature of a man is that he has formed a web of indebtedness, a network of obligations that prove his capacity to maneuver in a world of relentless uncertainty.” So to not give a job to a cousin is corrupt; to not do deals with tribesmen is corrupt. Reducing corruption in Afghanistan is not a question of replacing President Hamid Karzai with a more honest man. It’s a deeper process.

In earlier ages, people consulted oracles. We consult studies. We rely on scientific findings to guide health care decisions, policy making and much else. But in an essay called “The Truth Wears Off” in The New Yorker, Jonah Lehrer reports on something strange.

He describes a class of antipsychotic drugs, whose effectiveness was demonstrated by several large clinical trials. But in a subsequent batch of studies, the therapeutic power of the drugs appeared to wane precipitously.

This is not an isolated case. “But now all sorts of well-established, multiply confirmed findings have started to look increasingly uncertain,” Lehrer writes. “It’s as if our facts were losing their truth: claims that have been enshrined in textbooks are suddenly unprovable.”

The world is fluid. Bias and randomness can creep in from all directions. For example, between 1966 and 1995 there were 47 acupuncture studies conducted in Japan, Taiwan and China, and they all found it to be an effective therapy. There were 94 studies in the U.S., Sweden and Britain, and only 56 percent showed benefits. The lesson is not to throw out studies, but to never underestimate the complexity of the world around.

There’s been a lot written about Detroit, but Charlie LeDuff’s essay “Who Killed Aiyana Stanley-Jones” in Mother Jones packs a special power. It starts with a killing of a little girl in a police raid, then pulls back to the idiotic murder of a teenage boy that precipitated the raid — that murder victim may have smirked at his killer for riding a moped.

Then LeDuff touches on the decay all around — a city in which 80 percent of the eighth graders are unable to do basic math, the crime lab was closed because of ineptitude, 500 fires are set every month and 50 percent of the drivers are operating without a license.

LeDuff, a former reporter for The Times, travels from broad context to the specific details — from the collapse of the industrial economy to the fact that a local minister was left with the girl’s $4,000 funeral costs, claiming the girl’s father ran off with the donations.

In an essay in Foreign Affairs called “The Demographic Future,” Nicholas Eberstadt describes the coming global manpower decline. Over the next two decades, for example, there will be a 30 percent decline in the number of Chinese between the ages of 15 and 29 — 100 million fewer workers.

Tyler Cowen wrote a superb, counterintuitive piece on income inequality for The American Interest called “The Inequality That Matters.” It’s filled with interesting observations. For example, the inequality that really bites is local — the guy down the street who can spend three bucks more for a case of beer, not Bill Gates’s billions across the country.

But his main insight is this. Smart people, especially in the financial sector, now have tremendous incentives to take great risks. If the risks fail, they still have millions in the bank. If the risks pay off, they get enormously rich. The result is a society with more inequality and more financial instability. It’s not clear we know how to address this phenomenon.

Finally, two historical essays deserve mention. Adam Gopnick wrote a fresh piece on Winston Churchill for The New Yorker called “Finest Hours.” Anne Applebaum wrote a chilling essay on central Europe in the 20th century called “The Worst of the Madness” in The New York Review of Books. (The online version of this column has links to the essays.)

I’ve been doing these awards for several years now. This was the richest year, with the best essays.

邊沁專案 Jeremy Bentham Project

Scholars Recruit Public for Project


Since University College London began transcribing the papers of the Enlightenment philosopher Jeremy Bentham more than 50 years ago, it has published 27 volumes of his writings — less than half of the 70 or so ultimately expected.

Bentham Project

Tony Slade of the Bentham Project in London edits images of manuscripts to post online for volunteers to transcribe.

Humanities 2.0

Articles in this series examine how digital tools are changing scholarship in history, literature and the arts.

Bentham Project

Jeremy Bentham’s preserved, clothed corpse, with a waxworks replica of his actual head at bottom, has greeted visitors to the college since 1850.

Bentham Project

A handwritten document by Jeremy Bentham in University College London’s collection.

The painstaking job of transcribing often hard-to-decipher handwritten documents from history’s lead players — not to mention a lack of money — has meant that most originals are seen by a just a handful of scholars and kept out of the public’s reach altogether. After more than five decades, only slightly more than half of James Madison’s papers have been transcribed and published, while work on Thomas Jefferson’s papers, begun in 1943, probably won’t be finished until around 2025.

Now the scholars behind the Bentham Project think they may have come up with a better way: crowd-sourcing.

Starting this fall, the editors have leveraged, if not the wisdom of the crowd, then at least its fingers, inviting anyone — yes, that means you — to help transcribe some of the 40,000 unpublished manuscripts from University College’s collection that have been scanned and put online. In the roughly four months since this Wikipedia-style experiment began, 350 registered users have produced 435 transcripts.

These transcripts, which are reviewed and corrected by editors, will eventually be used for printed editions of the collected works of Bentham, whose preserved corpse, clothed and seated, has greeted visitors to the college since 1850.

Other initiatives have recruited volunteers online, but the Bentham Project is one of the first to try crowd-sourced transcription and to open up a traditionally rarefied scholarly endeavor to the general public, generating both excitement and questions.

It is an undertaking that Bentham, who died in 1832 at 84 and is best known for his utilitarian philosophy that sought “the greatest happiness for the greatest number,” would no doubt appreciate.

This experiment, part of the way technology is revolutionizing the study of the humanities, has the potential to cut years, even decades, from the transcription process while making available to the public and the general pool of scholars miles of documents that are now off limits, difficult to read or unsearchable.

“It’s fairly astonishing,” Sharon Leon, a historian at George Mason University, said of crowd-sourcing’s potential. Ms. Leon recently received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to design a free digital tool — a plug-in — that any archive or library could use to open transcription to the public.

Ms. Leon and her collaborators are working with 55,000 unpublished documents from the United States’ early War Department that have been collected, copied and reconstructed in the last dozen years to replace those largely destroyed in 1800 when a fire swept through the department’s offices.

These manuscripts, written from 1784 to 1800, are the equivalent of a national archive, since the early War Department handled not only military matters but also diplomacy, internal security, Indian affairs, the country’s only social welfare program — for veterans — and accounted for 7 of every 10 dollars spent by the federal government.

Ms. Leon said she assumed the project, scheduled to begin in January, would primarily attract scholars, students, history enthusiasts and genealogists, some of whom might have already transcribed portions of these documents in the course of their research.

Karen Mason, a librarian at Medgar Evers College in Brooklyn who has transcribed some of Bentham’s papers, described her participation in the project as “a service to the scholarly community.”

“I’m no Bentham scholar, but I am interested in history, so it’s interesting to look at the addenda and deletions in the manuscripts and generally follow the thought processes of a man living in 18th-century England,” she wrote in an e-mail. “I usually take about 15 to 20 minutes of my lunch hour if the weather is bad or if I don’t feel like going out to do it.”

To advocates of crowd-sourcing like Ms. Leon, making the country’s documentary heritage available to the public is one of the most valuable aspects of that approach. Yet it also underscores how the digital humanities have become a new source of tension between experts and amateurs.

Max J. Evans, the former executive director of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, said he had long campaigned for using digital technology — like putting scanned originals online — as a way of widening access. This way, at least, the papers of the founding fathers and others, despite being tough to read and unsearchable, would not be “held up in these scholarly editing offices for years and years, and not only available to a select group of scholars,” he said. (The Library of Congress has done this with some of the founders’ papers.)

But generally, document editors tend to be very resistant, he added.

“ ‘It’ll be great when it’s done,’ they say, ‘it’s the Sistine Chapel, it’s a magnificent masterpiece,’ ” Mr. Evans said. “I get all that. But in the interim, I don’t know why we can’t use the images we have in an easy-to-use form without all the scholarly apparatus.”

Crowd-sourced transcription would naturally flow from such a set-up, he said.

Another obstacle is practical, said Daniel Stowell, the director and editor of the Papers of Abraham Lincoln in Springfield, Ill. His office experimented with the hiring of nonacademic transcribers, he said, but they produced so many errors and gaps in the papers that “we were spending more time and money correcting them as creating them from scratch.”

When tens of thousands of unpublished and rarely seen documents written by or to Lincoln were digitally scanned for the project for his bicentennial celebration in 2009, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, created a prototype for crowd-sourced transcription. It was ultimately abandoned.

Mr. Stowell said he expected the rest of Lincoln’s papers to be transcribed and posted in 10 to 15 years. As to whether newer endeavors like Project Bentham or the War Department papers will end up saving time, he said, “I’m skeptical.”

Certainly, deciphering Bentham’s sloping antique script can be difficult for the pajama-wearing amateur. Bentham Project participants are given a long list of guidelines instructing them on how to enter codes for deletions, additions, marginal notes, headings and other textual quirks, which makes the work slow going in the beginning. Users can choose a manuscript to work on by subject (“Box 73 and Box 96 contain interesting manuscripts on drunkenness, swearing, adultery and much more ...”), or by how easy a document is to read. Bentham’s handwriting deteriorated in his later years, and he occasionally wrote in between the lines of a previous letter.

Will there be mistakes? Of course.

“We’re not looking for perfect,” Ms. Leon of George Mason said of crowd-sourced transcription. “We’re looking for progressive improvement, which is a completely different goal from someone who is creating a letter-press edition.”

Mr. Evans quoted from a 1791 letter by Jefferson. “Let us save what remains,” Jefferson wrote of national documents not destroyed during the war, “not by vaults and locks which fence them from the public eye and use in consigning them to the waste of time, but by such a multiplication of copies, as shall place them beyond the reach of accident.”

“I think there’s a good deal of ‘fencing’ now,” Mr. Evans said, “not by keeping them under lock but by keeping these documents in the hands of only small group of documentary editors, and those scholars who can make their way to the archives, until formal publication.”

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