2010年11月25日 星期四

Corydon

柯瑞東戀阿荔吉

Corydon (from the Greek korudos, "lark") is a stock name for a shepherd in ancient Greek pastoral poems and fables, such as the one in Idyll 4 of the Syracusan poet Theocritus (c.310-250 BCE). The name was also used by the Latin poets Siculus and, more significantly, Virgil. In the second of Virgil's Eclogues, it is used for a shepherd whose love for the boy Alexis is described therein. Virgil's Corydon gives his name to the modern book Corydon.

Corydon is mentioned in Edmund Spenser's The Fairie Queen as a shepherd in Book VI, Canto X. In this section he is portrayed as a coward who fails to come to the aid of Pastorell when she is being pursued by a tiger.

The name is again used for a shepherd boy in an English children's trilogy (Corydon and the Island of Monsters, Corydon and the Fall of Atlantis and Corydon and the Siege of Troy) by Tobias Druitt. [1]

Corydon is also the name of a shepherd in a Christian hymn entitled Pastoral Elegy. The town of Corydon, Indiana is named after the shepherd of that hymn.

Corydon and Thyrsis are a pair of shepherds in Edna St. Vincent Millay's 1920 play, "Aria da Capo". [2]

Other such stock names in poetry include:

  • a Rooster = Chaunticleer (from French Chanticler; [chant + clear, in reference to its crow])
  • a Fox = Reynard (from French Reignart; reign + -ard, "kingly one")
  • a Cat = Felix (from Latin felix, "happy" [influenced by Latin feles, "cat, feline"])
  • a Dog = Rufus (from Latin rufus, "red" [influenced by ruff, the bark of a dog])



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Corydon is a book by André Gide consisting of four dialogues on homosexuality. The name of the book comes from Virgil's pederastic character Corydon. Parts of the text were separately published from 1911 to 1920, and the whole book appeared in its French original in France in 1924 and in the United States in 1950. It is available in an English translation (ISBN 0-252-07006-2) by the poet Richard Howard.

The dialogues involve naturalists', historians', poets', and philosophers' evidence to back up Gide's argument that homosexuality is natural and pervaded the most culturally and artistically advanced civilizations such as Periclean Greece, Renaissance Italy and Elizabethan England. Gide argues this is reflected by writers and artists from Homer and Virgil to Titian and Shakespeare in their depictions of male-male relationships, such as Achilles and Patroclus, as homosexual rather than as platonic as other critics insist. Gide uses this evidence to insist that homosexuality is more fundamental and natural than heterosexuality, which he believes is merely a union constructed by society.

"My friends insist that this little book is of the kind which will do me the greatest harm," Gide wrote of the book.

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