2016年10月15日 星期六

Charlotte Brontë. The Brontës:The Spinster Agenda. , The Bronte Myth. Jane Eyre, Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights/Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre

The British Library
Charlotte Brontë’s defining novel, Jane Eyre, was first published #onthisday in 1847.
In Jane Eyre, Brontë created ‘a heroine as plain, and as small as myself, who’, she told her sisters Emily and Anne, ‘shall be as interesting as any of yours’.
See the original manuscript on #DiscoveringLiterature and explore what it reveals about the celebrated author and her work http://bit.ly/2cGqAZa

“I believe in some blending of hope and sunshine sweetening the worst lots. I believe that this life is not all; neither the beginning nor the end. I believe while I tremble; I trust while I weep.” 
―from VILLETTE by Charlotte Brontë

Charlotte Brontë's JANE EYRE was first published in England on this day in 1847.
“Every atom of your flesh is as dear to me as my own: in pain and sickness it would still be dear.”

In 1842, Charlotte Brontë fell in (unrequited) love with Constantin Héger, her dark-haired, blue-eyed, cigar-smoking married Belgian professor. In "Villette", Lucy Snowe has an evening encounter with her teacher Paul Emanuel—a dark-haired, blue-eyed, cigar smoker

A passage from “Villette” reveals Brontë’s sexual imagination

Vintage Books & Anchor Books
"If the twenty-year-old Charlotte Brontë had been told that she would one day be a household name, that her picture would hang in a future National Portrait Gallery, and that pilgrims would travel to Haworth on her account from as far away as Japan, she would have been delighted but not altogether surprised. The image of the Brontës presented in Charlotte’s own “Biographical Notice” of her sisters casts them as “unobtrusive women” shunning fame. Yet Charlotte’s early ambition was not merely to write but 'to be for ever known.'"
--Lucasta Miller, The Bronte Myth
In a brilliant combination of biography, literary criticism, and history, The Bronté Myth shows how Charlotte, Emily, and Anne Bronté became cultural icons whose ever-changing reputations reflected the obsessions of various eras.
When literary London learned that Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights had been written by young rural spinsters, the Brontés instantly became as famous as their shockingly passionate books. Soon after their deaths, their first biographer spun the sisters into a picturesque myth of family tragedies and Yorkshire moors. Ever since, these enigmatic figures have tempted generations of readers–Victorian, Freudian, feminist–to reinterpret them, casting them as everything from domestic saints to sex-starved hysterics. In her bewitching “metabiography,” Lucasta Miller follows the twists and turns of the phenomenon of Bront-mania and rescues these three fiercely original geniuses from the distortions of legend.

The New Yorker
In Daily Shouts: Why we must not underestimate this plan for world domination.

Is a pack of unmarried women really that dangerous?

 英國的維多利亞時代,通常是指西元1837年至1901年,英國維多利亞女王在位的時期,這是英國從農業社會轉變為工業社會的轉型時期。就在這個 年代,勃朗特(Charlotte Brontë)出版了她的《簡愛》(Jane Eyre)(1847),狄更斯完成《雙城記》(A Tale of Two Cities)(1859),柯南.道爾創作出了福爾摩斯(Sherlock Holmes),彌爾寫下了《論自由》(On Liberty)。

'Becoming Jane Eyre'

In this muted and gently probing novel, Charlotte Brontë finds liberation through her dauntless, self-reliant heroine and fictional alter ego, Jane Eyre.

夏綠蒂出生牧師家庭,因為母親早逝,家境貧困兄弟姐妹又多,8歲的夏綠蒂和姊妹們一起被送入柯文橋女子寄宿學校(Cowan Bridge)。學校惡劣的環境,讓夏綠蒂的兩個姐姐染上肺病去世,造成夏綠蒂的童年陰影。之後夏綠蒂到米菲爾德(Mirfield)繼續就學,多年後以家庭教師的身分到貴族家庭工作,但因為無法忍受貴族人家的歧視與刻薄,2年後放棄家庭教師的工作,打算和妹妹艾蜜莉自辦學校。為了辦學,夏綠蒂和艾蜜莉到義大利進修法文和德文,雖然之後辦學未果,但這段進修的經驗激發夏綠蒂的創作欲望,催生女作家夏綠蒂‧勃朗特的誕生。

Charlotte Brontë died ‪#‎onthisday‬ in 1855. In Jane Eyre, she challenged the notion of the ideal woman in Victorian times with a fictional heroine who demands equality and respect. Adopt this book, a great gift for Brontë fans. http://bit.ly/1EvqTSR

In Jane Eyre, unlike life, "every character gets what he or she deserves". Melvyn Bragg explores this 'intensely emotional but intellectual' novel and its impact.

"It is one of my faults, that though my tongue is sometimes prompt enough at an answer, there are times when it sadly fails me in framing an excuse; and always the lapse occurs at some crisis, when a facile word or plausible pretext is specially wanted to get me out of painful embarrassment."
--from "Jane Eyre" (1847) by Charlotte Brontë
Jane Eyre, a penniless orphan, is engaged as governess at Thornfield Hall by the mysterious Mr Rochester. Her integrity and independence are tested to the limit as their love for each other grows, and the secrets of Mr Rochester's past are revealed. Charlotte Brontë’s novel about the passionate love between Jane Eyre, a young girl alone in the world, and the rich, brilliant, domineering Rochester has, ever since its publication in 1847, enthralled every kind of reader, from the most critical and cultivated to the youngest and most unabashedly romantic. It lives as one of the great triumphs of storytelling and as a moving affirmation of the prerogatives of the heart in the face of disappointment and misfortune. Jane Eyre has enjoyed huge popularity since first publication, and its success owes much to its exceptional emotional power.

Why do we love Jane Eyre?
Clip duration: 4 minutes 40 seconds

On this day in 1847, Charlotte Brontë sent her manuscript of JANE EYRE to her eventual publisher, Smith, Elder and Co., in London, under her pseudonym of Currer Bell. (The novel had already been rejected five times.) Many first reviewers thought the book outrageous; one speculated that Currer Bell was an "unsexed" woman who dared "to trample upon customs established by our forefathers, and long destined to shed glory upon our domestic circles."*
“I can live alone, if self-respect, and circumstances require me so to do. I need not sell my soul to buy bliss. I have an inward treasure born with me, which can keep me alive if all extraneous delights should be withheld, or offered only at a price I cannot afford to give.”

總是一聲嘆息的咆哮山莊 ( 此書譯本可能超過20種 包括梁實秋的)


Emily Bronte''s Wuthering Heights

Ralph Fiennes | Juliette Binoche 主角

Emily Bronte''s Wuthering Heights

Heathcliff is Cathy Earnshaw's foster brother; more than that, he is her other half. When forces within and without tear them apart, Heathcliff wreaks vengeance on those he holds responsible, even into a second generation. Written by Cleo

"Heaven did not seem to be my home; and I broke my heart with weeping to come back to earth; and the angels were so angry that they flung me out into the middle of the heath on the top of Wuthering Heights; where I woke sobbing for joy.
"That will do to explain my secret, as well as the other. I've no more business to marry Edgar Linton than I have to be in heaven; and if the wicked man in there, had not brought Heathcliff so low I shouldn't have thought of it. It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now; so he shall never know how I love him; and that, not because he's handsome, Nelly, but because he's more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same, and Linton's is as different as a moonbeam from lightning, or frost from fire."


Anne, Emily, and Charlotte Brontë, by their brother Branwell (c. 1834). He painted himself among his sisters, but later removed the image so as not to clutter the picture.
The Brontës /ˈbrɒntiz/[1][2] were a nineteenth-century literary family associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England. The sisters, Charlotte (born 21 April 1816, in Thornton near Bradford), Emily (born 30 July 1818 in Thornton), and Anne (born 17 January 1820 in Thornton), are well known as poets and novelists. They originally published their poems and novels under masculine pseudonyms, following the custom of the times practised by female writers. Their stories immediately attracted attention, although not always the best, for their passion and originality. Charlotte's Jane Eyre was the first to know success, while Emily's Wuthering Heights, Anne's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall and other works were later to be accepted as masterpieces of literature.
The three sisters and their brother, Branwell, were very close and they developed their childhood imaginations through the collaborative writing of increasingly complex stories. The confrontation with the deaths first of their mother then of their two older sisters marked them profoundly and influenced their writing.
Their fame was due as much to their own tragic destinies as to their precociousness. Since their early deaths, and then the death of their father in 1861, they were subject to a following that did not cease to grow. Their home, the parsonage at Haworth in Yorkshire, now the Brontë Parsonage Museum, has become a place of pilgrimage for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year.