2016年4月5日 星期二

Northrop Frye : The Modern Century ;世俗的經典︰傳奇故事結構研究

 

關於

NPR 訪問 'How to Read the Bible' by Marc Zvi Brettler ,想起應該介紹加拿大的著名文評家Professor Herman Northrop Frye, (July 14, 1912 – January 23, 1991) was a Canadian literary critic, one of the most distinguished of the twentieth century….In 2000, he was honoured by the government of Canada with his image on a postage stamp. A festival devoted to Frye's works takes place every April in Moncton, New Brunswick.


作品大要及其翻譯
Works by Northrop Frye【各書的另外翻譯和簡介,參考《弗萊文論選集》北京大學出版社, 1998 之附錄】
The following is a list of his books, including the volumes in the Collected Works of Northrop Frye, an ongoing project under the editorship of Alvin A. Lee.
《弗萊研究:中國與西方》中國社會科學, 1996
《弗萊研究:現狀與展望》(英文本)上海外語教育出版社, 2001
《弗萊文論選集》北京大學出版社, 1998
Fearful Symmetry
Anatomy of Criticism 《批評的剖析》天津:百花文藝, 1998 修正版 2006
The Educated Imagination 《想像力的修養》
The Well-Tempered Critic 《創造與再創造》
Creation and Recreation 《穩練的批評家》
以上三書合一書由內蒙古大學出版社, 2003
Fables of Identity
T.S. Eliot
A Natural Perspective: The Development of Shakespearean Comedy and Romance
The Return of Eden: Five Essays on Milton's Epics
Fools of Time: Studies in Shakespearean Tragedy
The Modern Century 《現代百年》盛寧譯 ( 譯自The Modern Century) 。香港:牛津大學出版社,1998 ;遼寧教育
A Study of English Romanticism
The Stubborn Structure: Essays on Criticism and Society
The Bush Garden: Essays on the Canadian Imagination
The Critical Path: An Essay on the Social Context of Literary Criticism 《批評之路》
The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance
Spiritus Mundi: Essays on Literature, Myth, and Society
Northrop Frye on Culture and Literature: A Collection of Review Essays
The Great Code: The Bible and Literature 《偉大的代碼:聖經與文學》北京大學出版社, 1998
Words with Power: Being a Second Study of The Bible and Literature 《神力的語言》北京:社會科學文獻出版社, 2004
Divisions on a Ground: Essays on Canadian Culture
The Myth of Deliverance: Reflections on Shakespeare's Problem Comedies
Harper Handbook to Literature (with Sheridan Baker and George W. Perkins)
On Education
No Uncertain Sounds
Myth and Metaphor: Selected Essays
Reading the World: Selected Writings
The Double Vision of Language, Nature, Time, and God
A World in a Grain of Sand: Twenty-Two Interviews with Northrop Frye
Reflections on the Canadian Literary Imagination: A Selection of Essays by Northrop Frye
Mythologizing Canada: Essays on the Canadian Literary Imagination
Northrop Frye in Conversation (an interview with David Cayley)
The Eternal Act of Creation
The Collected Works of Northrop Frye
Northrop Frye on Religion



「當『離去』(away)的觀念不再起作用之後,
我們也就不需要『路』(way)了。」(N. Frye 《神力的語言》(Being a Second Study of "The Bible and Literature") 吳持哲譯,北京:中國社會科學文獻出版社,2004,p.105)




***** 了不起的翻譯再造:《批評的剖析》
我們介紹過加拿大的著名文評家 Professor Herman Northrop Frye, (July 14, 1912 January 23, 1991) 著作及其中譯情形。
《弗萊研究:中國與西方》中國社會科學, 1996 /
《弗萊研究:現狀與展望》(英文本)上海外語教育出版社, 2001/
《弗萊文論選集》北京大學出版社, 1998/Anatomy of Criticism 《批評的剖析》天津:百花文藝, 1998 修正版 2006/ The Educated Imagination 《想像力的修養》/ The Well-Tempered Critic 《創造與再創造》/ Creation and Recreation 《穩練的批評家》
其中經典《批評的剖析》( Anatomy of Criticism)(天津:百花文藝, 1998 )今年有修正版( 2006),很難得。除了內容修正,最重要的是將原注翻譯出來 它們可以讓讀者追討作者之博學深思。可惜翻譯上還可以更確切些。 譬如說,第 199頁:「 ……他一生中某種值得大書特書的事( rite de passage)」 --我猜這是人類學 -社會學中之「成年 -啟蒙 之儀式」。
譬如說,第 206頁:「說起人類的焚燒,不妨參考 D. H. Lawrence的『伊特魯亞名勝』一書中關於朱紅油漆的一番話。」 -- 恰巧這本書最近有新星出版社的翻譯『伊特魯亞的靈魂』,我們查一下,它/ 他是說伊特魯亞人和印地安人將身上漆紅彩仿太陽神….



主要作者 Frye, Northrop
書名/作者 Northrop Frye in conversation / David Cayley
出版項 Concord, Ont. : Anansi, 1992
總圖2F人社資料區 PN75.F7 A3 1992

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KIRKUS REVIEW


Canada has two celebrated savants: the flashy fellow who calls himself Marshall McLuhan, and the sober and redoubtable Northrop Frye, probably the best literary critic of his generation. The magic word in Frye is ""archetypes,"" around which run the structural principles of Western literature as they present themselves through the context of classical and biblical values, myths, and symbols. But Frye's approach is ultimately scientific in the Aristotelian sense, and his method presupposes a belief in a ""total literary history,"" basically both atemporal and asocial, though not without an ""implicit moral standard."" He might, therefore, seem an unlikely candidate to make so chaotic and slippery a subject as ""the modern century"" come alive for us. Happily, his Whidden Lectures on this theme, delivered recently at McMaster University in honor of the Canadian Centennial, show Frye in splendid form--indeed, his aerial view of culture from Baudelaire to Genet, from a hierarchical aesthetic to an absurdist or apocalyptic one, makes a genuinely sound and attractive summing up. His sense of hidden relationships is always provocative, as when he notes the odd interplay between socio-political decentralization and ""attempts to 'purify' a language,"" or as he develops the notion of an evolving open mythology and the prophetic function modern art has unconsciously assumed. A short work written with economy and grace.


主要作者 Frye, Northrop
書名/作者 The modern century / Northrop Frye
出版項 Toronto : Oxford University Press, c1991
版本項 New edition

In this classic book, the resouces of an exceptional critic are brought to bear on questions of prime importance in modern life. Frye presents a brilliant array of ideas and observations on the methodology of our day and its central elements, alienation, and progress; the effects of anthology on the structured society; characteristics commonly associated with the `modern'; antisocial attitudes in modern culture; the role of the arts in informing the contemporary imagination; and finally the way in which the creative arts are absorbed into society through education.

https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/the-modern-century-by-northrop-frye/

The Modern Century [Paperback]

Northrop Frye
  • Paperback: 136 pages
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press; New Edition edition (Oct 1 1991)

Product Description

In this classic book, the resouces of an exceptional critic are brought to bear on questions of prime importance in modern life. Frye presents a brilliant array of ideas and observations on the methodology of our day and its central elements, alienation, and progress; the effects of anthology on the structured society; characteristics commonly associated with the `modern'; antisocial attitudes in modern culture; the role of the arts in informing the contemporary imagination; and finally the way in which the creative arts are absorbed into society through education.

About the Author

Northrop Frye, late Professor Emeritus, University of Toronto.

现代百年


作者: Frye
出版: 辽宁教育出版社 - 1998年出版

全文目录

前言
1事物之末端的城市
作者小引
2改良的双筒望远镜
3智性的月光
4加拿大的文化发展

The modern century is a book-length example of “ethical criticism.” In it Frye attempts to describe the modern “mythology,” which he defines as the “structure of ideas, images, beliefs, assumptions, anxieties, and hopes which express the view of man's situation and destiny generally held” in our time. The first chapter of the book, called “City of the End of Things,” describes “the alienation of progress,” one of the elements which constitute the modern mythology. Modern consciousness, in this reading, ends in despair because of its obsessive need to “keep up” with an impossibly fast stream of events. Its mythical analogue is the medieval legend of the Wild Hunt, “in which souls of the dead had to keep marching to nowhere all day and all night at top speed.” In modern times, the conception of alienation has become psychological, and its “central symbol” is “the overkill bomb.”
In a world where the tyrant-enemy can be recognized, even defined, and yet cannot be projected on anything or anybody, he remains part of ourselves, or more precisely of our own death-wish, a cancer which gradually disintegrates the sense of community.
It is also Frye's contention that modern technology has created a new sense of time. Technology involves “the continued sacrificing of a visible present to an invisible future”:
. . . progress is a social projection of the individual's sense of the passing of time. But the individual, as such, is not progressing to anything except his own death. Hence the collapse of belief in progress reinforces the sense of anxiety which is rooted in the consciousness of death. Alienation and anxiety become the same thing. . . .
For all its concision and clarity, this description of the modern situation ignores those political or historical facts which are the causes and consequences of alienation and anxiety. A radical distrust of the benevolence of progress is indeed one of the emotions which constitute the modern mythology. But that this distrust can issue in a new set of moral choices and political actions is a fact which Frye's vocabulary of cultural forms can engage only in a peripheral way. He can deal with such choices and actions only insofar as they can be “placed” in conceptual space, either juxtaposed or in opposition to other “elements” or “phenomena” that have been sim ilarly isolated and defined by his vocabulary.
To be sure, Frye's vocabulary also brings him to a number of fine critical insights. “Improved Binoculars,” the second chapter of The Modern Century, is concerned to define what is “modern” in modern art and literature. Modern art, Frye says, is “born on a battlefield, where the enemies are the anti-arts of passive impression.” Frye claims that the militant situation in which modern art finds itself has created a radical split, even an antagonism, between the artist and his audience. From this situation has derived the modern affinity for extreme states of feeling, for primitivism, for the outcast, the criminal, and the sadistic, for whatever threatens a passive or a bourgeois response to experience. The adversary position of the artist requires, therefore, that he engage his audience in an intensely active response to his creation.

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諾思洛普‧弗萊 世俗的經典︰傳奇故事結構研究 The Secular Scripture:A Study of the Sturcture of Romance 上海人民出版社 2010

The secular scripture: a study of the structure of Romance - Google 圖書結果

Northrop Frye - 1976 - Bibles - 199 頁
Northrop Frye's thinking has had a pervasive impact on contemporary interpretations of our literary and cultural heritage.


弗 萊在這本書中提供了他所謂的“對于普遍想象和神話的簡略地理課程”。全書著眼于傳奇這個往往被批評家嘲笑的文學模式,揭示出其實很多簡單的故事都是在處理 同樣幾個原型主題或模式。同時,他也向我們揭示了,這些如此被大眾想象所珍視的故事,其實與其他文學文類一樣,都是在言說人類的處境。本書是哈佛諾頓講座 系列叢書之一。該書作者諾思羅普‧弗萊是西方著名的文學批評理論大師,在中國讀者中具有深廣的接受度和聲名,該書是他在哈佛大學諾頓講座的精華結集,極富 啟發,必能引起很好的社會反響。


諾思洛普‧弗萊(Northrop Frye,1912-1991),20世紀最杰出的文學批評家、文學理論家之一。著有《批評的部析》、《偉大的代碼︰聖經與文學》、《神力的語言︰聖經與文學研究續編》等。

詳細資料

  • 規格:平裝 / 218頁 / 15cmX23cm / 普級 / 單色 / 初版
  • 出版地:大陸

目錄


前言
第一章 “神話”與人類世界
第二章 傳奇故事的語境
第三章 苦難小姐︰傳奇故事的男女主人公
第四章 無底的夢境︰墮落之主題
第五章 “這是何地?”︰上升之主題
第六章 神話的復興
注釋
譯後記


西 方的文學理論,是一項專門的學問,甚至有人認為︰理論本身就是一種“文本”,應該精讀。然而中國學界近年來對于這門學問卻是一知半解,有的人往往從譯文 中斷章取義,或望文生義,自作主張“演義”一番,因此錯誤百出,貽笑大方。這個“亂成一團”的現象,必須由行家和有識之士一起來補救。

我 並非西方文學理論的專家,只能把個人經驗誠實道出,公諸同行。記得多年前初入此道時,也的確痛苦不堪,買了大堆理論書回來,卻不知如何著手。我本來學的 是歷史,後來改行教文學,時當20世紀70年代末80年代初,美國學界剛開始吹“法國風”——福柯和德里達的著作逐漸被譯成英文出版,而“解構” (Deconstruction)這個詞也開始風行。不久又听到有所謂“耶魯四人幫”的說法,其中除希利斯‧米勒和哈特曼等人外,尚有一位怪杰保羅‧德‧ 曼(Paul de Man),他的那本反思理論的名著《不察與洞見》(Blindness and Insight)人文學者開始了另—個“轉向”(paradigm shift)——從“結構”到“解構”,從人類學到語言學。然而這個“轉向”背後的歷史是什麼?是否也有一個“譜系”(genealogy)可尋?

于 是,我想到另一種完全不同的閱讀經驗︰20世紀60年代我初抵美國留學時,偶爾買到幾本文學理論的書,包括威爾遜(Edmund Wilson)、特里林(Lionel Trilling)、史丹納(George Steiner)和韋勒克(Rend Wellek)等名家的著作,亦曾瀏覽過。這些名家的文史知識十分豐富,廣征博引,似乎早已遍讀群籍,他們所作的“批評”(criticism)並不僅僅 是對某一經典名著詳加分析而已,而是把一本本書、一個個作家評淪一番,逐漸形成一己的觀點和主題,我認為這是一種西方人文批評的傳統,它可以追溯到英國的 約翰遜(Samuel Johnson)和阿諾德(MatthewArnold),但他們較這兩位以捍衛文化為己任的1 8世紀保守派批評家更為自由(liberal)。特里林有一本書就叫做《自由的想像》(The Liberal Imagination),書名中的“自由”指的當然是人文知識,用當代的話說,就是“通識”教育。特里林的另一本書《誠與真》(Sincerity and Authenticity)則把西方文學史和哲學史上關于主觀和個人的傳統這兩個問題分析得淋灕盡致。

我當 年私淑兩位大師,一是威爾遜,一是史丹納。威爾遜早已是美國文壇的巨人,其評論具有權威性,在文壇交游廣闊,是美國東岸評論界的霸主。我讀了他的《阿 克瑟爾的城堡》(Axel’s Castle)和《到芬蘭車站》(To the Finland Station),佩服得五體投地,因為兩書談的皆非美國文學——前者討論的是法國的象征主義,後者則是描述俄國大革命,而威爾遜足不出戶(指美國),竟 然可以把視野推到蘇聯,大談列寧,而且所書文字優美,讀來猶如小說。可以說,第二本書也是我了解俄國近代史的啟蒙課本,它引起了我對俄國思想史的極大興 趣。幾乎人手一冊。我買來一本看,也不甚了了,只是覺得美國人文學界已經

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